Proceedings [1990] 31st Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science

22-24 Oct. 1990

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 92
  • Algebraic methods for interactive proof systems

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):2 - 10 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (45)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (655 KB)

    An algebraic technique for the construction of interactive proof systems is proposed. The technique is used to prove that every language in the polynomial-time hierarchy has an interactive proof system. For the proof, a method is developed for reducing the problem of verifying the value of a low-degree polynomial at two points to verifying the value at one new point. The results have implications ... View full abstract»

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  • IP=PSPACE (interactive proof=polynomial space)

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):11 - 15 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (422 KB)

    It is proved that, when both randomization and interaction are allowed, the proofs that can be verified in polynomial time are exactly those proofs that can be generated with polynomial space. The interactive proofs introduced use only public coins, are accepted with probability one when the prover is honest, require only logarithmic workspace when the verifier is given a two-way access to his or ... View full abstract»

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  • Nondeterministic exponential time has two-prover interactive protocols

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):16 - 25 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (889 KB)

    The exact power of two-prover interactive proof systems (MIP) introduced by M. Ben-Or et al. (Proc. 20th Symp. on Theory of Computing, 1988, p.113-31) is determined. In this system, two all-powerful noncommunicating provers convince a randomizing polynomial-time verifier in polynomial time that the input x belongs to the language L. It was previously suspected (and proved in a relativized sense) t... View full abstract»

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  • A characterization of Hash P by arithmetic straight line programs

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):26 - 34 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (694 KB)

    Hash P functions are characterized by certain straight-line programs of multivariate polynomials. The power of this characterization is illustrated by a number of consequences. These include a somewhat simplified proof of S. Toda's (1989) theorem that PH contained in P/sup Hash P/, as well as an infinite class of potentially inequivalent checkable functions.<<ETX>> View full abstract»

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  • Perfectly secure message transmission

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):36 - 45 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (978 KB)

    The problem of perfectly secure communication in a general network in which processors and communication lines may be faulty is studied. Lower bounds are obtained on the connectivity required for successful secure communication. Efficient algorithms that operate with this connectivity and rely on no complexity theoretic assumptions are derived. These are the first algorithms for secure communicati... View full abstract»

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  • Coin-flipping games immune against linear-sized coalitions

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):46 - 54 vol.q
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (576 KB)

    It is proved that for every c<1 there are perfect-information coin-flipping and leader-election games on n players in which no coalition of cn players can influence the outcome with probability greater than some universal constant times c. It is shown that a random protocol of a certain length has this property, and an explicit construction is given as well.<<ETX>> View full abstract»

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  • Are wait-free algorithms fast?

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):55 - 64 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (831 KB)

    The time complexity of wait-free algorithms in so-called normal executions, where no failures occur and processes operate at approximately the same speed, is considered. A lower bound of log n on the time complexity of any wait-free algorithm that achieves approximate agreement among n processes is proved. In contrast, there exists a non-wait-free algorithm that solves this problem in constant tim... View full abstract»

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  • A dining philosophers algorithm with polynomial response time

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):65 - 74 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (962 KB)

    Presents an efficient distributed online algorithm for scheduling jobs that are created dynamically, subject to resource constraints that require that certain pairs of jobs not run concurrently. The focus is on the response time of the system to each job, i.e. the length of the time interval that starts when the job is created or assigned to a processor and ends at the instant the execution of the... View full abstract»

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  • An approach for proving lower bounds: solution of Gilbert-Pollak's conjecture on Steiner ratio

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):76 - 85 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (758 KB)

    A family of finitely many continuous functions on a polytope X, namely (g/sub i/(x))/sub i in I/, is considered, and the problem of minimizing the function f(x)=max/sub i in I/g/sub i/(x) on X is treated. It is shown that if every g/sub i/(x) is a concave function, then the minimum value of f(x) is achieved at finitely many special points in X. As an application, a long-standing problem about Stei... View full abstract»

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  • Drawing graphs in the plane with high resolution

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):86 - 95 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (700 KB)

    The problem of drawing a graph in the plane so that edges appear as straight lines and the minimum angle formed by any pair of incident edges is maximized is studied. The resolution of a layout is defined to be the size of the minimum angle formed by incident edges of the graph, and the resolution of a graph is defined to be the maximum resolution of any layout of the graph. The resolution R of a ... View full abstract»

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  • New results on dynamic planar point location

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):96 - 105 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (869 KB)

    A point location scheme is presented for an n-vertex dynamic planar subdivision whose underlying graph is only required to be connected. The scheme uses O(n) space and yields an O(log/sup 2/n) query time and an O(log n) update time. Insertion (respectively, deletion) of an arbitrary k-edge chain inside a region can be performed in O(k log(n+k)) (respectively, O(k log n)) time. The scheme is then e... View full abstract»

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  • The computability and complexity of optical beam tracing

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):106 - 114 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (683 KB)

    The ray-tracing problem is considered for optical systems consisting of a set of refractive or reflective surfaces. It is assumed that the position and the tangent of the incident angle of the initial light ray are rational. The computability and complexity of the ray-tracing problems are investigated for various optical models. The results show that, depending on the optical model, ray tracing is... View full abstract»

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  • Approximate string matching in sublinear expected time

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):116 - 124 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (851 KB)

    The k differences approximate string matching problem specifies a text string of length n, a pattern string of length m, and the number k of differences (insertions, deletions, substitutions) allowed in a match, and asks for every location in the text where a match occurs. Previous algorithms required at least O(nk) time. When k is as large as a fraction of m, no substantial progress has been made... View full abstract»

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  • Towards a DNA sequencing theory (learning a string)

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):125 - 134 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (757 KB)

    Mathematical frameworks suitable for massive automated DNA sequencing and for analyzing DNA sequencing algorithms are studied under plausible assumptions. The DNA sequencing problem is modeled as learning a superstring from its randomly drawn substrings. Under certain restrictions, this may be viewed as learning a superstring in L.G. Valiant's (1984) learning model, and in this case the author giv... View full abstract»

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  • On the exact complexity of string matching

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):135 - 144 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (923 KB)

    The maximal number of character comparisons made by a linear-time string matching algorithm, given a text string of length n and a pattern string of length m over a general alphabet, is investigated. The number is denoted by c(n,m) or approximated by (1+C)n, where C is a universal constant. The subscript 'online' is added when attention is restricted to online algorithms, and the superscript '1' i... View full abstract»

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  • Faster tree pattern matching

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):145 - 150 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (399 KB)

    Recently, R. Kosaraju (Proc. 30th IEEE Symp. on Foundations of Computer Science, 1989, p.178-83) gave an O(nm/sup 0.75/ polylog(m))-step algorithm for tree pattern matching. The authors improve this result by designing a simple O(n square root m polylog (m)) algorithm.<<ETX>> View full abstract»

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  • Specified precision polynomial root isolation is in NC

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):152 - 162 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (692 KB)

    Given a polynomial p(z) od degree n with integer coefficients, whose absolute values are bounded above by 2/sup m/, and a specified integer mu , it is shown that the problem of determining all roots of p with error less than 2/sup - mu / is in the parallel complexity class NC. To do this, an algorithm that runs on at most POLY(n+m+ mu ) processors with a parallel time complexity of O(log/sup 3/(n+... View full abstract»

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  • A tree-partitioning technique with applications to expression evaluation and term matching

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):163 - 172 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (767 KB)

    A tree-partitioning technique is proposed and applied to expression evaluation and term matching. It was shown recently that the problem of evaluating an arithmetic expression is in NC/sup 1/, and an O(log N)-depth, O(N/sup 2/ log N)-size circuit for this problem was described. The size is reduced to O(N log/sup k/ N) while O(log N) depth is maintained. An O(log N)-time, O(N)-processor CREW (concu... View full abstract»

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  • Efficient parallel algorithms for tree-decomposition and related problems

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):173 - 182 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (839 KB)

    An efficient parallel algorithm for the tree-decomposition problem for fixed width w is presented. The algorithm runs in time O(log/sup 3/ n) and uses O(n) processors on a concurrent-read, concurrent-write parallel random access machine (CRCW PRAM). This result can be used to construct efficient parallel algorithms for three important classes of problems: MS (monadic second-order) properties, line... View full abstract»

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  • Learning conjunctions of Horn clauses

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):186 - 192 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (594 KB)

    An algorithm for learning the class of Boolean formulas that are expressible as conjunctions of Horn clauses is presented. (A Horn clause is a disjunction of literals, all but at most one of which is a negated variable). The algorithm uses equivalence queries and membership queries to produce a formula that is logically equivalent to the unknown formula to be learned. The amount of time used by th... View full abstract»

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  • Exact identification of circuits using fixed points of amplification functions

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):193 - 202 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1096 KB)

    A technique for exactly identifying certain classes of read-once Boolean formulas is introduced. The method is based on sampling the input-output behavior of the target formula on a probability distribution which is determined by the fixed point of the formula's amplification function (defined as the probability that a 1 is output by the formula when each input bit is 1 independently with probabil... View full abstract»

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  • On the complexity of learning from counterexamples and membership queries

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):203 - 210 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (626 KB)

    It is shown that for any concept class C the number of equivalence and membership queries that are needed to learn C is bounded from below by Omega (VC-dimension(C)). Furthermore, it is shown that the required number of equivalence and membership queries is also bounded from below by Omega (LC-ARB(C)/log(1+LC-ARB(C))), where LC-ARB(C) is the required number of steps in a different model where no m... View full abstract»

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  • Separating distribution-free and mistake-bound learning models over the Boolean domain

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):211 - 218 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (688 KB)

    Two of the most commonly used models in computational learning theory are the distribution-free model, in which examples are chosen from a fixed but arbitrary distribution, and the absolute mistake-bound model, in which examples are presented in order by an adversary. Over the Boolean domain View full abstract»

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  • Triangulating a simple polygon in linear time

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):220 - 230 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1162 KB)

    A linear-time deterministic algorithm for triangulating a simple polygon is developed. The algorithm is elementary in that it does not require the use of any complicated data structures; in particular, it does not need dynamic search trees, finger trees, or fancy point location structures.<<ETX>> View full abstract»

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  • Provably good mesh generation

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):231 - 241 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (20)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1028 KB)

    Several versions of the problem of generating triangular meshes for finite-element methods are studied. It is shown how to triangulate a planar point set or a polygonally bounded domain with triangles of bounded aspect ratio, how to triangulate a planar point set with triangles having no obtuse angles, how to triangulate a point set in arbitrary dimension with simplices of bounded aspect ratio, an... View full abstract»

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