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Communications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date May 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 31
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c1 - c4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Communications publication information

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c2
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  • Algebraic decoding of (103, 52, 19) and (113, 57, 15) quadratic residue codes

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 749 - 754
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, two algebraic decoders for the (103, 52, 19) and (113, 57, 15) quadratic residue codes, which have lengths greater than 100, are presented. The results have been verified by software simulation that programs in C++ language have been executed to check possible error patterns of both quadratic residue codes. View full abstract»

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  • Systematic approach for path metric access in Viterbi decoders

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 755 - 759
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A systematic approach for the path metric memory management in Viterbi decoders is presented. Between the parallel computation units and memory modules, a permutation of path metrics is required in order to access the path metrics in correct order. We propose a parallel memory access scheme, which reduces the interconnection complexity between parallel computation units and memory modules by rescheduling the path metric computations. View full abstract»

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  • On list sequence turbo decoding

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 760 - 763
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (136 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An algorithm for decoding Turbo codes that combines conventional Turbo decoding and list sequence maximum a posteriori probability decoding is presented and evaluated. Compared to previous results on this theme, performance improvements in the order of 0.7 dB are obtained for Turbo codes with 514-b pseudorandom interleaving at a frame error rate of 10-4 on the additive white Gaussian noise channel. View full abstract»

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  • Constellation mapping for space-time matrix modulation with iterative demodulation/decoding

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 764 - 768
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The mapping from binary sequences to space-time matrices is an important issue in designing space-time coded multiple-antenna systems where different mapping schemes may lead to different bit-error-rate (BER) performance. In this letter, we use a binary switching algorithm to investigate the mappings of bit-interleaved coded modulation with iterative demodulation/decoding (BICM-ID) for space-time modulation. Both coherent and noncoherent space-time modulation in the cases of no a priori information and perfect a priori information of the coded bits for the demodulator are considered. View full abstract»

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  • Error probabilities and performance comparisons of various FFH/MFSK receivers with multitone jamming

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 769 - 772
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (224 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Analytical bit-error-rate (BER) expressions are derived for various fast frequency-hopped (FFH) M-ary frequency-shift-keying receivers with the worst-case multitone jamming and additive white Gaussian noise. The BER results for different receivers are compared and the effects of the optimum diversity level on BER performance are also presented. View full abstract»

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  • Doubly iterative decoding of space-time turbo codes with a large number of antennas

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 773 - 779
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We examine the performance of a reduced-complexity doubly iterative decoder for space-time turbo codes on a quasi-static fading channel. The decoder works by using preliminary soft values of the coded symbols, obtained after a limited number of turbo iterations, to reduce the spatial interference from the received signal. Then, new turbo iterations are performed to improve on the quality of the soft values, and so on. Using a number of approximations, we obtain a receiver interface that achieves a good tradeoff between performance and complexity, and allows the use of turbo space-time codes for a large number of transmit and receive antennas. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of minimum selection H-S/MRC in Rayleigh fading

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 780 - 784
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (232 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We analyze the error performance of an improved hybrid selection/maximal-ratio combining (H-S/MRC) technique called minimum selection H-S/MRC in flat Rayleigh fading for coherent digital modulation schemes. Here the minimum number of diversity branches are selected such that their combined signal-to-noise ratio is above a given threshold. We derive a closed-form expression for the distribution of the number of selected branches. This distribution is used to obtain the symbol error probability. View full abstract»

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  • A new computationally efficient discrete bit-loading algorithm for DMT applications

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 785 - 789
    Cited by:  Papers (41)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This letter presents a new bit-loading algorithm for discrete multitone systems that converges faster to the same bit allocation as the optimal discrete bit-filling and bit-removal methods. The algorithm exploits the differences between the subchannel gain-to-noise ratios in order to determine an initial bit allocation and then performs a multiple-bits loading procedure for achieving the requested target rate. Numerical results using asymmetric digital subscriber test loops demonstrate the computational efficiency of the proposed algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Generalized PSK in space-time coding

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 790 - 801
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (448 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A wireless communication system using multiple antennas promises reliable transmission under Rayleigh flat fading assumptions. Design criteria and practical schemes have been presented for both coherent and noncoherent communication channels. In this paper, we generalize one-dimensional (1-D) phase-shift keying (PSK) signals and introduce space-time constellations from generalized PSK (GPSK) signals based on the complex and real orthogonal designs. The resulting space-time constellations reallocate the energy for each transmitting antenna and feature good diversity products; consequently, their performances are better than some of the existing comparable codes. Moreover, since the maximum-likelihood (ML) decoding of our proposed codes can be decomposed to 1-D PSK signal demodulation, the ML decoding of our codes can be implemented in a very efficient way. View full abstract»

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  • Search and determination of convolutional self-doubly orthogonal codes for iterative threshold decoding

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 802 - 809
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (592 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present new results on the search and determination of wide-sense convolutional self-doubly orthogonal codes (CSO2C-WS) which can be decoded using a simple iterative threshold decoding algorithm without interleaving. For their iterative decoding, in order to ensure the independence of observables over the first two iterations without the presence of interleavers, these CSO2C must satisfy specific orthogonal properties of their generator connections. The error performances of CSO2C, depend essentially on the number of taps J of the code generators but not on the code memory length. Since the overall latency of the iterative threshold decoding process is proportional to the memory length of the codes, therefore, when searching for the best CSO2C-WS of a given J value, the memory length of the codes should be chosen to be as small as possible. In this paper, we present a code-searching technique based on heuristic computer searching algorithms which have yielded the best known CSO2C-WS. The construction method for CSO2C-WS has provided the best known r=1/2 codes with the shortest memory length having J≤30. Although not very complex to implement, the search method presented here is quite efficient especially in reducing very substantially the execution time required to determine the codes with the shortest spans. Furthermore, in addition to presenting the search results for the codes, error performances obtained by simulation are also provided. View full abstract»

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  • Symbol mapping diversity design for multiple packet transmissions

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 810 - 817
    Cited by:  Papers (28)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a simple, but effective method of enhancing and exploiting diversity from multiple packet transmissions in systems that employ nonbinary linear modulations such as phase-shift keying (PSK) and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). This diversity improvement results from redesigning the symbol mapping for each packet transmission. By developing a general framework for evaluating the upper bound of the bit error rate (BER) with multiple transmissions, a criterion to obtain optimal symbol mappings is attained. The optimal adaptation scheme reduces to solutions of the well known quadratic assignment problem (QAP). Symbol mapping adaptation only requires a small increase in receiver complexity but provides very substantial BER gains when applied to additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and flat-fading channels. View full abstract»

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  • On the application of factor graphs and the sum-product algorithm to ISI channels

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 818 - 825
    Cited by:  Papers (52)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, based on the application of the sum-product (SP) algorithm to factor graphs (FGs) representing the joint a posteriori probability (APP) of the transmitted symbols, we propose new iterative soft-input soft-output (SISO) detection schemes for intersymbol interference (ISI) channels. We have verified by computer simulations that the SP algorithm converges to a good approximation of the exact marginal APPs of the transmitted symbols if the FG has girth at least 6. For ISI channels whose corresponding FG has girth 4, the application of a stretching technique allows us to obtain an equivalent girth-6 graph. For sparse ISI channels, the proposed algorithms have advantages in terms of complexity over optimal detection schemes based on the Bahl-Cocke-Jelinek-Raviv (BCJR) algorithm. They also allow a parallel implementation of the receiver and the possibility of a more efficient complexity reduction. The application to joint detection and decoding of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes is also considered and results are shown for some partial-response magnetic channels. Also in these cases, we show that the proposed algorithms have a limited performance loss with respect to that can be obtained when the optimal "serial" BCJR algorithm is used for detection. Therefore, for their parallel implementation, they represent a favorable alternative to the modified "parallel" BCJR algorithm proposed in the literature for the application to magnetic channels. View full abstract»

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  • On error detection and error synchronization of reversible variable-length codes

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 826 - 832
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Reversible variable-length codes (RVLCs) are not only prefix-free but also suffix-free codes. Due to the additional suffix-free condition, RVLCs are usually nonexhaustive codes. When a bit error occurs in a sentence from a nonexhaustive RVLC, it is possible that the corrupted sentence is not decodable. The error is said to be detected in this case. We present a model for analyzing the error detection and error synchronization characteristics of nonexhaustive VLCs. Six indices, the error detection probability, the mean and the variance of forward error detection delay length, the error synchronization probability, the mean and the variance of forward error synchronization delay length are formulated based on this model. When applying the proposed model to the case of nonexhaustive RVLCs, these formulations can be further simplified. Since RVLCs can be decoded in backward direction, the mean and the variance of backward error detection delay length, the mean and the variance of backward error synchronization delay length are also introduced as measures to examine the error detection and error synchronization characteristics of RVLCs. In addition, we found that error synchronization probabilities of RVLCs with minimum block distance greater than 1 are 0. View full abstract»

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  • Capacity analysis for finite-state Markov mapping of flat-fading channels

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 833 - 840
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, time-varying flat-fading channels are modeled as first-order finite-state Markov channels (FSMC). The effect of this modeling on the channel information capacity is addressed. The approximation accuracy of the first-order memory assumption in the Markov model is validated by comparing the FSMC capacity with the channel capacity assuming perfect state information at the receiver side. The results indicate that the first-order Markovian assumption is accurate for normalized Doppler frequencies fdT ≲ 0.01, in amplitude-only quantization of the channel gain for noncoherent binary signaling. In phase-only and joint phase and amplitude quantization of the channel gain for coherent binary signaling, the first-order Markovian assumption is accurate for fdT ≲ 0.001. Furthermore, the effect of channel quantization thresholds on the FSMC capacity is studied. In high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions, nonuniform two-level amplitude quantization scheme outperforms equiprobable quantization method by 0.8-1.5 dB. View full abstract»

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  • A general method for calculating error probabilities over fading channels

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 841 - 852
    Cited by:  Papers (40)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Signal fading is a ubiquitous problem in mobile and wireless communications. In digital systems, fading results in bit errors, and evaluating the average error rate under fairly general fading models and multichannel reception is often required. Predominantly to date, most researchers perform the averaging using the probability density function method or the moment generating function (MGF) method. This paper presents a third method, called the characteristic function (CHF) method, for calculating the average error rates and outage performance of a broad class of coherent, differentially coherent, and noncoherent communication systems, with or without diversity reception, in a myriad of fading environments. Unlike the MGF technique, the proposed CHF method (based on Parseval's theorem) enables us to unify the average error-rate analysis of different modulation formats and all commonly used predetection diversity techniques (i.e., maximal-ratio combining, equal-gain combining, selection diversity, and switched diversity) within a single common framework. The CHF method also lends itself to the averaging of the conditional error probability involving the complementary incomplete Gamma function and the confluent hypergeometric function over fading amplitudes, which heretofore resisted to a simple form. As an aside, we show some previous results as special cases of our unified framework. View full abstract»

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  • A multicarrier architecture based upon the affine Fourier transform

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 853 - 862
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recently, innovative multicarrier schemes have been proposed that exploit the transmission of chirp-shaped waves e-j2πct2 by optimally choosing the chirp parameter c on the basis of the channel characteristics and are more robust to time-varying channels than ordinary OFDM schemes. This concept was applied to continuous-time and to discrete-time systems. In the present paper, we aim at developing those ideas using the affine Fourier transform (AFT), which is a very general formulation of chirp transforms. We present a multicarrier modulation based upon the discrete form of the AFT that is therefore inherently discrete and strictly invertible. Moreover, it allows to define a circular prefix concept that is coherent with the chirp nature of the transmission. The system can be efficiently implemented by adding a simple phase-correction block to standard OFDM modulators/demodulators and can effectively combat interchannel interference when the propagation channel is made of few multipath components affected by independent frequency offsets. Our discrete-time multicarrier scheme is an improved version of Martone's approach (as we also show by simulation results), and exhibits analogous characteristics to Barbarossa's continuous-time system. View full abstract»

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  • Frame time-hopping patterns in multirate optical CDMA networks using conventional and multicode schemes

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 863 - 875
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A class of generalized optical orthogonal codes (OOCs), namely, frame time-hopping (FTH) patterns with an extremely large cardinality, are studied for implementing multirate and multiservice (MR/MS) optical CDMA (OCDMA) networks. Conventional MR/MS methods, namely variable spreading rate and parallel mapping, are considered. Using FTH patterns, the problem of low OOC code cardinality in conventional MR/MS schemes is removed. Moreover, several new multicode methods, using subcode concatenation scheme, are proposed for MR/MS OCDMA. The proposed multicode schemes present flexibility for supporting MR/MS applications such as lower implementation complexity and cost, less need for service synchronization, and finally lower link power budget. Multiple-access performances of the systems are evaluated using saddle-point approximation methods considering photodetector shot-noise, dark current, and circuit thermal noise. The results show that the conventional parallel mapping outperforms the other schemes in high received powers, and the proposed multicode method, using Walsh subcode along with difference modulation, presents the best performance in low received powers for the cases considered. View full abstract»

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  • Performance analysis of extended carrier-hopping prime codes for optical CDMA

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 876 - 881
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new class of two-dimensional (2-D) carrier-hopping prime codes with very good correlation properties and significantly expanded cardinality was recently constructed for wavelength-hopping time-spreading optical code-division multiple access (CDMA). In this paper, the performance of the new codes is analyzed and compared to a carrier-grouping scheme of the original carrier-hopping prime codes. In addition, the traditional chip-synchronous assumption used in the performance analysis of optical CDMA is removed, for the first time, for 2-D optical codes with cross-correlation functions of at most one, showing improvement and better accuracy in error probabilities. View full abstract»

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  • A class of signal-processing schemes for reducing the envelope fluctuations of CDMA signals

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 882 - 889
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a class of nonlinear signal-processing schemes to reduce the envelope fluctuations in the downlink transmission within code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems. These schemes are compatible with conventional CDMA receivers since they just require some modifications at the transmitter side. The proposed transmitter structure includes a nonlinear operation in the time-domain followed by a linear frequency-domain filtering operation. We also include a semi-analytical statistical characterization of the transmitted signals, which takes advantage of the Gaussian-like nature of CDMA signals with a high number of users. This characterization is used for an analytical performance evaluation of the proposed techniques. A set of performance results is presented showing that we can reduce significantly the envelope fluctuations of the transmitted signals, while maintaining the spectral occupation of the corresponding conventional CDMA signals. Moreover, the performance degradation due to the nonlinear distortion effects on the transmitted signals can be kept relatively low. View full abstract»

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  • Generic procedure for tightly bounding the capacity of MIMO correlated Rician fading channels

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 890 - 898
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    No systematic procedure for tightly bounding the average capacity of multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) correlated Rician fading channels is available in the literature. In addition to the involvement of a highly nonlinear log-determinant operator in the conditional capacity expression, the difficulty arises from the complicated noncentral Wishart distribution of channel sample matrix. In this paper, we tackle the problem with arbitrary antenna correlation existing either at the transmitter or at the receiver, but allowing for the numbers of the transmit and receive antennas to be arbitrary. By introducing an exact determinant expansion and by finding an explicit expression for the general moment of the determinant of the channel sample matrix, we obtain a general upper bound for the average channel capacity. To obtain a general lower bound, we construct and prove a multivariate convex function with each of its variables being the log-determinant function of a complex noncentral Wishart-distributed matrix. We further show that the general bounds so obtained can be simplified to explicit expressions for Rician fading channels with arbitrary semicorrelation and a mean matrix of rank one. The new results are simple, easy to be used, and superior in tightness as evidenced by intensive numerical examples. View full abstract»

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  • Performance analysis of AC-coupled burst-mode receiver for fiber-optic burst switching networks

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 899 - 904
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A generalized theoretical analysis of an AC-coupled fiber-optic burst-mode receiver is presented. This receiver is designed to operate in optical burst-switching networks using DC-balanced data coding such as 8B10B. Analytic expressions for the recovery time are derived as a function of the system dynamic range, power penalty, and data coding format. The theoretical calculations are verified with a detailed simulation. It is shown that locking time of the order of nanoseconds can be achieved with commercially available AC-coupled receivers. The burst-mode receiver can adapt to large (>10 dB) amplitude variations in 30 ns with a power penalty of 2 dB at 12.5 Gb/s. An overall optimization of the transmitter-receiver link-setup time is performed for an optical burst-switching network based on tunable laser transmitters. The dark interval during laser tuning (∼50 ns) is shown to have a beneficial impact on the receiver's response time, effectively reducing its locking time to a few nanoseconds, thus resulting in an overall link setup time of about 50 ns, limited by the laser's tuning time. View full abstract»

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  • Joint Source/Channel Coding and MAP Decoding of Arithmetic Codes

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 905
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (32 KB)  

    Joint Source/Channel Coding and MAP Decoding of Arithmetic Codes In this paper, a novel MAP estimation approach is employed for error correction of arithmetic codes with a forbidden symbol. The system is founded on the principle of joint source channel coding, which allows one to unify the arithmetic decoding and error correction takes into a single process, with superior performance compared to traditional separated techniques. The proposed system improves the performance in terms of error correction with respect to a separated source and channel coding approach based on convolutional codes, with the additional great advantage of allowing complete flexibility in adjusting the coding rate. The proposed MAP decoder is tested in the case of image transmission across the AWGN channel and compared against standard FEC techniques in terms of performance an complexity. Both hard and soft decodng are taken into account, and excellent result in terms of packet error rate and decoded image quality are obtained. View full abstract»

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  • Bit Interleaved Time-Frequency Coded Modulation for OFDM Systems Over Time-Varying Channels

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 905 - 906
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (38 KB)  

    Bit Interleaved Time-Frequency Coded Modulation for OFDM Systems Over Time-Varying Channels Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is a promising technology in broadband wireless communications with its ability in transforming a frequency selective fading channel into multiple flat fading channels. However, the time-varying characteristics of wireless channels induce the loss of orthogonality among OFDM sub-carriers, which was generally considered harmful to system performance. In this paper, we propose a bit interleaved time–frequency coded modulation (BITFCM) scheme for OFDM to achieve both time and frequency diversity inherent in broadband time-varying channels. We will show that the time-varying characteristics of the channel are beneficial to system performance. Using the BITFCM scheme and for relatively low maximum normalized Doppler frequency, a reduced complexity Maximum Likelihood (ML) decoding approach is proposed to achieve good performance with low complexity as well. For high maximum normalized Doppler frequency, the inter-carrier interference (ICI) can be large and an error floor will be induced. To solve this problem, we propose two ICI mitigation schemes by taking advantage of the second order channel statistics and the complete channel information, respectively. It will be shown that both schemes can reduce the ICI significantly. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Communications focuses on all telecommunications including telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television by electromagnetic propagation.

 

 

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Robert Schober
University of British Columbia