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Robotics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date Oct. 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 18 of 18
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Robotics publication information

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c2
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  • A complete and efficient algorithm for searching 3-D form-closure grasps in the discrete domain

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 805 - 816
    Cited by:  Papers (45)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (824 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A complete and efficient algorithm is proposed for searching form-closure grasps of n hard fingers on the surface of a three-dimensional object represented by discrete points. Both frictional and frictionless cases are considered. This algorithm starts to search a form-closure grasp from a randomly selected grasp using an efficient local search procedure until encountering a local minimum. The local search procedure employs the powerful ray-shooting technique to search in the direction of reducing the distance between the convex hull corresponding to the grasp and the origin of the wrench space. When the distance reaches a local minimum in the local search procedure, the algorithm decomposes the problem into a few subproblems in subsets of the points according to the existence conditions of form-closure grasps. A search tree whose root represents the original problem is employed to perform the searching process. The subproblems are represented as children of the root node and the same procedure is recursively applied to the children. It is proved that the search tree generates O(KlnK/n) nodes in case a from-closure grasp exists, where K is the number of the local minimum points of the distance in the grasp space and n is the number of fingers. Compared to the exhaustive search, this algorithm is more efficient, and, compared to other heuristic algorithms, the proposed algorithm is complete in the discrete domain. The efficiency of this algorithm is demonstrated by numerical examples. View full abstract»

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  • Admittance selection for force-guided assembly of polygonal parts despite friction

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 817 - 829
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An important issue in the development of force guidance assembly strategies is the specification of an appropriate admittance control law. This paper identifies conditions to be satisfied when selecting the appropriate admittance to achieve force-guided assembly of polygonal parts for multipoint contact with friction. These conditions restrict the admittance behavior for each of the various one-point and two-point contact cases and ensure that the motion that results from contact reduces part misalignment for each case. We show that, for bounded friction and part misalignments, if the identified conditions are satisfied for a finite number of contact configurations and friction coefficients, the conditions ensure that force guidance is achieved for all configurations and values of friction within the specified bounds. View full abstract»

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  • Active acceleration compensation for transport vehicles carrying delicate objects

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 830 - 839
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1288 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The goal of this research is to enhance the capabilities of transport vehicles so that they can carry delicate objects without extensive packaging. The proposed approach, as first described by Graf and Dillmann (1997), is to add a robotic device (e.g., a parallel manipulator) on top of the vehicle, the motion of which compensates for certain forces and moments. This approach is called active acceleration compensation. This paper discusses performance measures for the effectiveness of acceleration compensation and a new motion planning scheme, the augmented pendulum algorithm, that is particularly effective. The basic idea is to emulate the motion of a free-swinging pendulum to minimize lateral forces acting on the objects. View full abstract»

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  • Trajectory control of incompletely restrained parallel-wire-suspended mechanism based on inverse dynamics

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 840 - 850
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (856 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses parallel wire mechanisms where an end-effector of the mechanism is suspended by multiple wires. The mechanisms enable not only three-dimensional (3-D) positioning but also 3-D orienting of the end-effector, unlike typical wire suspension-type mechanisms such as overhead crane. To discuss the parallel-wire-suspended mechanisms generally, two forms of basic dynamic equations are presented. Then the parallel wire mechanisms are classified into two types based on the basic equations. Dynamical properties of the two types of wire-suspended positioning mechanism are discussed. In this paper, one of the wire-suspended mechanism, incompletely restrained-type parallel wire mechanism, is mainly discussed on its inverse dynamics problem and its trajectory control problem. The inverse dynamics problem for the incompletely restrained-type mechanism plays an important role on its control problem, because the mechanism has low stiffness based on incomplete constraints on the suspended object which is governed by its dynamics. The paper proposes an antisway control method for the suspended object. In the method, the inverse dynamics calculation is used for nonlinear dynamics compensation to control the suspended object of the incompletely restrained parallel wire mechanism. View full abstract»

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  • Localization methods for a mobile robot in urban environments

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 851 - 864
    Cited by:  Papers (51)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4560 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses the problems of building a functional mobile robot for urban site navigation and modeling with focus on keeping track of the robot location. We have developed a localization system that employs two methods. The first method uses odometry, a compass and tilt sensor, and a global positioning sensor. An extended Kalman filter integrates the sensor data and keeps track of the uncertainty associated with it. The second method is based on camera pose estimation. It is used when the uncertainty from the first method becomes very large. The pose estimation is done by matching linear features in the image with a simple and compact environmental model. We have demonstrated the functionality of the robot and the localization methods with real-world experiments. View full abstract»

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  • Abstraction and control for Groups of robots

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 865 - 875
    Cited by:  Papers (108)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses the general problem of controlling a large number of robots required to move as a group. We propose an abstraction based on the definition of a map from the configuration space Q of the robots to a lower dimensional manifold A, whose dimension is independent of the number of robots. In this paper, we focus on planar fully actuated robots. We require that the manifold A has a product structure A=G×S, where G is a Lie group, which captures the position and orientation of the ensemble in the chosen world coordinate frame, and S is a shape manifold, which is an intrinsic characterization of the team describing the "shape" as the area spanned by the robots. We design decoupled controllers for the group and shape variables. We derive controllers for individual robots that guarantee the desired behavior on A. These controllers can be realized by feedback that depends only on the current state of the robot and the state of the manifold A. This has the practical advantage of reducing the communication and sensing that is required and limiting the complexity of individual robot controllers, even for large numbers of robots. View full abstract»

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  • Kinematic design of a six-DOF parallel-kinematics Machine with decoupled-motion architecture

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 876 - 887
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (800 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The design of a new six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) parallel-kinematics machine (PKM) has been proposed. Different from the conventional Stewart-Gough platform which has six extensible legs, the new PKM employs three identical RPRS legs to support the moving platform. Since all joint axes, excluding the three spherical joints at the leg ends, are parallel to each other and perpendicular to the base plane, this 6-DOF PKM presents a promising platform structure with decoupled-motion architecture (DMA) such that translation in a horizontal plane and rotation about a vertical axis are driven by the three active revolute joints, while translation in the vertical direction and rotation about horizontal axes are driven by the three active prismatic joints. As a result, this 6-DOF 3RPRS PKM with DMA has simple kinematics, large cylindrical reachable workspace, and high stiffness in the vertical direction. These features make it appropriate for light machining and heavy parts assembly tasks. Because of the DMA, a projection technique is employed for its kinematics analysis. By projecting the manipulator onto horizontal directions and vertical planes, the kinematics issues such as the displacement, singularity, and workspace analysis are significantly simplified. View full abstract»

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  • Smooth motion generation for unicycle mobile robots via dynamic path inversion

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 884 - 891
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1288 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new motion-generation approach is proposed for wheeled mobile robots described by the unicycle kinematic model. This approach permits the generation of smooth continuous-acceleration controls using a dynamic path-inversion procedure that exploits the concept of G3 -paths, i.e., Cartesian paths with third-order geometric continuity (both the curvature function and its derivative, with respect to the arc length, are continuous). The exposed steering method is well suited to be adopted for the robot's iterative steering within a supervisory control architecture for sensor-based autonomous navigation. A worked example illustrates the approach. View full abstract»

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  • A timing model for vision-based control of industrial robot manipulators

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 891 - 898
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1040 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Visual sensing for robotics has been around for decades, but our understanding of a timing model remains crude. By timing model, we refer to the delays (processing lag and motion lag) between "reality" (when a part is sensed), through data processing (the processing of image data to determine part position and orientation), through control (the computation and initiation of robot motion), through "arrival" (when the robot reaches the commanded goal). In this study, we introduce a timing model where sensing and control operate asynchronously. We apply this model to a robotic workcell consisting of a Stäubli RX-130 industrial robot manipulator, a network of six cameras for sensing, and an off-the-shelf Adept MV-19 controller. We present experiments to demonstrate how the model can be applied. View full abstract»

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  • Calibration-free robotic eye-hand coordination based on an auto disturbance-rejection controller

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 899 - 907
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB)  

    This paper addresses the calibration-free robotic eye-hand coordination in a way other than the conventional image Jacobian matrix approach that has been studied extensively in literature. A nonlinear mapping rather than the linear mapping used in the image Jacobian matrix between the image space and the robotic control space is proposed. This mapping is regarded as the system's unmodeled dynamics expressed in system state equations. An extended state observer is designed first to estimate the unmodeled dynamics as well as the external disturbance of the system. With the estimation results as the compensation, a system controller is designed based on the nonlinear state-error feedback control strategy. Convergence of the extended state observer as well as the overall controller for a typical eye-hand coordination system is proved. Compared with the conventional calibration-free robotic eye-hand coordination with a Jacobian matrix, the proposed controller is independent of specific tasks and system configurations. Thus, a general design procedure is proposed for the calibration-free robotic eye-hand coordination. Simulation and experiment results demonstrate the satisfactory performance and effectiveness of the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Keeping features in the field of view in eye-in-hand visual servoing: a switching approach

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 908 - 914
    Cited by:  Papers (46)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (896 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A visual servoing strategy for keeping features in the field of view is proposed which consists of a switching among position-based control strategies and backward motion. In the absence of uncertainty on the extrinsic parameters, all features are kept in the field of view. Moreover, if the intrinsic parameters are also known, the trajectory length is minimized in the rotational space and, for some cases, also minimized in the translational space. Simulation results also show a certain degree of robustness against uncertainty on the intrinsic parameters. View full abstract»

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  • A novel filter for terrain mapping with laser rangefinders

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 913 - 923
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2592 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces a novel filter for terrain mapping with a two-dimensional laser rangefinder. The filter, called the certainty-assisted spatial (CAS) filter, uses the physical constraints on motion continuity and spatial continuity to identify corrupted pixels and missing data in an elevation map. The filter removes the corrupted pixels, fills in the missing data, and leaves the uncorrupted pixels intact so as to preserve the details of a terrain map. Our extensive indoor and outdoor mapping experiments show the CAS filter's superior performance in erroneous data reduction and map detail preservation over conventional filters. View full abstract»

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  • Online terrain parameter estimation for wheeled mobile robots with application to planetary rovers

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 921 - 927
    Cited by:  Papers (61)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Future planetary exploration missions will require wheeled mobile robots ("rovers") to traverse very rough terrain with limited human supervision. Wheel-terrain interaction plays a critical role in rough-terrain mobility. In this paper, an online estimation method that identifies key terrain parameters using on-board robot sensors is presented. These parameters can be used for traversability prediction or in a traction control algorithm to improve robot mobility and to plan safe action plans for autonomous systems. Terrain parameters are also valuable indicators of planetary surface soil composition. The algorithm relies on a simplified form of classical terramechanics equations and uses a linear-least squares method to compute terrain parameters in real time. Simulation and experimental results show that the terrain estimation algorithm can accurately and efficiently identify key terrain parameters for various soil types. View full abstract»

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  • Celebrating the vitality of technology the Proceedings of the IEEE

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 928
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  • IEEE Robotics and Automation Society Information

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c3
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  • IEEE Transactions on Robotics Information for authors

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c4
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Robotics covers both theory and applications on topics including: kinematics, dynamics, control, and simulation of robots and intelligent machines and systems.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Frank Park
Seoul National University