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Display Technology, Journal of

Issue 1 • Date Sept. 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 28
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Journal of Display Technology publication information

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1
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  • Editorial

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 2
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  • Ultrawide-view liquid crystal displays

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 3 - 14
    Cited by:  Papers (32)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2296 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The wide viewing angle technologies for liquid crystal displays (LCDs) are reviewed. The most promising liquid crystal modes for wide view technologies, such as in-plane switching, multidomain vertical alignment, patterned vertical alignment, and advanced-super-view are compared. By optimizing the phase-compensation films and their device configurations, the ultrawide-view LCDs with a contrast ratio higher than 100:1 at ±85° viewing cone are demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • Transflective liquid crystal displays

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 15 - 29
    Cited by:  Papers (61)  |  Patents (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1224 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this review paper, a detailed overview of the transflective liquid crystal display (LCD) technology is presented. We first introduce the transflector classifications based on their composition and properties. Then, in reviewing the development history, we investigate the mainstream transflective LCDs, including their operating principles, advantages, and disadvantages. Finally, the image quality issues of transflective LCDs, such as color balance, image brightness, and viewing angle, are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • How far has the molecular alignment of liquid crystals been elucidated?

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 30 - 40
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (440 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) - born in late 1960s - have become a 45 billion-dollar industry in 2004. Today's LCD panels cover a wide range of sizes from 0.2 to 82 in diagonal. The electro-optical characteristics of any field effect LCD are determined by the orientation of its liquid crystal (LC) molecules at the display boundaries. Until recently most LCD alignment processes were based on rubbing polymer coated LCD substrates with a cloth. Despite its key importance, the complex mechanism governing the alignment of LC molecules on display substrates is still not well understood. Do the microgrooves generated by rubbing induce LC-alignment or does the stretching of polymer chains as a result of brushing cause it? To overcome the drawbacks of conventional aligning techniques, new alignment processes have recently been proposed and developed. Examples are micro embossing, ion bombardment, fringe field effects and photo-alignment. In this paper, some mechanisms of LC alignment are discussed and various alignment techniques and methods to investigate the interaction of LC molecules with substrates are reviewed. View full abstract»

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  • New developments in liquid crystal photo-aligning by azo-dyes

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 41 - 50
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1552 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Liquid crystal (LC) photo-alignment using azo-dyes is reviewed. This alignment method is very different from previously reported ones, which are due to mechanisms such as photo-crosslinking, photo degradation, and photo-isomerization. We present the basic physical mechanisms of the photo-induced orientational order in various photo-aligning materials and in azo-dye layers in particular. This method is based on rotational diffusion in a potential created by the light field as well as intermolecular forces. It will be shown that this photo-aligning method can provide a controllable pretilt angle and strong anchoring energy of the LC cell, as well as having high thermal and ultraviolet (UV) stability. The application of this method to the alignment and fabrication of various types of LC displays is also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Refractive indices of liquid crystals for display applications

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 51 - 61
    Cited by:  Papers (34)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (720 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reviews the extended Cauchy model and the four-parameter model for describing the wavelength and temperature effects of liquid crystal (LC) refractive indices. The refractive indices of nine commercial LCs, MLC-9200-000, MLC-9200-100, MLC-6608, MLC-6241-000, 5PCH, 5CB, TL-216, E7, and E44 are measured by the Multi-wavelength Abbe Refractometer. These experimental data are used to validate the theoretical models. Excellent agreement between experiment and theory is obtained. View full abstract»

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  • Micro-optics for liquid crystal displays applications

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 62 - 76
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (9048 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Micro-optics have become the key technology in liquid crystal display systems due to its capabilities of miniaturization and design flexibility. Design consideration and experimental results of microoptical components for enhancing the image quality, providing better functions, increasing light efficiency, and generating 3D images in liquid crystal display (LCD) applications are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Precise optical retardation measurement of nematic liquid crystal display using the phase-sensitive technique

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 77 - 81
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1208 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A simple and novel optical heterodyne interferometer based on phase measurement was developed to measure liquid crystal cell parameters. Due to a common-path configuration utilized in this method, the Fabry-Perot effect and surface reflection could be eliminated in measurement, and a highly accurate measurement was expected. Based on the experimental data of the voltage-dependent phase change, the maximum phase retardation and cell gap of the nematic liquid crystal (NLC) layer was achieved experimentally. Experimental results agree well with theory. View full abstract»

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  • A controller for liquid crystal displays in logic analyzers and oscilloscopes

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 82 - 89
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (752 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Design and development of a controller to display multiple waveforms using liquid crystal displays (LCDs) is presented. The controller generates the column signals directly from samples of the waveforms. A low cost passive matrix display with simple drive electronics for Logic Analyzers and Oscilloscopes is demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • Recent development of blue fluorescent OLED materials and devices

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 90 - 99
    Cited by:  Papers (77)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (640 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Highlights of the recent development of highly efficient and robust blue fluorescent organic light-emitting device (OLED) materials and devices are reviewed with emphasis on work accomplished at the OLED Laboratory of Display Institute, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, R.O.C. View full abstract»

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  • A new pixel circuit for driving organic light-emitting diode with low temperature polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 100 - 104
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1160 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new pixel circuit design for active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED), based on the low-temperature polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs) is proposed and verified by SPICE simulation. Threshold voltage compensation pixel circuit consisting of four n-type TFTs, one p-type TFT, one additional control signal, and one storage capacitor is used to enhance display image quality. The simulation results show that this pixel circuit has high immunity to the variation of poly-Si TFT characteristics. View full abstract»

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  • Controlling optical properties of electrodes with stacked metallic thin films for polymeric light-emitting diodes and displays

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 105 - 111
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (752 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A semi-transparent metallic film and a high optical absorbing film were constructed with stacking metallic films. Both films were used as cathodes for polymeric light-emitting diodes (PLEDs). The semi-transparent film was made of gold/aluminum/gold thin multilayers with its optical transparency of the device reaches as high as ∼70% in the visible region without capping layer, and the electrical sheet resistance reduces below 10 Ω/square. During illumination of the PLED, there was approximately 47% of light emitting from the top of the cathode surface, and 53% of light from the ITO side. The high optical absorbing film, also refer to as the black cathode, was constructed with four alternating layers of aluminum-silver, each aluminum or silver layer is 4 nm thick. The PLED with this black cathode demonstrated 126% enhancement of contrast under 1000 lx ambient illumination. The physical properties of these two cathodes were characterized by current-voltage measurement and atomic force microscopy. Ultraviolet-visible transmission spectroscopy and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy were also used to characterize the semi-transparent cathode and the black cathode respectively. For polymer light-emitting device, it is believed that morphology modification at each interface of the cathode plays a crucial role in determining the optical properties and conductivity of the over cathode. View full abstract»

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  • Large arrays of microcavity plasma devices for active displays and backlighting

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 112 - 117
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (920 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Developments of the past several years in the technology of microcavity plasma devices having characteristic dimensions of 10-100 μm suggests their applicability to the next generation of active and passive displays. Two examples of device structures that are well suited for economically manufactured arrays of large active area are presented. Arrays as large as 500×500 (2.5·105) pixels of Si inverted pyramid microplasma devices, with emitting apertures of 50×50 μm2 and designed for AC or bipolar excitation, have been designed and operated successfully in the rare gases at pressures up to and beyond one atmosphere. Multilayer Al/nanostructured Al2O3 microplasma devices having 100-300 μm diam. cylindrical microcavities are robust and operate in the abnormal glow mode for rare gas or Ar/2-5% N2 mixture pressures of 500-700 torr. Grown by a wet chemical process, the nanoporous Al2O3 dielectric yields a lightweight, flexible structure that produces intense visible or ultraviolet emission when driven by sinusoidal AC or bipolar voltage waveforms. View full abstract»

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  • Color in projection displays

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 118 - 124
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents how full-color is created and optimized in rear projection television systems. It discusses briefly how color is quantified and considers a general method for choosing primary red, green,, and blue for maximum corrected brightness in common three-panel projection systems. It uses the commercially successful CQ90 architecture as an example. An external passive approach to white correction using tunable double notch polarization filters is also introduced before considering color optimization in single and two-panel projectors. View full abstract»

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  • Three-dimensional imaging methods based on multiview images

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 125 - 140
    Cited by:  Papers (58)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3288 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Three-dimensional imaging methods, based on parallaxes as their depth cues, can be classified into the stereoscopic providing binocular parallax only, and multiview providing both binocular and motion parallaxes. In these methods, the parallaxes are provided by creating a viewing zone with use of either a special optical eyeglasses or a special optical plate as their viewing zone-forming optics. For the stereoscopic image generations, either the eyeglasses or the optical plate can be employed, but for the multiview the optical plate or the eyeglasses with a tracking device. The stereoscopic image pair and the multiview images are presented either simultaneously or as a time sequence with use of projectors or display panels. For the case of multiview images, they can also be presented as two images at a time according to the viewer's movements. The presence of the viewing zone-forming optics often causes undesirable problems, such as appearance of moire´ fringes, image quality deterioration, depth reversion, limiting viewing regions, low image brightness, image blurring, and inconveniences of wearing. View full abstract»

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  • Ray phase space approach for 3-D imaging and 3-D optical data representation

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 141 - 150
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (640 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a framework to model, analyze and design three-dimensional (3-D) imaging systems. A system engineering approach is adopted which relates 3-D images (real or synthesized) to 3-D objects (real or synthesized) using a novel representation of the optical data which we call "ray phase space". The framework provides a powerful tool for determining the performance of 3-D imaging systems, for generating computational reconstruction of 3-D images and for optimizing 3-D imaging systems. View full abstract»

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  • Liquid crystal microlens arrays with switchable positive and negative focal lengths

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 151 - 156
    Cited by:  Papers (19)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1816 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A flat microlens array whose focal length can be switched from positive to negative by electric field is demonstrated experimentally and confirmed by computer simulations. To generate the required gradient refractive index, an inhomogeneous electric field is created by a spherical indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode which is imbedded in the top flat substrate. The bottom substrate has a planar ITO electrode on its inner surface. A thin polymeric layer is overcoated on top of the spherical ITO to create a flat surface. The disclination lines are eliminated. Because of the employed dual-frequency liquid crystal, the microlens array has fast response times. View full abstract»

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  • Light wave coupled flat panel displays and solid-state lighting using hybrid inorganic/organic materials

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 157 - 166
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (7288 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a review of light-emitting materials and devices that combine inorganic and organic lumophores and hosts. The essence of this hybrid inorganic/organic (I/O) approach is to combine materials, structures and devices from each category in such a way as to obtain best-of-both-worlds performance. The combination of high power/high efficiency inorganic light pump sources with high conversion efficiency organic lumophores is discussed in detail. In this type of Hybrid I/O device, near-ultraviolet (UV) or blue pump light is selectively converted to various visible colors based on the molecular structure of each lumophore. Since the lumophores are optically pumped their reliability is greatly increased compared to electrically pumped organic emitters. Methods for coupling the light from pumps to lumophores include direct path excitation (DPE) and light wave coupling (LWC). DPE uses one pump per lumophore pixel, which allows for active matrix style addressing, but requires large arrays of pumps. LWC uses either a single source or a small number of pump sources. To obtain pixelation for Hybrid I/O LWC devices we have developed a novel electrowetting switching method. Examples of Hybrid I/O displays and solid-state lighting are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Life of LED-based white light sources

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 167 - 171
    Cited by:  Papers (170)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (688 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Even though light-emitting diodes (LEDs) may have a very long life, poorly designed LED lighting systems can experience a short life. Because heat at the p-n-junction is one of the main factors that affect the life of the LED, by knowing the relationship between life and heat, LED system manufacturers can design and build long-lasting systems. In this study, several white LEDs from the same manufacturer were subjected to life tests at different ambient temperatures. The exponential decay of light output as a function of time provided a convenient method to rapidly estimate life by data extrapolation. The life of these LEDs decreases in an exponential manner with increasing temperature. In a second experiment, several high-power white LEDs from different manufacturers were life-tested under similar conditions. Results show that the different products have significantly different life values. View full abstract»

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  • The 18th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 172
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • 2005 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 173
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (1473 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The 4th IEEE Conference on Sensors

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 174
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (140 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

This publication covers the theory, design, fabrication, manufacturing and application of information displays and aspects of display technology.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Arokia Nathan
University of Cambridge
Cambridge, U.K.