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Communications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 11 • Date Nov. 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 35
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c1 - c4
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Communications publication information

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c2
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  • An algorithm for detecting unreliable code sequence segments and its applications

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1833 - 1839
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Let the Viterbi algorithm be applied for maximum-likelihood decoding of a terminated convolutional code using a trellis. We propose an additional procedure that permits a receiver to locate unreliable segments within an estimated code sequence. This reliability output may be used, for example, to request retransmissions, in systems with error concealment, or in channel-coding systems with unequal error protection. View full abstract»

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  • Decoding of low-density parity-check codes over finite-state binary Markov channels

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1840 - 1843
    Cited by:  Papers (22)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (176 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a modified algorithm for decoding of low-density parity-check codes over finite-state binary Markov channels. The proposed approach clearly outperforms systems in which the channel statistics are not exploited in the decoding, even when the channel parameters are not known a priori at the decoder. View full abstract»

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  • Accurate computation of the performance of M-ary orthogonal signaling on a discrete memoryless channel

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1844 - 1845
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (84 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A formula for the error rate of maximum-likelihood detection of M-ary orthogonal signaling on a discrete memoryless channel is manipulated into a form that avoids numerical imprecision when it is used to calculate low error rates. View full abstract»

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  • High-rate recursive convolutional codes for concatenated channel codes

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1846 - 1850
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This letter presents the results of the search for optimum punctured recursive convolutional codes (RCCs) of rate k/k+1, for k=2,...,8, suitable for concatenated channel codes whose constituent encoders are recursive, systematic convolutional codes. The mother codes that are punctured are rate-1/2 RCCs proposed for use in parallel and/or serial concatenation schemes. Extensive tables of systematic and nonsystematic puncturing patterns, optimized relative to various objective functions suitable for concatenated channel codes, are presented for several mother codes. View full abstract»

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  • A new base station receiver for increasing diversity order in a CDMA cellular system

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1851 - 1856
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new base station receiver is proposed and analyzed for a code-division multiple-access (CDMA) cellular system. The proposed receiver can achieve remarkable diversity gain by increasing diversity order with reasonable cost and complexity. From the numerical results, it is confirmed that the proposed receiver structure can be a practical solution for enhancing reverse-link capacity and improving performance in CDMA cellular system operations. The result in the letter can find its applications to legacy IS-95/cdma2000 1x base stations with simple modifications. View full abstract»

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  • Power control and diversity in feedback communications over a fading channel

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1857 - 1861
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (232 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Pilot-symbol-assisted modulation system using feedback minimum mean-square error (MMSE) power control in subject to an unavoidable feedback delay, and in conjunction with diversity, is considered over a slow Rayleigh fading channel. Feedback MMSE power control is defined as a power-control function, with feedback MMSE predictions of the current channel fading gains as input that minimizes the system-error probability. The use of feedback requires causality, and an MMSE predictor has to be employed for the purpose of power control. Previously, in the literature, the predictor was used also in detection. The pilot-symbol system with MMSE power control is shown to achieve a clear performance improvement by employing a smoother, instead of the predictor, in detection. Furthermore, the performance loss caused by a feedback delay of 10%-20% from the channel coherence time appeared to be minor with reasonable bit-error rate levels. Finally, additional performance improvement using low-order diversity was shown to be considerable. View full abstract»

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  • Large set of CI spreading codes for high-capacity MC-CDMA

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1862 - 1866
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (200 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this letter, a large set of spreading codes that doubles capacity in multicarrier code-division multiple-access (MC-CDMA) systems without any cost in bandwidth and with negligible cost in performance is introduced. This large set is comprised of: 1) complex spreading codes instead of conventional real-valued spreading codes and 2) two sets, each made up of orthogonal complex spreading codes, with minimum cross correlation between sets. Simulations performed over Rayleigh fading channels demonstrate 100% gains in terms of MC-CDMA capacity with negligible loss in performance. View full abstract»

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  • On the Miller-Chang lower bound for NDA carrier phase estimation

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1867 - 1871
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this letter, we derive a new Miller-Chang lower bound (MCB) for the variance of unbiased non-data-aided (NDA) carrier phase estimates obtained from a block of N samples of a linearly modulated pulse-amplitude modulation or quadrature-amplitude modulation information signal, transmitted through an additive white Gaussian noise channel. This bound is tighter than the corresponding Crame´r-Rao lower bound (CRB) for data-aided or continuous-wave carrier phase estimation (CW-CRB), particularly when N is small. For some given N and sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratios, the MCB is tighter than the corresponding true NDA CRB. The main limitation of this new MCB is that its application is restricted to carrier phase estimators which are unbiased for all possible values of the received symbol sequence. View full abstract»

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  • Performance analysis and design criteria for finite-alphabet source-channel codes

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1872 - 1879
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Efficient compression of finite-alphabet sources requires variable-length codes (VLCs). However, in the presence of noisy channels, error propagation in the decoding of VLCs severely degrades performance. To address this problem, redundant entropy codes and iterative source-channel decoding have been suggested, but to date, neither performance bounds nor design criteria for the composite system have been available. We calculate performance bounds for the source-channel system by generalizing techniques originally developed for serial concatenated convolutional codes. Using this analysis, we demonstrate the role of a recursive structure for the inner code and the distance properties of the outer code. We use density evolution to study the convergence of our decoders. Finally, we pose the question: Under a fixed rate and complexity constraint, when should we use source-channel decoding (as opposed to separable decoding)? We offer answers in several specific cases. For our analysis and design rules, we use union bounds that are technically valid only above the cutoff rate, but interestingly, the codes designed with union-bound criteria perform well even in low signal-to-noise ratio regions, as shown by our simulations as well as previous works on concatenated codes. View full abstract»

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  • Near-capacity coding in multicarrier modulation systems

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1880 - 1889
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We apply irregular low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes to the design of multilevel coded quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) schemes for application in discrete multitone systems in frequency-selective channels. A combined Gray/Ungerboeck scheme is used to label each QAM constellation. The Gray-labeled bits are protected using an irregular LDPC code with iterative soft-decision decoding, while other bits are protected using a high-rate Reed-Solomon code with hard-decision decoding (or are left uncoded). The rate of the LDPC code is selected by analyzing the capacity of the channel seen by the Gray-labeled bits and is made adaptive by selective concatenation with an inner repetition code. Using a practical bit-loading algorithm, we apply this coding scheme to an ensemble of frequency-selective channels with Gaussian noise. Over a large number of channel realizations, this coding scheme provides an average effective coding gain of more than 7.5 dB at a bit-error rate of 10-7 and a block length of approximately 105 b. This represents a gap of approximately 2.3 dB from the Shannon limit of the additive white Gaussian noise channel, which could be closed to within 0.8-1.2 dB using constellation shaping. View full abstract»

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  • Performance of coded OQPSK and MIL-STD SOQPSK with iterative decoding

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1890 - 1900
    Cited by:  Papers (31)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (488 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We show that military standard (MIL-STD) shaped-offset quadrature phase-shift keying (SOQPSK), a highly bandwidth-efficient constant-envelope modulation, can be represented in the form of a cross-correlated trellis-coded quadrature modulation. Similarly, we show that offset QPSK (OQPSK) can be decomposed into a "degraded" trellis encoder and a memoryless mapper. Based on the representations of OQPSK and MIL-STD SOQPSK as trellis-coded modulations (TCMs), we investigate the potential coding gains achievable from the application of simple outer codes to form a concatenated coding structure with iterative decoding. For MIL-STD SOQPSK, we describe the optimum receiver corresponding to its TCM form and then propose a simplified receiver. The bit-error rate (BER) performances of both receivers for uncoded and coded MIL-STD SOQPSK are simulated and compared with that of OQPSK and Feher-patented QPSK (FQPSK). The asymptotic BER performance of MIL-STD SOQPSK is also analyzed and compared with that of OQPSK and FQPSK. Simulation results show that, compared with their uncoded systems, there are significant coding gains for both OQPSK and MIL-STD SOQPSK, obtained by applying iterative decoding to either the parallel concatenated coding scheme or the serial one, even when very simple outer codes are used. View full abstract»

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  • Design and performance of turbo Gallager codes

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1901 - 1908
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The most powerful channel-coding schemes, namely, those based on turbo codes and low-density parity-check (LDPC) Gallager codes, have in common the principle of iterative decoding. However, the relative coding structures and decoding algorithms are substantially different. This paper shows that recently proposed novel coding structures bridge the gap between these two schemes. In fact, with properly chosen component convolutional codes, a turbo code can be successfully decoded by means of the decoding algorithm used for LDPC codes, i.e., the belief-propagation algorithm working on the code Tanner graph. These new turbo codes are here nicknamed "turbo Gallager codes." Besides being interesting from a conceptual viewpoint, these schemes are important on the practical side because they can be decoded in a fully parallel manner. In addition to the encoding complexity advantage of turbo codes, the low decoding complexity allows the design of very efficient channel-coding schemes. View full abstract»

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  • Reduced-complexity MAP-based iterative multiuser detection for coded multicarrier CDMA systems

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1909 - 1915
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In recent years, combining multiuser detection (MUD) and channel decoding has received considerable attention. The maximum a posteriori (MAP) criterion-based iterative multiuser detector greatly improves the system performance and can approach the performance of single-user coded systems. However, its complexity increases exponentially with the number of users and can become prohibitive for systems with a medium-to-large number of users. In this paper, a reduced complexity MAP-based iterative MUD based on the use of a soft sensitive bits algorithm is proposed for coded multicarrier code-division multiple-access systems. It is shown that it can greatly reduce the computational complexity with a minimal penalty in performance compared to the conventional optimal scheme. View full abstract»

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  • A novel trellis-shaping design with both peak and average power reduction for OFDM systems

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1916 - 1926
    Cited by:  Papers (44)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new trellis shaping design is proposed for reducing the peak-to-average power ratio of the bandlimited orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signals. The approach is based on recursive minimization of the autocorrelation sidelobes of an OFDM data sequence. A novel metric in conjunction with the Viterbi algorithm is devised. The performance of the trellis shaping depends on signal mapping strategy, and the two types of mapping, referred to as Type-I and Type-II, are proposed. The Type-I mapping has no capability of reducing the average power, but it can achieve a significant reduction of the peak-to-average power ratio. On the other hand, the Type-II mapping is designed to achieve both peak and average power reduction. The bit error probability of the system over an AWGN channel is evaluated based on the simulations, which confirms the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Reduced-delay protection of DSL systems against nonstationary disturbances

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1927 - 1938
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (696 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In addition to being designed to successfully cope with stationary noise, crosstalk, and intersymbol interference, digital subscriber loop (DSL) systems need to be shielded from nonstationary disturbances, such as impulse noise and RF interference. Currently, deployed DSL systems achieve protection against nonstationary interference using a combination of Reed-Solomon (RS) codes and interleaving. However, interleaving results in delay. Long delays are undesirable in high-rate systems that support interactive applications. In this study, it is shown that the interleaving delay of DSL systems can be significantly reduced by performing erasure decoding of the RS codewords at the receiver. Three different techniques for determining the erasures are proposed. Use of the techniques results in a reduction of the interleaving delay that is required to mitigate worst-case impulse noise by up to a factor of 2, which is verified by simulation. Moreover, the techniques do not require any changes at the transmitter and therefore guarantee compatibility with currently deployed systems. View full abstract»

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  • Training sequence optimization in MIMO systems with colored interference

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1939 - 1947
    Cited by:  Papers (29)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (488 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We address the problems of channel estimation and optimal training sequence design for multiple-input multiple-output systems over flat fading channels in the presence of colored interference. In practice, knowledge of the unknown channel is often obtained by sending known training symbols to the receiver. During the training period, we obtain the best linear unbiased estimates of the channel parameters based on the received training block. We determine the optimal training sequence set that minimizes the mean square error of the channel estimator under a total transmit power constraint. In order to obtain the advantage of the optimal training sequence design, long-term statistics of the interference correlation are needed at the transmitter. Hence, this information needs to be estimated at the receiver and fed back to the transmitter. Obviously it is desirable that only a minimal amount of information needs to be fed back from the receiver to gain the advantage in reducing the estimation error of the short-term channel fading parameters. We develop such a feedback strategy in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Distribution functions of selection combiner output in equally correlated Rayleigh, Rician, and Nakagami-m fading channels

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1948 - 1956
    Cited by:  Papers (83)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We develop a novel approach to derive the cumulative distribution functions (cdfs) of the selection-combining (SC) output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in equally correlated Rayleigh, Ricean, and Nakagami-m fading channels. We show that a set of equally correlated channel gains can be transformed into a set of conditionally independent channel gains. Single-fold integral expressions are, therefore, derived for the cdfs of the SC output SNR. Infinite series representations of the output cdfs are also provided. New expressions are applied to analyze the average error rate, the outage probability, and the output statistics of SC. Numerical and simulation results that illustrate the effect of fading correlation on the performance of L-branch SC in equally correlated fading channels are provided. View full abstract»

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  • Delay-limited throughput of ad hoc networks

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1957 - 1968
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The delay-limited throughput of an ad hoc wireless network confined to a finite region is investigated. An approximate expression for the achievable throughput as a function of the maximum allowable delay is obtained. It is found that: 1) for moderate values of the delay d, the throughput that can be achieved by taking advantage of the motion increases as d23/ and 2) for a fixed value of d, the dependence of the achievable throughput on the number of nodes n is n-13/. A transmission and relaying strategy ensuring continuous information flow is constructed. It is shown that there exists a critical value of the delay such that: 1) for values of the delay d below the critical delay, the throughput does not benefit appreciably from the motion and 2) the dependence of the critical delay on the number of nodes is a very slowly increasing function (n114/). Finally, asymptotic optimality of the proposed strategy in a certain class is shown. View full abstract»

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  • Performance analysis and tradeoffs for dual-pulse PPM on optical communication channels with direct detection

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1969 - 1979
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The performance and tradeoffs of multipulse position modulation (MPPM) are investigated and compared with that of the traditional (single) pulse position modulation (PPM) scheme typically employed on the optical direct-detection channel. While the primary motivation for the consideration of the problem is to provide performance improvement for deep-space optical communications where narrow high-peak-power transmitted pulses offer significant advantages in terms of detection probabilities and background suppression capabilities at the receiver, the results obtained are sufficiently generic as to apply to other applications. View full abstract»

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  • Accurate Simulation of multiple cross-correlated Rician fading channels

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1980 - 1987
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The computer generation of multiple cross-correlated Rician fading channels is investigated. We prove that the output sequences of existing multichannel fading simulators are restricted to have cross-correlation statistics that have the same functional form as the component autocorrelation functions. To overcome this limitation, vector autoregressive stochastic models are proposed for the generation of multiple Rician fading processes with specified realizable autocorrelation and cross-correlation statistics. This capability is desirable, for example, to permit realistic performance assessments of space-time modem designs by enabling the simulation of space-time-selective wireless channel models. The utility of the simulation approach is demonstrated by the accurate synthesis of some bandlimited multichannel Rayleigh and Rician processes. View full abstract»

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  • OFDM systems in the presence of phase noise: consequences and solutions

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1988 - 1996
    Cited by:  Papers (116)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We provide an exact analysis of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) performance in the presence of phase noise. Unlike most methods which assume small phase noise, we examine the general case for any phase noise levels. After deriving a closed-form expression for the signal-to-noise-plus-interference ratio (SINR), we exhibit the effects of phase noise by precisely expressing the OFDM system performance as a function of its critical parameters. This helps in understanding the meaning of small phase noise and how it reflects on the proper parameters selection of a specific OFDM system. In order to combat phase noise, we also provide in this paper a general phase-noise suppression scheme, which, by analytical and numerical results, proves to be quite effective in practice. View full abstract»

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  • Pilot-assisted maximum-likelihood frequency-offset estimation for OFDM systems

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1997 - 2008
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signals that suffer from frequency-selective fading, we derive the maximum-likelihood (ML) pilot-assisted carrier frequency offset (CFO) estimate and show that most proposals based on repetitive pilot symbols did not use the complete set of sufficient statistics. We convert the problem of obtaining the ML solution from searching exhaustively over the entire uncertainty range to that of solving a spectrum polynomial, thereby greatly reducing the computational load. By properly truncating the polynomial, we obtain a closed-form expression for the corresponding zeros so that the root-searching procedure is greatly simplified. The complexity of locating the desired root is further reduced at almost no expense of performance degradation by an alternate algorithm that uses the fact that the solution is related to the root of a special factor of the polynomial. This alternate method is very attractive for its simplicity and excellent performance that, even at low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), is very close to the corresponding Crame´r-Rao lower bound. A detailed analysis of the mean-squared error performance is presented and the analysis is validated by simulations. View full abstract»

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  • A class of nonlinear signal-processing schemes for bandwidth-efficient OFDM transmission with low envelope fluctuation

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 2009 - 2018
    Cited by:  Papers (39)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work presents a wide class of digital signal-processing schemes for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission which combine a nonlinear operation in the time domain and a linear filtering operation in the frequency domain. The ultimate goal of these schemes is to reduce the envelope fluctuation of ordinary OFDM, while keeping its high spectral efficiency and allowing a low-cost, power-efficient implementation. An appropriate statistical model concerning the transmitted frequency-domain blocks is developed, which is derived from well-established results on Gaussian stochastic processes distorted by memoryless nonlinearities. This model can be employed for performance evaluation by analytical means, with highly accurate results whenever the corresponding conventional OFDM signals exhibit quasi-Gaussian characteristics. Cases where the signal-processing scheme is repeatedly used, in an iterative way, are treated through an extension of the proposed statistical modeling. A set of numerical results is presented and discussed so as to show the practical interest of both the proposed schemes and the analytical methods for evaluation of their performance. For the sake of comparisons, this paper includes numerical results concerning the partial transmit sequence technique, which is an alternative peak-to-mean envelope power ratio-reducing technique of higher complexity, often recommended due to its distortionless nature. The superior performance/complexity tradeoffs through the proposed class of nonlinear signal-processing schemes is emphasized. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Communications focuses on all telecommunications including telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television by electromagnetic propagation.

 

 

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Editor-in-Chief
Robert Schober
University of British Columbia