By Topic

Plasma Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1  Part 2 • Date Feb. 2004

 This issue contains several parts.Go to:  Part 1  | Part 3 

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 15 of 15
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (32 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science publication information

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (36 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Guest Editorial The Second Special Issue of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE on “Pseudospark Physics and Applications”

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 189 - 190
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (64 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  
    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Increase of the breakdown voltage of a pseudospark discharge by applying a blocking potential

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 191 - 195
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Investigations of the static breakdown voltage in dependence of the gas pressure for a pseudospark (PS) discharge with an additional blocking electrode are presented. Experiments by variation of the position and geometry of the blocking electrode in the hollow cathode of PS and the applied blocking potential were performed. With respect to the potential use of a hollow-cathode-based gas discharge as source of extreme-ultraviolet radiation for future lithography, xenon as working gas has been used. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Experiments with a radial multichannel pseudospark switch for extremely high Coulomb transfer

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 196 - 202
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Radial multichannel pseudospark switches for extremely high-charge transfer were designed, constructed, and tested. The characteristics of the switches were measured for different electrode geometries and materials in hydrogen and helium as function of gas pressure. The switches were operated in a 100 kJ capacitor bank and conducted an effective charge up to 31 C. A sealed-off radial multichannel pseudospark switch was also manufactured and tested with a 300 kJ capacitor bank. The switch was successfully tested up to 105 kA peak current and 78 C charge transfer. The experimental results demonstrated that a radial multichannel pseudospark switch with SiC electrodes and triggered by a high dielectric trigger has the capability of extremely high charge transfer under pulsed operation. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Minimization of impedance fluctuations in cold-cathode pseudospark switches (PSS)

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 203 - 207
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The pseudospark discharge is characterized as a low-pressure gas discharge located on the left branch of the Paschen curve. Based on this discharge, a family of fast gas discharge closing switches for pulsed-power applications have been developed at Erlangen for more than 10 years. Due to the similarity to thyratrons, however, without having a hot cathode, the pseudospark devices are often described in literature as cold-cathode thyratron. The main features of a pseudospark switch are a high current rise closed to 1012 A/s, the ability to carry reverse currents up to 100% and a high lifetime. The cold cathode also reduces the required standby power one magnitude lower than in thyratrons. On the other hand, especially at low-peak currents, undesired phenomena appear by the physics of the cold cathode. Current quenching, chopping, and impedance fluctuations are problems which occur at currents in the range of a few kiloamperes. Especially, the impedance fluctuations cause pulse-to-pulse fluctuations of the energy transferred to the load which could influence, i.e., the output energy of a laser system. For reducing this described problem of impedance fluctuations the dependencies of the geometry and material are investigated. With use of tungsten compound electrodes, this behavior of a cold cathode could be reduced significantly. This material shows also an improved reignition behavior after current zero. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Fundamental investigation in two flashover-based trigger methods for low-pressure gas discharge switches

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 208 - 214
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Modern switches for pulse-power technology have special requirements such as long lifetime, reliability in a wide pressure and voltage range, as well as small delay time. In order to meet these requirements, two trigger methods were developed and examined. These two different trigger methods based on a flashover were tested for the emission behavior by variation of different parameters. The first configuration is a semiconductor surface flashover trigger, where electron emission is based on a surface flashover between the contact area of a copper spring and a carbide cylinder. The second trigger concept is the high-dielectric trigger, where electrons are released by the field emission effect at the transition between metal-vacuum and dielectric. For this system, high dielectric materials with dielectric constants in the order of 2000 are available. The electrical and optical measurements of both trigger systems were done in a modular structured vacuum chamber. For lower pressure, the high-dielectric trigger shows better performances and higher emitted charge of the electron emission within all adjusted parameters like gas pressure, applied voltage, and different wirings. In addition to the higher emitted charge, the emitted electrons from the high-dielectric material have higher energies. For the lifetime characteristic, the high-dielectric trigger shows lifetimes much higher than 100 million discharges. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The influence of an external permanent magnetic field on the dynamics of plasma channels in a radial pseudospark switch

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 215 - 220
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (376 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    High-current gas discharges can reach current densities of 108 A/cm2 in order of magnitude and, therefore, damage the electrodes of nearly all types of low-pressure gas discharge switches. In pseudospark switches with radial geometry, the total current is divided by the number of radial channels and so the current per channel is strongly reduced. However, because of electromagnetic forces the plasma channels attract themselves and pinch together already in the first maximum of the switching current. Therefore, the main advantage of the radial pseudospark switch, the division of the total current, is lost. In this paper, a basic idea of how this movement of the plasma channels can be suppressed, will be introduced. Strong permanent magnets of different types (polarization Bx of type A: 0.48 T; type B: 1.31 T; and type C: 1.88 T) are attached to the pseudospark switch near the bores of the hollow cathode. The most effective way to apply the magnets was to put them face to face with the bores of the hollow cathode with the center line of the bores and the cylindric magnets coinciding. In this case, the magnetic field looks like a magnetic bottle viewed along the charge carriers path. The magnetic fields capture the plasma channels for a short time and so the pinch effect is delayed until the first maximum of current is over. The investigated pseudospark switch was a radial switch with three channels. The charging voltage was 10 kV and the discharge capacity was 2.2 μF, resulting in a total discharge current of 40 kA, respectively, 13.3 kA per channel. In the switch under consideration, the pinching is fulfilled after 800 ns when no magnets are applied. The smallest possible distance between the front of the magnet and the end of the discharge channel was 2 mm. The strength of the magnetic field in this distance with magnets of type A, B, and C was 390, 1065, and 1525 mT, respectively, and the pinching was delayed for 400, 2000, and 1600 ns, accordingly. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Experimental observations of the virtual anode motion and streamer breakdown mechanisms in a pseudospark discharge

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 221 - 226
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (232 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A pseudospark (PS) discharge or transient hollow-cathode discharge is a high-voltage low-pressure discharge, which is characterized by the cathode being hollow and the cathode's interior connected to the anode-cathode (A-K) gap by a hole in the center of the cathode. Some initial electron emission from the cathode region is the starting point of the different ionization processes occurring in the subsequent phases until the final breakdown. These initial electrons create an avalanche of charged particles whose tail is constituted by ions, meanwhile the head is essentially formed by electrons. An avalanche moving from the cathode toward the anode establishes physical conditions in order to create a virtual anode into the A-K region. Successive avalanches produced by spontaneous electron emission at the cathode, secondary electron emission due to ion impact in the cathode, or impact of the ionized particles with the residual gas, give access to the virtual anode arrives to the cathode leading the final electrical breakdown. During breakdown, electron and ion beam activities are present as consequence of the precedent ionization processes. In this paper, we present experimental observations of the moving virtual anode as well as the ion and electron beams emitted from a PS discharge for seven different gas pressures. The experiments were performed in hydrogen at a pressure of between 10 and 70 Pa, with a cathode aperture of 5 mm. A pulsed-charged capacitor scheme is used to produce up to a 30 kV step across the electrodes. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Time-resolved spectroscopic characterization of the pseudospark-discharge plasma

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 227 - 232
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (296 KB)  

    The high-current discharge in a pseudospark geometry can be subdivided in several phases. While the first and the last ones are well understood, the plasma parameters as well as the current carrying mechanisms of the phases in between are still subject of investigations. Different temporally resolved spectroscopic measurements of the localized copper vapor plasma were performed. The electron densities, measured by Stark broadening of the H-β line, are between 1414 and 1016 cm-3. The electron temperature was determined by the intensity ratio of atomic to ionic copper lines. It was taken into account that the plasma was not in local thermal equilibrium. Estimations of the main equilibrium and nonequilibrium processes allowed to correct the measured temperature values. During the bore-hole phase, the corrected temperatures are between 1.5 and 2.5 eV. During later phases, the discharge plasma is self absorbing and less reproducible for the plasma parameters to be determined. The plasma parameters indicate that the current between the localized copper plasma sheet and the cathode is mainly carried by positive ions. Electron emission is mainly caused by ion impact and is only of inferior significance for the current balance. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Pseudospark experiments: Cherenkov interaction and electron beam post-acceleration

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 233 - 239
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Pseudospark (PS) discharge experiments to generate high-brightness electron beams have been carried out at the Strathclyde University, Glasgow, U.K. The PS-sourced electron beam has two phases, an initial 22-kV, 50-A hollow-cathode phase (HCP) beam of brightness 109-10 Am-2 rad-2 followed by a 200-V, 200-A conductive phase (CP) beam of brightness 1011-12 Am-2 rad-2. The initial HCP beam from an eight-gap PS discharge was applied for the first time in a Cherenkov interaction between the electron beam and the TM01 mode of a 60-cm long alumina-lined waveguide. A gain of 29±3 dB was measured and an output power of 2±0.2 kW in the frequency range 25.5-28.6 GHz. Another experiment was focused on the study of the propagation and post-acceleration of the CP beam from a three-gap PS discharge chamber. The beam was successfully accelerated from about 200 V to more than 40 kV. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Frequency scaling in a hollow-cathode-triggered pinch plasma as radiation source in the extreme ultraviolet

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 240 - 246
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB)  

    The hollow-cathode triggered discharge extreme ultraviolet source is based on the same principle as pseudospark switches. The electrode geometry consists of a planar anode and cathode with central opposing holes, the one on the cathode side being connected to the hollow cathode. Radiation is generated by magnetic compression of the working gas under high-current operation. Essential for the operation is that the pressure and voltage are chosen to be on the left side of the Paschen curve to insure insulation of the gap between the electrodes. However, this insulation of the electrode system needs to be reinstalled after breakdown. Typical recovery times of a xenon-based system are down to 100 μs, depending on the electrode geometry. It will be shown that the decay of the electron density in the hollow cathode is the limiting process. Investigation of the recovery mechanism has led to a design that allows operation above 4 kHz which is close to the required frequency for extreme ultraviolet lithography. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • IEEE Member Digital Library [advertisement]

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 247
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (178 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Proceedings of the IEEE celebrating 92 years of in-depth coverage on emerging technologies

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 248
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (319 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science Information for authors

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (34 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Plasma Sciences focuses on plasma science and engineering, including: magnetofluid dynamics and thermionics; plasma dynamics; gaseous electronics and arc technology.

 

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Steven J. Gitomer, Ph.D.
Senior Scientist, US Civilian Research & Development Foundation
Guest Scientist, Los Alamos National Laboratory
1428 Miracerros Loop South
Santa Fe, NM  87505  87505  USA
tps-editor@ieee.org
Phone:505-988-5751
Fax:505-988-5751 (call first)