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Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Jun 1989

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 29
  • A new approach to multicriterion optimization problem and its application to the design of 1-D digital filters

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 773 - 784
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (680 KB)  

    A novel method is presented for generating efficient points for the multicriterion optimization (MCO) problem. A novel function, the shifted minimax function, is defined that has the property that any efficient point of the MCO problem can be generated by minimizing the function with appropriately chosen shifts. Using this shifted minimax function for generating efficient points, the optimality conditions for the MCO problem have been derived. The method is also applied to the simultaneous amplitude and group delay approximation problem of 1-D digital filters View full abstract»

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  • Fast algorithms for running ordering and max/min calculation

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 795 - 804
    Cited by:  Papers (63)  |  Patents (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (660 KB)  

    Order statistics are used in a variety of filtering techniques (e.g. median, α-trimmed mean, nonlinear order statistics filtering, morphological filtering). Their computation is relatively fast, because it requires only comparisons. The author presents an algorithm that requires a significantly smaller number of comparisons and is significantly faster than the traditional approach to order statistics filtering. Also proposed are filter structures for order statistics filtering that are much faster than the known sorting structures View full abstract»

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  • A fast and area-efficiency BWC array D/A and A/D conversion scheme

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 912 - 916
    Cited by:  Patents (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB)  

    A modification to D/A and A/D converters of the charge redistribution type is suggested. It reduces the silicon area requirement by a factor of two or more (up to 6.5 for 8-bit converters) and increases the speed by a similar factor, while retaining compatibility to presently used MOS fabrication processes. The scheme is sufficiently insensitive to undercuts and parasitics. Under the scheme, some of the LSB (least-significant bit) side branch capacitors are realized as a series combination of unit capacitors and the higher-bit capacitances are adjusted to make them binary-weighted to the LSB capacitances. Simulation results and an implemented binary-weighted capacitor (BWC) scheme are shown View full abstract»

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  • Zero-input limit cycles due to rounding in digital filters

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 931 - 933
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (228 KB)  

    A necessary condition for the existence of zero-input limit cycles of period T due to rounding in general digital filters is established. Also, geometric sufficient conditions are presented for the existence of limit cycles of period one, of period two and of period T due to rounding. Some illustrative examples are included View full abstract»

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  • Computational structures for fast implementation of L-path and L-block digital filters

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 805 - 812
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (516 KB)  

    One of the major problems in the multi-DSP (digital signal processor) implementation of L-path and L-block digital filters is the hardware complexity-throughput rate tradeoff. The author presents computational structures based on the theory of fast algorithms for short linear convolutions, which are suitable for the implementation of these types of digital filters. He also compares the performance of the structures with two previously published ones. The comparison shows that the schemes proposed here are faster and that the complexity-throughput tradeoffs can easily be controlled by the designer View full abstract»

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  • Binary counter with counting period of one half adder independent of counter size

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 924 - 926
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (280 KB)  

    The properties that make a fast counter suitable for many applications are: (1) a high counting rate, independent of the counter size; (2) a binary output that can be read on-the-fly; (3) a sampling rate equal to the counting rate; and (4) a regular implementation suitable for VLSI. The authors describe the implementation of a counter having these properties. The minimum period of the counter is equal to the delay of one half adder plus the delay of loading a flip-flop. Both a modulo-2n case and the more general modulo-p cases are considered View full abstract»

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  • The general recurrence relation for arbitrary rational transformation of polynomials

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 917 - 919
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (216 KB)  

    A recurrence relation is developed that allows the coefficients of a transformed polynomial under common rational function transformations to be readily computed from the original coefficients. The recursive algorithm is quite general and prescribes a simple scheme for machine implementation as well as manual calculation View full abstract»

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  • The extended Poincare-Bendixson theorem

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 933 - 934
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (164 KB)  

    An extension is presented of the classical Poincare-Bendixson theorem to a higher dimension. It is shown that this extension can be helpful in predicting when chaotic as well as other cycles exist. An example illustrates its use View full abstract»

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  • Switched control of bilinear converters via pseudolinearization

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 858 - 865
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (632 KB)  

    A method is proposed for designing regulating feedback control laws in bilinear networks such as the boost and the buck-boost DC-DC power supplies. A pseudolinearization approach is taken to the average pulsewidth modulated controlled model with physically meaningful local state coordinate transformations. For such transformations, the perturbed average model is independent of the operating point and exhibits a linear structure in Brunovsky's canonical form. The feedback regulation scheme is thus considerably simplified from the conceptual viewpoint View full abstract»

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  • On upper bounds in tree-diameter sets of graphs

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 905 - 907
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (284 KB)  

    An upper bound in tree-diameter sets of connected graphs is given. Let S {a1, a2, . . ., an} be the tree-diameter set of a connected graph G in increasing order. It is proved that ai+1 a1+(1/2)a1 1⩽in-1 View full abstract»

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  • Concurrent architectures for two-dimensional recursive digital filtering

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 813 - 829
    Cited by:  Papers (35)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1128 KB)  

    Efficient architectures are presented for high-speed implementation of two-dimensional recursive digital filters of direct form and local state-space form. Unlike one-dimensional recursive systems, two-dimensional recursive digital filter algorithms have a large amount of inherent concurrency. The authors exploit this concurrency to derive fine-grain pipelined and one-dimensional block architectures for implementation of two-dimensional recursive digital filters by appropriate interleaving (or indexing) of the input samples, without requiring any algorithm transformation and without any hardware overhead. They then extend the look-ahead computation and incremental computation techniques to to dimensions and use them to derive two-dimensional incremental block filter architectures. The multiplication complexity of the two-dimensional incremental block filter is determined View full abstract»

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  • Bit-serial realizations of a class of nonlinear filters based on positive Boolean functions

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 785 - 794
    Cited by:  Papers (62)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (836 KB)  

    It is shown that the function of a stack filter can be realized in k-step recursive use of one binary processing circuit. The time-area complexity of the proposed filter is O(k) as compared with O(2k) for stack filters. The proposed digital realizations are simple and modular in structure, and suitable for VLSI implementation. Analog/digital (A/D) hybrid realizations have the advantage that there is no need for an A/D converter array when the original signals come from an integrated sensor array. An experimental digital rank-order filter with a window size of three and arbitrary number of input bits is designed and implemented in a 3-μm double-metal polysilicon gate CMOS process. The chip has been fabricated and measurement results are correct with a clock frequency of up to 110 MHz View full abstract»

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  • Class E zero-voltage-switching rectifier with a series capacitor

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 926 - 928
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (260 KB)  

    A circuit of a class E rectifier with a series capacitor is derived from a class E amplifier, using the symmetry between a DC-to-AC inverter and a rectifier. The principle of the circuit's operation is described and verified experimentally. Since the rectifier diode turns on and off at zero voltage, the switching losses are considerably reduced. In addition, the rectifier diode turns off at zero current, reducing the effect of the reverse-recovery time. The rectifier can be used in high-frequency high-efficiency resonant DC/DC power converters View full abstract»

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  • A direct code error calibration technique for two-step flash A/D converters

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 919 - 922
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (272 KB)  

    The authors propose a direct code error calibration technique to improve linearities of flash-type analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). Simulation results of the proposed calibration algorithm based on a capacitor-array multiplying digital-to-analog converter (MDAC) predict that self-calibrating two-step flash ADCs with more than 12 bits of linearity are feasible View full abstract»

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  • Spatial-domain design of two-dimensional recursive digital filters

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 901 - 905
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (444 KB)  

    A technique using linear algebraic projection is proposed to design two-dimensional (2-D) recursive digital filters that best approximate a desired input/output relationship in terms of total weighted squared error. A 2-D difference equation representation is used. Examples of first-quadrant and asymmetric half-plane filters are presented and compared with other spatial-domain designs. One of the main advantages of the proposed method is that the solution is obtained directly with no need for iterations View full abstract»

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  • Hessenberg-triangular reduction and transfer function matrices of singular systems

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 907 - 912
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB)  

    The author is concerned with the computation of transfer function matrices of liner multivariable systems described by their generalized state-space equations. An algorithm is outlined that may be considered a generalization of an existing technique for computation of transfer matrices of systems described by standard state-space equation. The propose algorithm can be used for evaluating transfer function matrices of nonsingular as well as singular generalized systems, and performs satisfactorily when implemented with finite-precision arithmetic. Several examples are included to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm View full abstract»

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  • Formation of a fractal basin boundary in a forced oscillator

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 866 - 872
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (668 KB)  

    The question of how a fractal basin boundary arises in the sinusoidally forced Duffing's equation is considered. The author describes how the backwards system flow deforms a local stable manifold into the fractal boundary. Parts of the boundary are labeled in a way related to their time of formation. The truncated fractal boundary produced by a burst of sinusoidal forcing is briefly considered. The approach supplements the insights provided by the usual Poincare map techniques View full abstract»

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  • Alternating projection neural networks

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 846 - 857
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (928 KB)  

    The authors consider a class of neural networks whose performance can be analyzed and geometrically visualized in a signal space environment. Alternating projection neural networks (APNNs) perform by alternatively projecting between two or more constraint sets. Criteria for desired and unique convergence are easily established. The network can be configured as either a content-addressable memory or classifier. Convergence of the APNN can be improved by the use of sigmoid-type nonlinearities and/or increasing the number of neurons in a hidden layer View full abstract»

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  • Restoration of noisy images modeled by Markov random fields with Gibbs distribution

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 884 - 890
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (756 KB)  

    The authors develop techniques for restoration of noisy images using Markov/Gibbs random fields. In the schemes to be presented, the local characteristics of the noise-free image are described by pairwise-interaction Markov random fields, while the noise, assumed to be mainly additive, is modeled as a zero-mean Gaussian process. The estimation of the clean image is based on the MAP criterion. Optimal estimates are derived with proper choice of performance criteria. Studies undertaken with a variety of images have confirmed the feasibility of the proposed techniques under conditions of high noise View full abstract»

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  • New results in strip Kalman filtering

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 893 - 897
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB)  

    The strip Kalman filtering previously proposed by B.R. Suresh and B.A. Shenoi (ibid, vol.CAS-28, no.4, p.307-19, 1981) for image restoration is reconsidered. It is pointed out that the procedure given there for parameter estimation of the image model does not take into account the vector nature of the image process and as a result can lead to incorrect identification. It is also shown that for the composite dynamic model derived there the standard Kalman filtering equation cannot be applied, as the blur states in this model should be estimated one step ahead View full abstract»

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  • Quenching phenomena in synchronized Van de Pol systems

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 897 - 901
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (380 KB)  

    Quenching of sinusoidally driven Van der Pol systems is considered and conditions developed under which harmonic synchronous quenching occurs. For this, a multiple time expansion is used to solve the Van der Pol equation with the sinusoidal forcing term. By controlling the expansion in terms of a small parameter and equating terms of like order in the parameter, the solutions of asynchronous and synchronous state are obtained. From these solutions the conditions for harmonic synchronous quenching are developed and a plot given to show the quenching region View full abstract»

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  • Pole and zero estimation in linear circuits

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 838 - 845
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (704 KB)  

    A unified method for fast, accurate estimation of dominant and nondominant poles and zeros of linear active circuit transfer functions is presented. The basis for both pole and zero estimates is an efficiently computed time-constant matrix. The major computation in the estimation process involves only the solution of linear equations, which are independent of capacitor values. This feature permits the implementation of fast real-time dominant pole-zero design based on capacitor variation. Formulas with concomitant applicability criteria are developed for estimating the four most dominant poles and zeros of a transfer function. A broad range of circuit examples is included to demonstrate the power and relative accuracy of different orders of approximation through fourth order View full abstract»

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  • A new multichannel split Levinson algorithm for block Hermitian-Toeplitz matrices

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 928 - 931
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (332 KB)  

    A review is presented of the vector Levinson and multichannel split algorithms for block Hermitian-Toeplitz matrices. The author then introduces a new multichannel split algorithm for block Hermitian-Toeplitz matrices. The algorithm does not save any multiplications, but it does require only one matrix inversion per recursion, whereas the vector Levinson and previous multichannel split algorithm both require two matrix inversions per recursion View full abstract»

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  • Maximally linear FIR digital differentiators for high frequencies

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 890 - 893
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (316 KB)  

    The frequency response of conventional FIR digital differentiators (DD), using only integral delays, is poor towards the high frequency end, and becomes identically zero at w=π. To overcome this problem, a half-sample delay, z-1/2, is used in the minimax relative error DDs. However, the order of such DDs grows exponentially when accuracies better than 99.0% are desired. The authors propose maximally linear DDs, using one half-sample delay, which can achieve a frequency response accuracy better than 99.9%, with attractively low orders for 0.5π⩽w⩽π. Mathematical formulas have been derived for computing the coefficients for the design View full abstract»

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  • The discrete-time strictly bounded-real lemma and the computation of positive definite solutions to the 2-D Lyapunov equation

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 830 - 837
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (616 KB)  

    Four algorithms for computing positive definite solutions to the 2-D Lyapunov equation are developed. These algorithms are based on two alternative forms of the discrete-time strictly bounded-real lemma (DTSBRL) presented by the authors. Two of the algorithms use 1-D spectral factorization, the other two require the solution of a matrix Riccati equation. In all cases, the problem of solving the 2-D Lyapunov equation is reduced to solving a series of 1-D problems. Examples illustrate all methods View full abstract»

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