IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement

Volume 40 Issue 3 • Jun 1991

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 28
  • Improving the velocity sensing resolution of pulse encoders by FIR prediction

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):657 - 658
    Cited by:  Papers (46)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (176 KB)

    An FIR (finite impulse response) predictor based approach is presented to increase the highest possible velocity sampling rate of a cycle-length measuring based velocity feedback system. The proposed method improves the slow-speed characteristics of optical pulse encoders in applications where the angular velocities down to about 0.5 RPM are of interest. The proposed principle works well in elevat... View full abstract»

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  • A simple programmable frequency meter for low frequencies with known nominal values

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):640 - 642
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (244 KB)

    A meter which can be used to measure instantaneously the frequencies of various signals, such as power line frequencies, heart rates, and motor speeds, by only choosing the proper clock and nominal frequencies is described. The technique is based on using an up/down counter operating in the down mode only, resulting in minimum timing signals. Thus the meter is designed with a minimum number of dig... View full abstract»

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  • An integrated digital motion control unit

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):654 - 657
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB)

    A digital motion control system is presented with primary applications in automatic elevator doors. Digital signal processing methods are used for generating exponential waveforms for the drive motor. The unit keeps track of the actual speed of motion and the corresponding door position. Thus the time consumed by door motion is minimized, and smooth acceleration and deceleration phases are achieve... View full abstract»

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  • Voltage distribution of two thin polymeric film surface resistance measurement systems

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):635 - 639
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (296 KB)

    Two different methods for measuring the surface resistance of thin polymeric films are presented. The first method is the standard method and utilizes concentric ring metal electrodes. The second one is a novel method and uses instead concentric cylindrical metal electrodes. Both have been studied analytically and experimentally. The voltage distributions that are developed in both methods are cal... View full abstract»

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  • Curve fitting and error modeling for the digitization process near the Nyquist rate

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):553 - 557
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (348 KB)

    Model-based parametric estimation (MBPE) techniques are used to numerically examine the limits of waveform digitization errors. MBPE has proven very successful for the effective bits test of digitizer accuracy, and it is shown that it is a strong candidate for reconstruction whenever some a priori information is available. The numerical results aid in the optimum use of modern transient recorders ... View full abstract»

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  • Scattered and reactive current, voltage, and power in circuits with nonsinusoidal waveforms and their compensation [power systems]

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):563 - 574
    Cited by:  Papers (50)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (356 KB)

    Properties of the current and power decomposition into the active, scattered and reactive components are discussed. The relative character of this decomposition is analyzed along with orthogonal decomposition of the load voltage. It is shown that this relative character emphasizes the change of the power flow with the cross section observed. The difference in the efficiency of the source apparent ... View full abstract»

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  • Recent developments in the PTB RF standard attenuation measuring equipment

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):652 - 654
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (228 KB)

    Developments in standard equipment for precise attenuation measurements are described. The frequency range of the RF standard attenuation measuring equipment at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany, has been extended up to 40 GHz in the waveguide bands R 220 and R 320. The total uncertainty of the system is estimated to be equal to or smaller than 0.002 dB for... View full abstract»

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  • Feedback compensated synchronous and multiplier type phase sensitive detectors

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):646 - 649
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (328 KB)

    A feedback technique for phase sensitive detection (PSD) is developed, which is suitable for both synchronous and multiplier modes of implementation. The feedback-compensated PSD straightaway provides a DC output proportional to the amplitude of the measurand. The technique is very useful in a noisy environment where post-processing of the in-phase and quadrature components would otherwise deterio... View full abstract»

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  • Double buffered wide-range frequency measurement method for digital tachometers

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):606 - 610
    Cited by:  Papers (30)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB)

    A new frequency measurement system suitable for a wide range of microprocessor-based applications is presented. The procedure used to calculate the frequency is based on the original double-buffered method. This new method utilizes both pulse counting, and measurement of the fractional pulse period during the fixed sampling time. The sampling time can be chosen to provide high accuracy and high re... View full abstract»

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  • A high speed 2-bit correlator chip for radio astronomy

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):591 - 595
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (428 KB)

    The design and performance of a 16-channel 2×2-b CMOS correlator chip with 22-b on-chip integration, operating at a typical clockrate of 64 MHz, is presented. The chip, developed by the Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy (NFRA), is used for the construction of large wideband correlation spectrometers. A 1024-channel module is described as an application example View full abstract»

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  • An improved two-stage current transformer

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):633 - 635
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (252 KB)

    A novel design of magnetic cores and windings of a two-stage current transformer which considerably improves its linearity and accuracy for a given load is discussed. The equations which describe the operation of the transformer are given, and formulas for the calculation of the error are derived. A practical technique for unloading the second core and bringing its magnetic flux near zero is given... View full abstract»

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  • More on jitter effects on sinewave measurements

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):549 - 552
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (232 KB)

    The measurement of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) based on uniform sampling is investigated and compared with the results of Y. Jenq (see ibid., vol.37, p.245-251, June 1988) based on non-uniform sampling. Simulation results are provided to confirm the theoretical work. The authors then investigate amplitude and phase measurements and present new formulae for its statistics, which are more accurate t... View full abstract»

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  • Another step towards an ideal data acquisition channel

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):659 - 660
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (172 KB)

    In a paper by R. Pintelon et al. (see ibid., vol.39, p.116-120, Feb. 1990) a method has been presented for the design of amplitude- and phase-compensating IIR (infinite impulse response) filters. The procedure is based on inversion of the transfer function, identified in the z-domain. Unstable poles are reflected into the unit circle, and the spoiled phase response is equalized again usin... View full abstract»

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  • Corroborating cutoff frequency measurements with DC gain measurements

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):642 - 644
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (244 KB)

    A test for the correct measurement of the cutoff frequency of bipolar transistors is described. The method tests the equality of the low frequency, small signal, current gain measured by a network analyzer, and by DC current measurements. The method is described, and sample data are shown to demonstrate its practical application View full abstract»

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  • A quantitative evaluation of various iterative deconvolution algorithms

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):558 - 562
    Cited by:  Papers (71)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (352 KB)

    Various iterative deconvolution algorithms are evaluated that are commonly used to restore degraded chromatographic or spectroscopic peak data. The evaluation criteria include RMS errors, relative errors in peak areas, peak area variances, and rate of convergence. The iterative algorithms to be evaluated include Van Cittert's method, Van Cittert's method with constraint operators, relaxation based... View full abstract»

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  • A new approach to the definition of power components in three-phase systems under nonsinusoidal conditions

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):568 - 577
    Cited by:  Papers (167)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB)

    A method has been proposed for the definition of active and nonactive power components in three-phase systems under nonsinusoidal conditions. The method is more attractive than others since it is not a mere extension of methods employed in single-phase systems, but comes from the application of a quite powerful and synthetic mathematical tool specifically studied for the representation of three-wi... View full abstract»

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  • A fiber-optically triggered avalanche transistor

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):649 - 652
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (324 KB)

    A silicon bipolar transistor operating in the avalanche region was optically triggered into secondary breakdown. This transistor has been given the name fiber-optically triggered avalanche transistor (FOTAT). The FOTAT acts as an optical power discriminator. That is, secondary breakdown occurs when the triggering optical power exceeds the triggering threshold of the FOTAT. This secondary breakdown... View full abstract»

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  • Dielectric measurements by utilizing the curvature of pulses

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):611 - 617
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (564 KB)

    This study shows that it is possible to utilize the curvature of pulses in order to measure the dielectric constant of materials. Calculation formulas are developed based on changes of the curvature of a pulse reflected by a shorted or open-circuited transmission line loaded with the dielectric, and a measurement procedure which utilizes the formulas is described. The formulas are most applicable ... View full abstract»

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  • Second-order discriminant function for amplitude comparison monopulse antenna systems [EW antenna array]

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):596 - 600
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (208 KB)

    The technique of using three receiving elements for amplitude comparison monopulse direction finders (DF) is examined. An appropriate second-order discriminant function is chosen for this technique. Simulation is then used to compare the system performance to that of the two-element system. In performance evaluation, errors coming from receiver noise, antenna pattern, amplitude imbalance, and mech... View full abstract»

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  • Wein-bridge oscillators with opamp independent oscillation frequency

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):644 - 646
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (196 KB)

    A new set of 12 sinusoidal oscillators is introduced. These oscillators use two opamps and their oscillation frequency is dependent of the gain-bandwidth products of these active elements where a single-pole rolloff model is considered. This property is achieved by virtue of the configurations introduced by the authors, i.e., no adjustment is required. The proposed oscillators have been experiment... View full abstract»

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  • A multiple modulator fractional divider

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):578 - 583
    Cited by:  Papers (141)  |  Patents (35)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB)

    Fractional-N frequency synthesis using a phase locked loop (PLL) is considered. Advances in oversampling A/D conversion technology are incorporated into fractional-N synthesis, allowing the spectrum of error energy to be shaped so that fractional synthesis error energy is pushed away from the carrier. Based on this new technology, a CMOS integrated fractional-N divider w... View full abstract»

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  • Effects of the cavity walls on perturbation measurements

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):618 - 622
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (284 KB)

    Perturbation methods in microwave measurements are addressed. The perturbation formulas will not remain correct when the perturbation object approaches the wall of the resonant cavity. This is a consequence of the effect of the induced charges on the cavity wall when the object approaches it. The author takes this effect into account, and gives modified perturbation formulas which were verified by... View full abstract»

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  • CMOS adjustable Schmitt triggers

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):601 - 605
    Cited by:  Papers (38)  |  Patents (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (296 KB)

    Three adjustable Schmitt triggers for implementation in CMOS technology are presented: two semi-adjustable circuits using only six transistors and one fully adjustable circuit using a total of eight transistors. The most significant features of all three are the hysteresis adjustment, two operation modes as a comparator or Schmitt trigger, very small chip area, and very low static power consumptio... View full abstract»

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  • Time synchronization in orbiting VLBI

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):584 - 590
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (652 KB)

    Orbiting very long baseline interferometry based on radio transmission of a reference signal from an Earth-bound oscillator is considered. This method provides the possibility of forming a connected-element interferometer between the spacecraft and an Earth radio telescope co-located with the reference oscillator. The reference signal from the spacecraft to the Earth is retransmitted and the round... View full abstract»

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  • Automatic technique for measuring the Polder resonance in ferrite spheres

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):623 - 627
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (352 KB)

    An automatic technique for measuring the parameters of Polder resonance in polycrystalline ferrite spheres is proposed. The diagonal elements of the external susceptibility tensor versus DC magnetic field are calculated from the changes in resonance frequency and unloaded Q factor of a microwave cavity by perturbation theory. From these diagonal elements, all the elements of the intrinsic... View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

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Editor-in-Chief

SHERVIN SHIRMOHAMMADI
School of EECS
University of Ottawa
800 King Edward Ave.
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