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Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date Jun 1991

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Displaying Results 1 - 23 of 23
  • A comparison of metal-in-elastomer connectors: the influence of structure on mechanical and electrical performance

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 342 - 351
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (936 KB)  

    Types A, B, and C metal-in-elastomer connectors are compared, and their electrical performance is explained as a function of the physical dimensions, structure, and materials properties. The type A connector consists of a translucent silicone rubber-based elastometric matrix with spherical conductive particles prealigned within the elastomer in the z-direction. The type B connector is composed of a transparent elastometric matrix with straight wires aligned in the z-direction with a total thickness of about 0.0195 in. The type C connector has a square pattern of bundles of curved Au/Ni plated stainless steel wires embedded in a transparent elastometric matrix. The testing was done using a board-to-board application scenario. Some of the observations are general and may be applicable to other systems, chip to package, flexible circuit to board, etc. The understanding of the structure performance correlation enables interconnection system designers to consider possible malfunction causes and failure models View full abstract»

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  • Representation of thermal behavior of electronic components for the creation of a databank

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 366 - 373
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (660 KB)  

    Estimating the temperatures reached by integrated circuit chips using properties supplied by the manufacturer is not very accurate, given the reliability requirements of electronic systems. In order to remedy the lack of information a component databank is being set up. It is shown that using a more complex thermal network makes it possible to accurately represent the thermal behavior of components in the various possible cooling modes. The physical composition (dimensions, type of molding epoxy, etc.) of a given package can vary widely according to its origin, even when produced by the same manufacturer, since the specifications for these parameters are very broad or nonexistent. The degree of influence of each of these parameters is shown. A procedure to evaluate chip temperature with a reasonable margin of safety has been developed View full abstract»

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  • A model for sheet resistivity of RuO2 thick film resistors

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 396 - 406
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1112 KB)  

    Considerations of microstructure composition relationships led to the conclusion that RuO2-based thick-film resistors can have five different types of microstructure for different ranges of the volume fraction of RuO2(Vc). A theoretical value consistent with the microstructure was developed to predict the sheet resistivity as a function of Vc and particle sizes of RuO2 and glass for the range 0.032< Vc<0.24. Experimental data are presented for two resistor systems containing the same RuO2 but different glass compositions. The sheet resistivities for the two resistor systems were similar at high values of Vc but differed by three orders of magnitude at low values of Vc. The two glasses had the same viscosity at the firing temperature, but the solubility of RuO2 was significantly different in the two glasses. The theoretical loading curve model was in excellent agreement with experimental results from the system using the glass with high RuO 2 solubility, but has not as yet been extended to the other system View full abstract»

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  • Erosion of silver-base material contacts by breaking arcs

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 293 - 297
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (436 KB)  

    The mechanisms of material erosion of Ag-base material contacts caused by breaking arcs up to several hundred amperes are studied. The experiments breaking AC and half-wave sinusoidal current were carried out. The factors influencing the contact erosion are analyzed; it is suggested that the electrode erosion should be the result of the heat force effects among arc, electrodes, and environment. The main cause of obvious material transfer is the asymmetry of the heat force effects at two electrodes. It is indicated that there are two forms of liquid ejection: edge ejection and center ejection. The erosion modes are divided into several different modes, and each is detailed. A mode diagram is given, and the erosion features of Ag-base materials are described View full abstract»

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  • Electronic packaging in the 1990s-a perspective from America

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 262 - 271
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (752 KB)  

    The author reviews current packaging technologies. He starts with the packaging environment in the US, then projects the system requirements into the year 2000 and reviews the base packaging technologies currently in use from consumer electronics to mainframe computers. He ends with projected advanced packaging in all the key technologies: chip-level connections, power distribution, and heat removal from the chip, first-level single-chip and multichip packages, package-to-board interconnections, and second-level packages View full abstract»

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  • Fretting in Ni-coated aluminum conductors

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 327 - 336
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1188 KB)  

    The degradation of nickel-coated aluminum conductors in contact with aluminum, copper, nickel, and tin under fretting conditions has been studied. In addition to contact resistance measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray fluorescence (EDX) analysis were used to study the process involved. The fretting tests were carried out with a simulated connector configuration at a frequency of oscillation of 1 Hz and contact loads of 2 and 10 N. The effects of fretting slip amplitude, contact load, and lubrication were evaluated. The results showed that fretting adversely affects the contact resistance of nickel-coated aluminum conductors, which shows a rapid increase and substantial fluctuations with fretting time. The effects of fretting were reduced to some extent by decreasing the slip amplitude and increasing the contact load and lubrication. SEM and EDX analysis revealed that considerable damage of the contact zones resulted from the fretting action and substantial exchange of material occurred in nonlubricated joints View full abstract»

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  • Electronic packaging in the 1990s-a perspective from Asia

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 254 - 261
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (760 KB)  

    The present status and future trends in electronic packaging technologies are reviewed. Advanced modules packaged with these technologies are shown in three major applications: switching systems, transmission systems, and computer systems. Outlined are VLSI chip interconnection by the tape automated bonding (TAB) method; bump bonding; fine-pitch ceramic flat package suitable for single-chip packaging; multichip packaging using a copper-polyimide substrate for high-speed signal transmission; high-density multilayer printed circuit boards and glass ceramic boards for second-level packaging; and advanced cooling systems View full abstract»

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  • The `melting' voltage in electrical contacts

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 285 - 292
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (624 KB)  

    In some electrical contacts, equilibrium between heat generation and dissipation is never attained beyond a threshold temperature. At this temperature, the rate of thermal dissipation by conduction through the solid decays too rapidly with increasing temperature, leading to heat entrapment. The heat accumulation causes rapid contact melting at a potential drop across the contact appreciably smaller than the conventional melting voltage. The author reports on an investigation of the melting voltage in Fe/Fe, Ni/Ni, and W/W electrical contacts where the thermal runaway effect mentioned above is expected. In agreement with earlier work, the melting voltage for Fe/Fe couples is found to be smaller than the value predicted by the conventional voltage-temperature relation. Similarly, Ni/Ni contacts melt at a low potential drop. However, melting is not observed by W/W contacts at contact temperatures as elevated as 890°C. This is contrary to the prediction of the theory that accounts successfully for the melting of Fe and Ni contacts. The reasons for this discrepancy with theory are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Investigation on enhancement of copper ball bonds during thermal cycle testing

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 392 - 395
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (276 KB)  

    Copper ball bond failures of resin molded ICs during thermal cycle test are found to be caused by crack propagation along coarse grain boundaries in the roots of balls. An investigation of the critical grain size leading to the wire break in the roots of ball bonds during thermal cycle and of the ball-forming conditions to obtain a grain size of less than the critical value is discussed. Grain size less than 10 μm in the roots of balls is essential to enhance the reliability of ball bonds. The appropriate grain size is obtained if the optimum bonding condition is employed View full abstract»

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  • Transmission of voltage signals through serially connected relay contacts

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 337 - 341
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    When more than one switching contact in series transmits electric signals, the high-resistance tail of the contact resistance distribution function has an influence on the voltage fall statistics of the contact series. Due to this effect, the reduction of voltage-fall on the receiver can result in reduced reliability of its operation. When the behavior of contact series is concerned, some characteristics of contact contamination can be distinguished from statistical treatment of transmitted voltage, measured on the load resistor. Voltage fall statistics of a multicontact system, when assuming Weibull distribution function of contact resistance for individual contact, were derived from basic probability analysis for nominally clean contacts. It can be helpful in the research of contaminated contacts with non-Weibull statistics in order to recognize some contact surface phenomena View full abstract»

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  • The effectiveness of silicone gels for corrosion prevention of silicon circuits: the final report of the IEEE Computer Society Computer Packaging Committee Special Task Force

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 352 - 365
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1480 KB)  

    The results of a three-year task force effort to determine if silicone gels can provide sufficient reliability protection to justify their use in commercial and military electronics packaging applications are presented. The types of gels tested included a gel from Shin-Etsu, an Amicon gel, several Petrarch gel formulations, and a Dow Corning gel. The results indicate that the performance might be dependent on the application methods as much as the selection of gel types View full abstract»

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  • Wipe on various lubricants and nonlubricated electric contacts in dusty environments

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 309 - 314
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    In wiping on a nonlubricated dusty electric contact surface, a trapping effect was found which showed that when the length of wipe was comparable to the size of the dust particles, there could be serious contact failure. When the dust particle size was within the upper limit of the hazardous size range, the number of contact failures could be reduced if the sliding length was long enough. In wiping on various lubricated surfaces, the permittivity and state of the lubricants played a major role in the performance. Wax lubricants seemed to be the worst, and this is thought to be mainly due to the effect of permittivity and the physical state of the lubricants. It is suggested that the size of the particles and the trapping effect also contributed to failure. Liquid lubricants with lower permittivity were found to give much better contact behavior in dusty environments View full abstract»

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  • Metal oxide on the surface of contacts having excellent contact performance

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 304 - 308
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (488 KB)  

    Ammonium sulfate was found on the speech path contacts of XS type crossbar switches in the electronic switching systems of NTT when the contact failures occurred. On the basis of this finding, the contacts of 99%Au-1%Ni alloy in contact with Pd were developed for the push button dial contacts of telephone sets. These contacts maintain excellent contact performance. This development was based on the hypothesis that some metal oxides preserve the contact performance from the contact failures due to air pollution. A mechanism for the occurrence of contact failure by air pollution is proposed, and some experiments on the surface characteristics of 99%Au-1%Ni alloy, which support the verification of the mechanism, are described View full abstract»

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  • Effects of thin-film spin-on glass dielectric loss on the performance of the uniformly distributed RC notch network

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 413 - 419
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (576 KB)  

    The influence of dielectric loss on the performance of the thin-film uniformly distributed RC notch network is considered on a theoretical and experimental basis. Dielectric loss is shown to have a significant effect on the network's notch tuning frequency and the magnitude of the notch tuning resistance. An open-circuit voltage transfer function which includes a frequency-dependent dielectric loss parameter is analyzed. Double precision computed results for the first-order and higher order notch tuning frequency and notch resistance values as a function of the dielectric loss parameter are presented. The application of a proposed dielectric loss compensation technique significantly reconciles the differences between the theoretical and experimental results measured from RC notch networks fabricated with a VLSI interlevel silicon dioxide spin-on glass planarizing dielectric View full abstract»

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  • An experimental investigation of contact bounce in medium duty contacts

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 319 - 326
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (592 KB)  

    An investigation of the parameters influencing the dynamics of electrical contact bounce under medium current loading (1-30 A) was carried out. A new measurement system which offers an improvement in the monitoring of mechanism dynamics is presented. The system is based on the measurement of small impact displacements using an infrared optical method. In addition, the measurement of impact forces has been achieved using a piezoelectric film (PVDF). The results show the effect of current loading and the associated thermal softening on the impact and the separation characteristics occurring during contact bounce View full abstract»

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  • A new bonding technology using gold and tin multilayer composite structures

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 407 - 412
    Cited by:  Papers (45)  |  Patents (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (696 KB)  

    A bonding technology which utilizes chromium, gold, and tin and gold deposited directly on the backside of a device die to form a multilayer composite is reported. The substrate accepting the die is coated with chromium and gold layers. The die and the substrate are brought into contact and heated to 310-320 °C. Due to the unique feature of the gold-tin alloy system, the tin layer melts first and dissolves the gold layers of the composite to produce a solution mixed with solid, which in turn would dissolve a portion of the gold layer on the substrate to develop a near eutectic bonding. In the composite, since the tin layer is protected by an outer gold layer in the same vacuum cycle, tin oxidation, which is a major cause of difficulty in achieving quality bondings, is reduced. This technology thus eliminates the requirement of preforms, prevents tin oxidation, and provides precise control of the bonding thickness. Results of bonding 4-mm by 4-mm GaAs dice on alumina substrates show that high-quality bondings are obtained as determined by a scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) View full abstract»

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  • Electronic packaging in the 1990s: the perspective from Europe

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 272 - 284
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1088 KB)  

    Electronics packaging and interconnection technologies for mainframe computers are reviewed and predictions about the development of packaging systems beyond 1995 are made. Types of packages, their assembly, wiring board technology, microwiring substrates, polyimide-copper substrates, thin-film technologies, multilayer ceramic technology, printed circuit boards, cooling technology, packaging systems, and European activities are reviewed. These include the RISH project, ESPRIT program, the national microelectronics program (NMP), the APACHIP project, the JESSI program, and the packaging project View full abstract»

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  • Residual carbon in CuCr contact materials

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 386 - 391
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (620 KB)  

    The role of carbothermic reduction in making low oxygen CuCr contact materials with high oxygen Cr powder is summarized. Experimental results show that with the help of carbothermic reduction, the total oxygen in Cu50/Cr50 alloys made from high oxygen Cr powder (up to 5000 p.p.m.) is less than 100 p.p.m.. The influence of residual carbon in the CuCr alloys on their dielectric strength and antiwelding property is studied. It is concluded that: (1) carbothermic reduction is a very useful method to make low oxygen CuCr contact materials with high oxygen Cr powder; (2) the effect of carbothermic reduction depends mainly on sintering temperature and Cr particle size; (3) carbon exists as Cr23C6 carbide in CuCr; (4) 1.8-wt.% C in CuCr alloys will increase dielectric strength of the alloys at high temperature; (5) 1 .8-wt.% C in CuCr alloys will much improve the antiwelding property of the alloys View full abstract»

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  • Electrode temperature dependency on arc and erosion in electric contacts

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 315 - 318
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (236 KB)  

    Findings on the relationship between arc and erosion or transfer in switching contact are summarized, with special attention to the role of electrode temperature. In order to apply these findings to design of electric contact, experimental comparison of axisymmetric bar contact and cross bar contact was carried out for Ag, Pd, and their alloy contacts. In this comparison, the similar erosion characteristics at different contact current appeared for each type of contact. The authors suggest that this difference may stem from the difference of thermal flow characteristic between the two types of contacts View full abstract»

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  • Experimental techniques for electrical testing of microelectronics coatings

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 428 - 435
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (712 KB)  

    Triple-track and interdigitated comb patterns used in testing of encapsulated microelectronic circuits are considered. The tests involved high-resistance DC measurements; e.g. applying 10-200-V DC and measuring currents in the 0.1-10-pA range. At these resistance levels, shunt impedances, arising from a variety of sources, have an impact on results. Without careful experimental design, one encounters artifacts that have nothing to do with the circuit/specimen under test. The authors detail proper experimental design, together with practical tests for artifacts. Both bulk- and interphase-resistance measurements are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Static gap erosion of Ag-CdO electrodes

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 374 - 385
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1008 KB)  

    The arc erosion behavior of Ag-CdO electrodes has been investigated by static gap discharge experiments. By recording the breakdown voltage of each discharge, and thus the interelectrode gap distance, the erosion depth was continuously monitored. Based on the experimental data and a simple model, the mechanisms of erosion at different levels of arc energy were identified. When struck by low-energy arcs, the electrode erosion was found to be mainly due to vaporization, but when struck by high-energy arcs the electrode erosion was by melting and ablation. The efficiency of erosion was estimated to be 0.003 to 0.009, which suggests that most of the arc energy is dissipated in the interelectrode atmosphere and by conduction into the electrodes, and that only a small fraction of the arc energy actually causes electrode erosion View full abstract»

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  • Make erosion on Ag/SnO2 and Ag/CdO contacts in commercial contactors

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 298 - 303
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (516 KB)  

    This paper is a continuation of previous investigations of the different arc erosion of contacts made from Ag/CdO or Ag/SnO2 when stressed according to IEC duties AC3 and AC4, respectively. While preceding studies dealt with break erosion, this work considers contact bounce and make erosion only. Preliminary measurements showed that the bounce amplitudes of modern contactors are merely on the order of 0.1 mm. Under these conditions Ag/SnO2 suffered two to three times higher arc erosion losses at make than Ag/CdO did. The influence of various parameters was studied in order to obtain better insight into the erosion mechanism View full abstract»

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  • Polymer-coated microelectronics: comparison of bulk, surface, and interphase conductivities

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 420 - 427
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (724 KB)  

    DC conductivity measurements were made at 22 °C using three test set ups. The first probed surface conductivity of specimens equilibrated with dry N2, and with N2 saturated with water, methanol, ethanol, or isopropanol. Experiments were performed on interdigitated comb specimens with 140-μm wide aluminum metallization lines separated by 140 μm on quartz substrates. In the second set up, comb specimens were coated with commercial siloxane polymers. Electrical measurements made on these samples reflect interphase conductivity, influenced both by bulk conductivity and by specific interactions within the polymer-substrate interphase region. The third set up measured bulk (i.e., volume) conductivity of dry polysiloxane and of polysiloxane equilibrated with water, methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transaction ceased production in 1993. The current publication is titled IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology.

Full Aims & Scope