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Advanced Packaging, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Nov. 2005

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  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging publication information

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 529 - 530
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  • Foreword Special Section on Micro- and Nanoscale Packaging

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 531 - 532
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  • Packaging of bio-MEMS: strategies, technologies, and applications

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 533 - 546
    Cited by:  Papers (35)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2128 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Biomicroelectromechanical systems (bio-MEMS) are MEMS which are designed for medical or biological applications. As with other MEMS, bio-MEMS frequently, have to be packaged to provide an interface to the macroscale world of the user. Bio-MEMS can be roughly divided in two groups. Bio-MEMS can be pure technical systems applied in a biological environment or technical systems which integrate biological materials as one functional component of the system. In both cases, the materials which have intimate contact to biological matter have to be biocompatible to avoid unintentional effects on the biological substances, which in case of medical implants, could harm the patient. In the case of biosensors, the use of nonbiocompatible materials could interfere with the biological subcomponents which would affect the sensor's performance. Bio-MEMS containing biological subcomponents require the use of "biocompatible" technologies for assembly and packaging; e.g., high temperatures occurring, for instance, during thermosonic wire bonding and other thermobonding processes would denature the bioaffinity layers on biosensor chips. This means that the use of selected or alternative packaging and assembly methods, or new strategies, is necessary for a wide range of bio-MEMS applications. This paper provides an overview of some of the strategies, technologies, and applications in the field of bio-MEMS packaging. It includes the following: strategies for the partitioning of subsystems within integrated microsystems for (bio)chemical analysis/synthesis; methods for microassembly of bio-MEMS; technologies for bonding of polymer bio-MEMS components; packaging of miniature medical devices; packaging of biosensors for in vitro applications; packaging of micropumps as a bio-MEMS component. The applications discussed are derived from different fields to demonstrate the plethora of bio-MEMS considerations. In commercial production, packaging is possibly the major cost factor of bio-MEMS-based products, and its development requires special attention. View full abstract»

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  • Actin-Based Molecular Motors for Cargo Transportation in Nanotechnology— Potentials and Challenges

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 547 - 555
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
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    Here, we review the use of actin-based motors, (myosins; e.g., the molecular motor of muscle) in nanotechnology. The review starts from the viewpoints of the molecular motors as being important devices responsible of cargo transportation in the cell and end in discussions about their employment in nanotechnological applications. First, we describe basic biophysics of the myosin motors with focus on their involvement in cargo transportation in the living cell, leading us over into a discussion about in vitro motility assays. These are biological test systems where the myosin-induced translocation of actin filaments is studied on an artificial surface outside the cell. Then follows a review about modified motility assays for production of ordered motion. Here, we discuss ours and others' work with regards to making micro- and nanostructured surfaces and channels where the position and direction of movement produced by molecular motors is controlled. In this section, we consider the role of the channel size in promoting unidirectional myosin-induced motion of actin filaments. Furthermore, we consider the usefulness of surface modifications, e.g., various silanization procedures in order to promote and hinder molecular motility, respectively. Particularly, we describe our latest test system being both morphologically and chemically nanostructured giving us unsurpassed possibilities to perform functional studies as well as extremely good spatio-temporal control. Then follows a section about nanotechnological cargo transportation systems based on the actomyosin motor system. For instance, we present results of attaching fluorescent quantum dots as cargoes to the actin filaments. In this section, we also discuss the possibilities of having cargo attachment and detachment being performed on demand. Finally, we consider the usefulness of molecular motors for lab-on-a-chip applications and the requirements for incorporating these motors in commercially viable devices. In this context, the significant potential of the actomyosin motor system to overcome traditional limitations of micro- and nanofluidics is stressed. View full abstract»

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  • Packaging actomyosin-based biomolecular motor-driven devices for nanoactuator applications

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 556 - 563
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (808 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Biomolecular motors such as the muscle protein myosin with its partner protein actin hold great promise for actuation in hybrid nanoscale biomicroelectromechanical systems devices (bio-MEMS), particularly for future biomedical applications that involve highly localized delivery of biomolecules over short distances (e.g., micrometers) to specific tissue or cellular locations. Two fundamental issues in the construction and packaging of actomyosin-based nanoactuators are the ability to electrically insulate microelectrical components while maintaining both biocompatibility and also compatibility with our functional assays for prototype development and identification of conditions for storage of assembled devices. Here, we show that sputter coating with SiO2 provides a straightforward method for electrical insulation that can be readily integrated into existing assays of myosin function in a bio-MEMS setting. We also report using in vitro motility analysis that both rabbit skeletal muscle heavy meromyosin (HMM) and fish (Fundulus heteroclitus) myosin remained functional for at least six days in a bio-MEMS setting when hydrating conditions were maintained. The speed of actin sliding was faster after six days when rabbit HMM was stored in 10% DMSO than in its absence, but there was no effect of DMSO during storage on fish myosin. The speed of actin translocation by fish myosin was significantly increased when adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), the chemical energy source for myosin function, was replaced by the analog 2' deoxy-ATP, as has been previously reported for rabbit HMM. Taken together, these results provide new direction for modulation and control of actomyosin-based nanoactuators and also for long-term storage of assembled nanoactuators. View full abstract»

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  • Microfabricated capped channels for biomolecular motor-based transport

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 564 - 570
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3944 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Kinesins are molecular motors that transport intracellular cargo along microtubules and provide a model system for force generation that can be exploited for biomotor powered nano- and micro-machines. To use this biological system for microscale transport, the most common approach is to reverse the biological geometry and move microtubules along surfaces functionalized with kinesin motors. The microtubules then become potential transport vehicles for sensors and lab-on-a-chip applications. A key requirement for extracting useful work from this system is confinement and control of microtubule movements over kinesin-coated surfaces. The open channel approaches used to date are limited because microtubules that lose contact with the kinesin motors rapidly diffuse away. As a step toward making stand-alone devices incorporating kinesin motors and microtubules, we have developed methods to fabricate capped channels that provide three-dimensional microtubule confinement. We first tested the activity of kinesin motors on a range of surfaces and found that motors were functional on a number of hydrophilic surfaces and nonfunctional on hydrophobic surfaces. In this work, SU-8 photoresist is used to fabricate open channels and a layer of bisbenzocyclobutene (BCB) or dry-film photoresist is used to encapsulate the channels. To allow sample introduction, we fabricate a hierarchical series of microfluidic channels. In this approach, macroscale (∼250-μm) channels in glass or silicon substrates are used to hold fine-gauge stainless steel tubing and allow connection to various fluid sources and intermediate scale (∼50-μm) channels fabricated in thick (∼50-μm) dry-film photoresist are used to connect the macroscale channels to microscale (1-15-μm) SU-8 photoresist channels. This paper is the first demonstration of kinesin-based microtubule transport in enclosed microfluidic channels and provides an important step toward packaging these biomolecular motors into functional devices. View full abstract»

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  • Kinesin-driven sorting machine on large-scale microtubule arrays

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 571 - 576
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1416 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Kinesin molecules can be regarded as engines (linear motors) that utilize the chemical energy of the biofuel adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to move in nanometer-precise steps along proteinaceous microtubule rails. In cell-free environments, cargoes made from different materials, including gold, silicon, glass, carbon, and polystyrene were shown to be transported by the kinesin motor along microtubules. In a previous paper, we demonstrated that the directional control of this transport can be realized using arrays of parallel and isopolar microtubules prepared by a flow field technique. The presented paper describes conditions to achieve a continuous transport of kinesin-loaded cargoes over hundreds of micrometers. These conditions include the usage of arrays in which the microtubules were immobilized at densities which make sure that the maximal lateral and longitudinal distances do not exceed the dimensions of the cargo. Additionally, each cargo to be transported had to be loaded with significantly more than one kinesin molecule. Basing on the application of laser tweezers, an approach is presented by which kinesin-driven cargoes can be transferred from one microtubule rail to a preselected other one. Corresponding to the orientation of the new rail, specified cargoes can be delivered to a predefined destination. The combination of laser trapping technologies with kinesin-driven cargo transport on highly ordered microtubule arrays might contribute to construct motor protein-based devices able to sort particles as well as single molecules. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of cryopreserved microtubules immobilized in microfluidic channels for a bead-assay-based transportation system

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 577 - 583
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (872 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    From an engineering point of view, a kinesin-microtubule biomolecular motor system is an attractive candidate as a driving force in the aqueous environment of micro total analysis systems (μTAS). We have studied fundamental components to be integrated in μTAS by implementing kinesin-microtubule systems into micro/nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS). This paper presents the cryopreservation technique of microtubules that are immobilized in a microfluidic device. Microtubules work as rail molecules along which kinesin-coated beads are transported; the functionality was preserved even after they were stored at -85°C for 30 days. This technique ensures that μTAS with immobilized microtubules can be prepared in advance and be thawed for use on demand. View full abstract»

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  • Micro- and nanofabrication processes for hybrid synthetic and biological system fabrication

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 584 - 593
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2840 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The application of micro- and nanofabrication processes to the development of hybrid synthetic and biological systems may enable the production of new devices such as controllable transporters, gears, levers, micropumps, or microgenerators powered by biological molecular motors. However, engineering these hybrid devices requires fabrication processes that are compatible with biological materials such as kinesin motor proteins and microtubules. In this paper, the effects of micro- and nanofabrication processing chemicals and resists on the functionality of casein, kinesin, and microtubule proteins are systematically examined to address the important missing link of the biocompatibility of micro- and nanofabrication processes needed to realize hybrid system fabrication. It is found that both casein, which is used to prevent motor denaturation on surfaces, and kinesin motors are surprisingly tolerant of most of the processing chemicals examined. Microtubules, however, are much more sensitive. Exposure to the processing chemicals leads to depolymerization, which is partially attributed to the pH of the solutions examined. When the chemicals were diluted in aqueous buffers, a subset of them no longer depolymerized microtubules and in their diluted forms still worked as resist removers. This approach broadens the application of micro- and nanofabrication processes to hybrid synthetic and biological system fabrication. View full abstract»

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  • Caged ATP-fuel for bionanodevices

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 594 - 599
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Micro- and nanodevices require the controlled delivery of energy to power a variety of processes. The current paradigm of connecting a miniaturized device to a set of macroscopic auxiliary devices, such as power supplies or pumps, for the delivery of electrical and mechanical energy needs to be replaced to enable the design of stand-alone integrated bionanodevices with applications in remote biosensing or nanomedicine. Biological nanomachines, such as the motor protein kinesin, can efficiently convert energy stored in chemical compounds, in particular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), into mechanical work. This ability is an attractive feature of hybrid devices powered by biomolecular motors, since it removes the need for the storage and conversion of electrical energy. The consequences are a simplified fabrication process and packaging, leading to higher yields and lower costs, and the broadening of the applications, which can now include field-deployable nanodevices. Here, the potential of caged ATP as fuel for such engineering applications is discussed. Caged ATP can be stored in the buffer solution of a bionanodevice, "uncaged" by UV light, and utilized as fuel by many enzymes to catalyze chemical changes or power active transport. We demonstrate that DMNPE-caged ATP can be stored in sufficient amounts in a typical device and that the activation can be triggered with a UV lamp or even sunlight. View full abstract»

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  • Self-assembly for microscale and nanoscale packaging: steps toward self-packaging

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 600 - 611
    Cited by:  Papers (46)  |  Patents (2)
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    The packaging of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanoscale devices constitutes an important area of research and development that is vital to the commercialization of such devices. Packaging needs of these devices include interfaces to nonelectronic domains; integration of structures, devices, and subsystems made with incompatible fabrication processes into a single platform; and the ability to handle a very large numbers of parts. Although serial, robotic assembly methods such as pick-and-place have allowed significant manufacturing feats, self-assembly is an attractive option to tackle packaging issues as the size of individual parts decreases below 300 μm. In this paper, we review advances made in the usage of self-assembly for packaging and potential directions that growth in this area can assume. In the micrometer scale, we review the use of capillary forces, gravity, shape recognition, and electric fields to guide two- and three-dimensional self-assembly processes. In the nanoscale, we survey the usage of self-assembled molecular monolayers to solve current packaging issues, DNA hybridization for guiding self-assembly processes of nanoscale devices, and methods used to package nanowires or nanotubes into electronic circuits. We conclude with an example of a nanoscale biosensor which directly incorporates the concept of its package into its fabrication process. Even though the idea of a fully self-packaging system has not been demonstrated to date, the body of work reviewed and discussed here presents a solid foundation for the pursuit of this goal. View full abstract»

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  • MOEMS chip-level optical fiber interconnect

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 612 - 618
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1432 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A package design, fabrication process, and assembly process to hermetically seal the microstructure area of a microoptoelectromechanical system (MOEMS) at the chip level is presented and evaluated. The packaged chip is fabricated using the Bosch deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process on silicon on insulator (SOI) substrates. The packaging structures are formed during the batch fabrication of the MOEMS device. A hermetic seal is formed via an indium solder ring around the perimeter of the MOEMS chip that span channels etched in the silicon for optical fibers. The seal is made between the device chip, metallized optical fibers, and a cap chip with a fluxless soldering process. The integrity of the package is evaluated through die shear, fiber pull, and highly accelerated life testing (HALT). View full abstract»

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  • A micromachined Pirani gauge with dual heat sinks

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 619 - 625
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
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    This paper reports a micromachined Pirani gauge with dual heat sinks that can be integrated with microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices inside a vacuum package to monitor long-term pressure changes and stability inside the package. The Pirani gauge utilizes small gaps (<1 μm) between its heater and two thermal heat sinks to obtain large dynamic range (20 mtorr to 2 torr) and high sensitivity (3.5×105 (K/W)/torr). The gauge is 2×2 mm2 in size, is fabricated using the dissolved wafer process (DWP) on a glass substrate, and utilizes dielectric bridges for signal routing. Measurements show the low end of the dynamic range can be extended by reducing the gap distance between the heater and thermal sinks, which matches well with analytical modeling. This gauge shows an uncertainty of 50 μtorr and a detectable leak rate of 3.1×10-16 cm3/s, assuming a common micropackage volume of 1.6×10-5 cm3, which represents at least four orders of magnitude improvement over traditional leak testing. View full abstract»

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  • Silicon-to-steel bonding using rapid thermal annealing

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 626 - 634
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2744 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the rapid, low-temperature bonding between silicon and steel using the rapid thermal annealing process. Three different thin-film adhesion layer systems including silver, gold, and nickel were utilized as the intermediate bonding material to assist the eutectic Pb/Sn bonding between silicon and steel. The bonding temperature was set at 220°C for 20 s, with a 20-s ramp-up time. Five experiments were conducted to determine the strength of the bond, including static tensile and compressive four-point bend tests, axial extension tests, tensile bending fatigue tests, and corrosion resistance tests. The test results have shown that the gold adhesion layer is the most robust, demonstrating minimal creep during fatigue tests, no delamination during the tensile or compressive four-point bend tests, and acceptable strength during the axial extension tests. Additionally, all adhesion layers have withstood four months of submersion in various high-temperature solutions and lubricants without failure. Simulations of the axial stresses and strains that developed during the four-point bend and axial extension tests were performed and showed that the presence of the silicon die provides a local reinforcement of the bond as observed in the experimental tests. View full abstract»

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  • Localized bonding processes for assembly and packaging of polymeric MEMS

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 635 - 642
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Localized bonding schemes for the assembly and packaging of polymer-based microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices have been successfully demonstrated. These include three bonding systems of plastics-to-silicon, plastics-to-glass, and plastics-to-plastics combinations based on two bonding processes of localized resistive heating: 1) built-in resistive heaters and 2) reusable resistive heaters. In the prototype demonstrations, aluminum thin films are deposited and patterned as resistive heaters and plastic materials are locally melted and solidified for bonding. A typical contact pressure of 0.4 MPa is applied to assure intimate contact of the two bonding substrates and the localized bonding process is completed within less than 0.25 s of heating. It is estimated that the local temperature at the bonding interface can reach above 150°C while the substrate temperature away from the heaters can be controlled to be under 40°C during the bonding process. The approach of localized heating for bonding of plastic materials while maintaining low temperature globally enables direct sealing of polymer-based MEMS without dispensing additional adhesives or damaging preexisting, temperature-sensitive substances. Furthermore, water encapsulation by plastics-to-plastics bonding is successfully performed to demonstrate the capability of low temperature processing. As such, this technique can be applied broadly in plastic assembly, packaging, and liquid encapsulation for microsystems, including microfluidic devices. View full abstract»

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  • Transfer of metal MEMS packages using a wafer-level solder transfer technique

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 643 - 649
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1272 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a modular, low profile, wafer-level encapsulation technology for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) packaging. Electroplated caps are formed on top of a solder transfer layer previously deposited on a carrier wafer, then simultaneously transferred and bonded to a device wafer by a novel solder transfer method and transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding technology. The solder transfer method is enabled by the dewetting of the solder transfer layer from the carrier wafer and TLP bonding of the cap to the device wafer during bonding. The bond and transfer cycle has a maximum temperature of 300°C and lasts about 2.5 h. This approach has been demonstrated with nickel (Ni) caps as thin as 5 microns, with thicker caps certainly possible, ranging in size from 200 μm to 1 mm. They were transferred with a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) solder layer and bonded with nickel-tin (Ni-Sn) TLP bonding with greater than 99% transfer yield across the wafer. View full abstract»

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  • Mathematical model of low-temperature wafer bonding under medium vacuum and its application

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 650 - 658
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Low-temperature direct wafer bonding was successfully performed under medium vacuum level. A mathematical model was developed based on the qualitative understanding of the bonding mechanisms. The model combined the diffusion-reaction model of water in SiO2 and the diffusion theory in porous media. It is found that the model agrees well with the experimental data. This model can be applied to predict the effects of annealing time, annealing temperature, ambient vacuum, wafer orientation, and wafer dimension on the bond strength. View full abstract»

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  • Density factor approach to representing impact of die power maps on thermal management

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 659 - 664
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the microelectronics industry, power has traditionally been the key driver for thermal management. Cooling solutions are typically rated in terms of their power dissipation capacity and efficiency. However, overall power is not the only parameter that affects thermal management. For instance, it is well-known that power density is also important (i.e., it is easier to cool 50 W uniformly distributed on a 20×20 mm die than the same power on a 10×10 mm die). Furthermore, even if the die size remains unchanged, nonuniform power distribution at the die level can create localized regions of high power density that require thermal management. This paper proposes a simple metric, density factor (DFjx), to be used in conjunction with power for quantifying the impact of power density on a given thermal solution. The advantages, limitations, and applicability of this metric are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • RF packaging and passives: design, fabrication, measurement, and validation of package embedded inductors

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 665 - 673
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1152 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Design, modeling, and characterization of inductors embedded in a package substrate promising higher quality factor (Q) and lower cost than on-chip inductors is described. In addition to the problem of large conductor losses, on-die inductors with or without magnetic materials consume considerable die area and require the removal of the first-level interconnect bumps beneath them to maintain a reasonably high Q value. Moving inductors to the package eliminates the need for bump array depopulation and, thus, mitigates the potential reliability problems caused by voids in the epoxy underfill between the die and the substrate. Competency developed to design, fabricate, and characterize inductors based on standard organic flip-chip packaging technology is described. Physical design details along with measurement procedures and results are discussed. In addition, modeling techniques for achieving good correlation to measured data are included. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of plasma treatment of Au-Ni-Cu bond pads on process windows of Au wire bonding

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 674 - 684
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2016 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The wire bondability of Au-Ni-Cu bond pads with different Au plating schemes, including electrolytic and immersion plates, are evaluated after plasma treatment. The plasma cleaning conditions, such as cleaning power and time, are optimized based on the process window and wire pull strength measurements for different bond pad temperatures. Difference in the efficiency of plasma treatment in improving the wire bondability for different Au plates is identified. The plasma-cleaned bond pads are exposed to air to evaluate the recontamination process and the corresponding degradation of wire pull strength. The changes in bond pad surface characteristics, such as surface free energy and polar functionality, with exposure time are correlated to the wire pull strength, which in turn provides practical information about the shelf life of wire bonding after plasma cleaning. View full abstract»

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  • Wire-bonding process monitoring using thermopile temperature sensor

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 685 - 693
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1224 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work presents an approach to separate the thermal response due to ultrasonic excitation and ball deformation through novel application of aluminum-polysilicon thermopile sensors under the bond pad. These integrated thermopile sensors measure temperature at a radial distance under the bond pad, in contrast to the previously reported average measurements over the bond pad interface or around the bond pad over a radial distance. The high sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the sensor allow direct measurements of the signal, without any amplification or filtration. Transient temperature variations at two radial locations were obtained using two versions of thermopile sensor designs. The sensor response was interpreted using representative finite-element thermal modeling for the process. Results from modeling reveal that the thermal response is a strong function of radial location. These results also reveal that the thermal response due to interfacial heating is significantly higher under the bond pad, as compared to that around the bond pad. This is in agreement with the experimental observations. Critical points on the temperature variation curve were identified. These points can be used to correlate the sensor response to shear test data. Once the sensor response is calibrated, it can be used to monitor the bonding process. Measurements were performed at substrate temperatures of 150°C and 200°C, along with the microwelds characterization at the bonding interface. The comparison of the thermal response and the microwelds at the two substrate temperatures revealed that in order to correlate the sensor response to shear test data, the response must be obtained at the intended temperature of operation since the microwelds at two temperatures may be quite different, even though thermal responses may look similar. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic compact thermal models with multiple power sources: application to an ultrathin chip stacking technology

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 694 - 703
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (736 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Whereas numerical modeling using finite-element methods (FEM) can provide transient temperature distribution in the component with enough accuracy, it is of the most importance the development of compact dynamic thermal models that can be used for electrothermal simulation. While in most cases single power sources are considered, here we focus on the simultaneous presence of multiple sources. The thermal model will be in the form of a thermal impedance matrix containing the thermal impedance transfer functions between two arbitrary ports. Each individual transfer function element Hij(s) is obtained from the analysis of the thermal temperature transient at node "i" after a power step at node "j." Different options for multiexponential transient analysis are detailed and compared. Among the options explored, small thermal models can be obtained by constrained nonlinear least squares (NLSQ) methods if the order is selected properly using validation signals. The methods are applied to the extraction of dynamic compact thermal models for a new ultrathin chip stack technology (UTCS). View full abstract»

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  • Analytical modeling of thermal stresses in plated through via (PTV) structures

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 704 - 712
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Plated through via (PTV) structures are widely used in printed circuit boards for interconnect. Due to the mismatch in the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) between the PTV and the board material, high thermal stresses can be induced in the PTV during high temperature soldering and normal usage. In particular, PTVs can fail due to cyclic temperature changes which cause thermal fatigue. This paper describes an analytical model of the thermal stresses in PTV structures using variational mechanics. Stress components are compared with those obtained using finite element analysis and with another analytical model. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging has its focus on the design, modeling, and application of interconnection systems and packaging: device packages, wafer-scale and multichip modules, TAB/BGA/SMT, electrical and thermal analysis, opto-electronic packaging, and package reliability.

This Transaction ceased production in 2010. The current publication is titled IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Ganesh Subbarayan
Purdue University, School of Mechanical Engineering