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Nanotechnology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date March 2005

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology publication information

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c2
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  • Benchmarking nanotechnology for high-performance and low-power logic transistor applications

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 153 - 158
    Cited by:  Papers (232)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recently there has been tremendous progress made in the research of novel nanotechnology for future nanoelectronic applications. In particular, several emerging nanoelectronic devices such as carbon-nanotube field-effect transistors (FETs), Si nanowire FETs, and planar III-V compound semiconductor (e.g., InSb, InAs) FETs, all hold promise as potential device candidates to be integrated onto the silicon platform for enhancing circuit functionality and also for extending Moore's Law. For high-performance and low-power logic transistor applications, it is important that these research devices are frequently benchmarked against the existing Si logic transistor data in order to gauge the progress of research. In this paper, we use four key device metrics to compare these emerging nanoelectronic devices to the state-of-the-art planar and nonplanar Si logic transistors. These four metrics include: 1) CV/I or intrinsic gate delay versus physical gate length Lg; 2) energy-delay product versus Lg; 3) subthreshold slope versus Lg; and 4) CV/I versus on-to-off-state current ratio ION/IOFF. The results of this benchmarking exercise indicate that while these novel nanoelectronic devices show promise and opportunities for future logic applications, there still remain shortcomings in the device characteristics and electrostatics that need to be overcome. We believe that benchmarking is a key element in accelerating the progress of nanotechnology research for logic transistor applications. View full abstract»

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  • An algorithm for nanopipelining of RTD-based circuits and architectures

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 159 - 167
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this study, an algorithm to postprocess a register-transfer-level architecture to enable gate-level pipelining or nanopipelining is presented. Nanopipelining is well suited for the nanotechnology based on resonant-tunneling diodes (RTDs) and offers the opportunity to obtain massive throughput and, therefore, has applications in data-intensive algorithms such as digital signal processing. Since RTDs are a self-latching nanoscale device, nanopipelining is an implicit property that should be exploited for this technology. This study explores and addresses the benefits of nanopipelining and presents an algorithm for architectural nanopipelining. View full abstract»

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  • Carbon-nanotube-based voltage-mode multiple-valued logic design

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 168 - 179
    Cited by:  Papers (42)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1064 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multivalued logic has always attracted the attention of digital system and logic designers. However, the high-performance and low-power CMOS process, which has been developed over the last two decades, has traditionally assisted successful circuit implementation of binary logic. Consequently, in spite of its large potential multivalued logic design is seldom a circuit designer's choice. This paper presents a novel method of multiple-valued logic design using carbon-nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs). The geometry-dependent threshold voltage of CNFETs has been effectively used to design a ternary logic family. We have developed a SPICE-compatible model of ballistic CNFETs that can account for varying geometries and operating conditions. SPICE simulations have been performed on the proposed logic gates, and the transfer characteristics as well as transient behavior have been extensively studied. Finally, a comparison in terms of power and performance of the ternary logic family vis-a`-vis traditional complementary field-effect transistor binary logic family has been presented. View full abstract»

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  • Brownian motion model of nanoparticle considering nonrigidity of matter-a systems modeling approach

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 180 - 186
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (376 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The variance models for Brownian motion are developed either using the diffusion equation method or by using spectral analysis with a Langevin equation. The diffusion method approach does not consider properties of matter like inertia, elasticity, and dissipative capabilities whereas in the Langevin equation approach, although based on the property concept, the matter is considered rigid and there are no attempts of inclusion of elastic and other properties to study the Brownian motion. The concept of absoluteness (in rigidity) is debatable in nanodomains, and instead an analytical model for Brownian motion of nanosize particles has been obtained and explored in this work using the Langevin equation considering nonrigidity and dissipative capabilities of matter. View full abstract»

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  • ESA-based in-fiber nanocavity for hydrogen-peroxide detection

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 187 - 193
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (568 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A fiber-optic sensor sensitive to hydrogen peroxide has been designed based on the electrostatic layer-by-layer self-assembly method. Prussian blue has been deposited in a polymeric structure formed by Poly(allylamine hydrochloride) and poly(acrylic acid). The concentration that can be detected range between 10-6-10-3 M, and recovery of the sensor after immersion into a reductive agent was demonstrated. The response of the sensor is independent of the pH for values that range between 4-7.4. Some rules for estimation of the refractive index of the material deposited and the thickness of the bilayers are also presented. View full abstract»

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  • Markov chains and probabilistic computation-a general framework for multiplexed nanoelectronic systems

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 194 - 205
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (488 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In emerging nanotechnologies, reliable computation will have to be carried out with unreliable components being integral parts of computing systems. One promising scheme for designing these systems is von Neumann's multiplexing technique. Using bifurcation theory and its associated geometrical representation, we have studied a NAND-multiplexing system recently proposed. The behavior of the system is characterized by the stationary distribution of a Markov chain, which is uni- or bi-modal, when the error probability of NAND gates is larger or smaller than the threshold value, respectively. The two modes and the median of the stationary distribution are the keys to the characterization of the system reliability. Examples of potential future nanochips are used to illustrate how the NAND-multiplexing technique can lead to high system reliability in spite of large gate error probability while keeping the cost of redundancy moderate. In nanoelectronic systems, while permanent defects can be taken care of by reconfiguration, probabilistic computation schemes can incorporate another level of redundancy so that high tolerance of transient errors may be achieved. The Markov chain model is shown to be a powerful tool for the analysis of multiplexed nanoelectronic systems. View full abstract»

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  • Spin gain transistor in ferromagnetic semiconductors-the semiconductor Bloch-equations approach

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 206 - 214
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A scheme and principle of operation of a "spin gain transistor" are proposed. A large unmagnetized current creates the carrier density sufficient for the ferromagnetic transition; a small magnetized current initiates spontaneous magnetization. Large magnetized current is then extracted. Thus, spin gain of >1000 is predicted. Collective dynamics of spins under Coulomb exchange interaction is described via semiconductor Bloch equations. View full abstract»

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  • Nonphotolithographic nanoscale memory density prospects

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 215 - 228
    Cited by:  Papers (43)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1520 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Technologies are now emerging to construct molecular-scale electronic wires and switches using bottom-up self-assembly. This opens the possibility of constructing nanoscale circuits and memories where active devices are just a few nanometers square and wire pitches may be on the order of ten nanometers. The features can be defined at this scale without using photolithography. The available assembly techniques have relatively high defect rates compared to conventional lithographic integrated circuits and can only produce very regular structures. Nonetheless, with proper memory organization, it is reasonable to expect these technologies to provide memory densities in excess of 1011 b/cm2 with modest active power requirements under 0.6 W/Tb/s for random read operations. View full abstract»

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  • High-resolution optical imaging of magnetic-domain structures

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 229 - 237
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (976 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    High-resolution optical techniques for imaging magnetic domains in ferromagnetic materials such as confocal microscopy and scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) are reviewed. The imaging capabilities of different techniques and image formation are discussed in the case of in-plane as well as out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy in different illumination configurations. It is shown that the magnetooptical resolution of near-field measurements depends on the film thickness and is limited by the diffraction on magnetic domains throughout the film. For thin magnetic films, subwavelength resolution can be attained. In addition to well-known near-field magnetooptical effects (out-of plane magnetization sensitivity of linear near-field microscopy and in-plane magnetization sensitivity of nonlinear near-field measurements), linear SNOM imaging of in-plane magnetization in thin magnetic films as well as nonlinear imaging of out-of-plane domains has been demonstrated. Thus, linear and second-harmonic near-field imaging of both in-plane and out-of-plane oriented magnetic domains can be achieved in transparent and opaque specimens. This enables applications of SNOM for studies of all kinds of magnetic materials. High-resolution optical imaging is required for characterization of the micro-magnetic and magnetooptical properties of novel magnetic structures in order to adopt a bottom-up approach in the search for new materials with improved characteristics. View full abstract»

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  • Structures and electrical properties of Ag-tetracyanoquinodimethane organometallic nanowires

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 238 - 241
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (728 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ag-tetracyanoquinodimethane (Ag-TCNQ) nanostructures are synthesized using both solution reaction in acetonitrile and a novel vacuum-saturated vapor reaction method. Experiments show that the latter synthesis method produces Ag-TCNQ nanowires with better uniformity and higher aspect ratio. These nanowires, having diameters around 100 nm and lengths about 5 μm, could serve as potential building blocks of nanoscale electronics. Nanodevices based on these nanowires are fabricated using the electron-beam lithography technique. Electrical transport study shows reproducible I--V hysteresis with a change in resistance of four orders of magnitude, demonstrating electrical memory effect. This electrical bistability makes Ag-TCNQ nanowires a promising candidate for future applications in ultrahigh-density information storage. View full abstract»

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  • SOI single-electron transistor with low RC delay for logic cells and SET/FET hybrid ICs

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 242 - 248
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1224 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report on a successful fabrication of silicon-based single-electron transistors (SETs) with low RC time constant and their applications to complementary logic cells and SET/field-effect transistor (FET) hybrid integrated circuit. The SETs were fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) structure by a pattern-dependent oxidation (PADOX) technique, combined with e-beam lithography. Drain conductances measured at 4.2 K approach large values of the order of microsiemens, exhibiting Coulomb oscillations with peak-to-valley current ratios ≫1000. Data analysis with a probable mechanism of PADOX yields their intrinsic speeds of ∼ 2 THz, which is within an order of magnitude of the theoretical quantum limit. Incorporating these SETs as basic elements, in-plane side gate-controlled complementary logic cells and SET/FET hybrid integrated circuits were fabricated on an SOI chip. Such an in-plane structure is very efficient in the Si fabrication process, and the side gates adjacent to the electron island could easily control the phase of Coulomb oscillations. The input-output voltage transfer, characteristic of the logic cell, shows an inverting behavior where the output voltage gain is estimated to be about 1.2 at 4.2 K. The SET/FET hybrid integrated circuit consisting of one SET and three FETs yields a high-voltage gain and power amplification with a wide-range output window for driving the next circuit. The small SET input gate voltage of 30 mV is finally converted to 400 mV, corresponding to an amplification ratio of 13. View full abstract»

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  • Crossbar demultiplexers for nanoelectronics based on n-hot codes

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 249 - 254
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Demultiplexers are expected to be key components in interfacing submicrometer-scale and nano-scale electronic circuits. Designing them is challenging because most nanoarchitectures are limited to simple regular structures, such as crossbars, and nanoelectronic circuits in general are likely to be plagued with relatively high hard-defect and soft-error rates. Previous work has shown how linear codes can be used to design defect-tolerant demultiplexers using resistor or diode crossbars. We extend those results with nonlinear codes, constructing resistor and diode crossbar-based demultiplexers that have better electrical characteristics and defect tolerance for a given area of the nano substrate, at the cost of more complex address encoding circuitry. View full abstract»

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  • Nanoscale impedance microscopy-a characterization tool for nanoelectronic devices and circuits

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 255 - 259
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A recently developed conductive atomic force microscopy (cAFM) technique, nanoscale impedance microscopy (NIM), is presented as a characterization strategy for nanoelectronic devices and circuits. NIM concurrently monitors the amplitude and phase response of the current through a cAFM tip in response to a temporally periodic applied bias. By varying the frequency of the driving potential, the resistance and reactance of conductive pathways can be quantitatively determined. Proof-of-principle experiments show 10-nm spatial resolution and ideal frequency-dependent impedance spectroscopy behavior for test circuits connected to electron beam lithographically patterned electrode arrays. Possible applications of NIM include defect detection and failure analysis testing for nanoscale integrated circuits. View full abstract»

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  • A new dual-material double-gate (DMDG) nanoscale SOI MOSFET-two-dimensional analytical modeling and simulation

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 260 - 268
    Cited by:  Papers (47)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present the unique features exhibited by a modified asymmetrical double-gate (DG) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) MOSFET. The proposed structure is similar to that of the asymmetrical DG SOI MOSFET with the exception that the front gate consists of two materials. The resulting modified structure, i.e., a dual-material double-gate (DMDG) SOI MOSFET, exhibits significantly reduced short-channel effects (SCEs) when compared with the DG SOI MOSFET. SCEs in this structure have been studied by developing an analytical model. The model includes the calculation of the surface potential, electric field, threshold voltage, and drain-induced barrier lowering. A model for the drain current, transconductance, drain conductance, and voltage gain is also discussed. It is seen that SCEs in this structure are suppressed because of the perceivable step in the surface-potential profile, which screens the drain potential. We further demonstrate that the proposed DMDG structure provides a simultaneous increase in the transconductance and a decrease in the drain conductance when compared with the DG structure. The results predicted by the model are compared with those obtained by two-dimensional simulation to verify the accuracy of the proposed analytical model. View full abstract»

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  • Periodically structured glancing angle deposition thin films

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 269 - 277
    Cited by:  Papers (36)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3288 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Thin films fabricated using the glancing angle deposition technique have a porous microstructure consisting of freestanding columns. Many promising applications of such thin films require that the columns be arranged in periodic arrays using substrate topographies-so-called seed layers-that enforce controlled film nucleation. In this paper, we present the optimized design, fabrication, and characteristics of periodically structured thin films, achieving highly uniform periodic film morphologies. We derive geometrical rules for designing substrate seed layers, and explain how to fabricate large area seed patterns with submicrometer features. Using negative-resist electron-beam lithography and laser direct write lithography, we have reached extremely high pattern densities. An experimental analysis is provided of seed-enforced nucleation and thin-film growth, showing that the elimination of film growth between seeds is crucial, and that the substrate seed layer geometry must match the intended film microstructure. Finally, we discuss the enhanced properties of periodically structured oblique angle thin films and their applications. View full abstract»

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  • Properties of functionalized redox-active monolayers on thin silicon dioxide-a study of the dependence of retention time on oxide thickness

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 278 - 283
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (568 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Self-assembled monolayers of redox-active molecules were formed on varying thickness of silicon dioxide (SiO2). Cyclic voltammetry (CyV) and impedance spectroscopy (capacitance-voltage and conductance-voltage) techniques were used to characterize these structures. The charge retention properties of these molecule-oxide-silicon capacitor structures were studied by applying oxidizing voltages in two successive CyV scans without applying a reducing voltage in between the two scans. A variation of this technique, wherein a reducing voltage is applied in the second scan, was also employed. The wait time between the two scans was varied from 0 to 300 s. The number of molecules oxidized (or reduced) in the second scan increased (or decreased) with increasing wait time, which is attributed to increasing charge leakage with increasing time. The retention properties of these structures were studied and correlated to increasing oxide thickness. It was observed that the retention times increased with increasing oxide thickness if the voltage applied during the wait time was in between the oxidation and reduction peak voltages. The molecular scalability and ability to tune the retention times by varying the oxide thickness make these Si/molecular hybrid devices attractive candidates for next-generation memory applications. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling hysteresis phenomena in nanotube field-effect transistors

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 284 - 288
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A model is developed to explain a hysteresis observed experimentally in nanotube field-effect transistors. The model explains the hysteresis through trapping of electrons in an oxide layer. The Fowler-Nordheim tunneling mechanism is held responsible for the electron injection. The influence of different parameters such as the sweeping rate or the range of the gate voltage on the hysteresis is studied and compared with experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Isolated carbon nanotubes as high-impedance transmission lines for microwave through terahertz frequencies

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 289 - 296
    Cited by:  Papers (29)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (488 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A hybrid approach, combining quantum theory with classical distributed-element transmission-line models, is taken to study the transport of high-frequency energy in isolated metallic carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The characteristic impedance for these transmission lines would be approximately 40 kΩ, which is unusually high because of the kinetic inductance of the CNTs and the lack of capacitive shunting to a conducting ground plane or other objects. The propagation is by TM surface waves, instead of the TEM waves for propagation in nanotubes that are parallel to a planar conducting surface so the phase velocity is much less than the velocity of light in vacuum. The phase velocity would be approximately 3 × 106 m/s, and both the characteristic impedance and phase velocity are essentially independent of the radius of the CNT. However, the numerical results must be regarded as being provisional because corrections have not been made for the effects of transport in multiple channels that are caused by the band structure and spin degeneracy. One application is considered for a new type of device that would generate radiation at microwave through terahertz frequencies by photomixing in laser-assisted field emission. View full abstract»

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  • Size dependence of carrier recombination efficiency in GaN quantum dots

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 297 - 299
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (136 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The dependence of radiative recombination rate and efficiency on GaN quantum-dot (QD) size and temperature is studied by time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The emission is dominated by radiative recombination at low temperatures (<125 K) and exhibits high PL efficiency at room temperature. The radiative lifetime and the relative quantum efficiency decrease with the decreasing QD size. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE order form for reprints

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 300
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology Information for authors

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c3
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  • Blank page [back cover]

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c4
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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology is devoted to the publication of manuscripts of archival value in the general area of nanotechnology, which is rapidly emerging as one of the fastest growing and most promising new technological developments for the next generation and beyond.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Fabrizio Lombardi
Dept. of ECE
Northeastern Univ.