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Communications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 12 • Date Dec. 2003

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • An efficient space-frequency coded OFDM system for broadband wireless communications

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2019 - 2029
    Cited by:  Papers (54)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (555 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose an efficient space-frequency coded orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) system for high-speed transmission over wireless links. The analytical expression for the pairwise probability of the proposed space-frequency coded OFDM system is derived in slow, space- and frequency-selective fading channels. The design criteria of trellis codes used in the proposed system are then developed and discussed. It is shown that the proposed space-frequency coded OFDM can efficiently achieve the full diversity provided by the fading channel with low trellis complexity, while for traditional space-frequency coded OFDM systems, we need to design space-time trellis codes with high trellis complexity to exploit the maximum achievable diversity order. The capacity properties of space-frequency coded OFDM over multipath fading channels are also studied. Numerical results are provided to demonstrate the significant performance improvement obtained by the proposed space-frequency coded OFDM scheme, as well as the excellent outage capacity properties. View full abstract»

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  • Exact BER computation of generalized hierarchical PSK constellations

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2030 - 2037
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (603 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We obtain in this paper generic expressions in M for the exact bit-error rate of the generalized hierarchical 2/4/···/M-phase-shift keyed constellations over additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and fading channels. For the AWGN case, these expressions are in the form of a weighted sum of Pawula F-functions and are solely dependent on the constellation size M, the carrier-to-noise ratio, and a constellation parameter which controls the relative message importance. The mathematical expressions are illustrated with some select numerical examples. View full abstract»

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  • Multicarrier modulation with blind detection capability using cosine modulated filter banks

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2057 - 2070
    Cited by:  Papers (39)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (888 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The cosine modulated filter bank (CMFB) is introduced as a multicarrier modulation (MCM) technique for wideband data transmission over wireless channels. Under the name discrete wavelet multitone modulation, CMFB has been considered for data transmission over digital subscriber lines. We propose a new receiver structure that is different from those proposed previously. The new structure simplifies the task of channel equalization, by reducing the number of equalizer parameters significantly. We also propose a novel blind equalization algorithm that fits very nicely in the proposed structure. Moreover, we discuss the bandwidth efficiency of the proposed CMFB-MCM system and show that it is superior to the conventional (single carrier) quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM). The CMFB is found to be a signal processing block that stacks a number of vestigial sideband modulated signals in a number of overlapping subchannels in the most efficient way. The proposed CMFB-MCM is also compared to OFDM with respect to bit-error rate performance. Under the conditions that the channel impulse response duration remains less than the length of cyclic prefix, OFDM is found marginally superior to CMFB-MCM. However, OFDM degrades very fast when the channel impulse response duration exceeds the length of the cyclic prefix. CMFB-MCM, on the other hand, is found less sensitive to variations in channel impulse response duration. View full abstract»

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  • Breadth-first maximum-likelihood sequence detection: geometry

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2071 - 2080
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (660 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    SA(B, C) is an algorithm penetrating a tree (or trellis) breadth first. It performs maximum-likelihood sequence detection (MLSD) under that structural constraint, and also under the complexity constraints determined by the parameters B and C. First, C is the number of partitions into which the states are distributed, and B denotes the number of paths in each partition. Recursively selecting paths which are closest to the received signal in the Euclidean distance (Hamming distance) sense guarantees constrained MLSD for the additive white Gaussian (binary symmetric) channel. The previously presented vector Euclidean distance (VED) is an important tool for analyzing SA(B, C) over the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. A geometric interpretation of the signals involved clarifies the basic properties of this VED and other relevant general results (invariance, monotonicity). These results also form a basis for the construction of an algorithm for the efficient and fast calculation of minimum VEDs (of interest for large signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, detection performance). This, in turn, reveals the necessary complexity requirements to meet specified performance requirements for concrete trellis-coded systems. Here, the simple example of convolutionally coded (rate 1/2) with Gray-coded quaternary phase-shift keying over the AWGN channel is considered. When C=1 and choosing B∼√S (S being the number of states in the code trellis) gives the same asymptotic detection performance (large SNR) as unconstrained MLSD (e.g., implemented using the Viterbi algorithm). View full abstract»

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  • Upper bounds to error probabilities of coded systems beyond the cutoff rate

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2011 - 2018
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (577 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A family of upper bounds to error probabilities of coded systems was recently proposed by D. Divsalar (see IEEE Communication Theory Workshop, 1999; JPL TMO Prog. Rep. 42-139, 1999). These bounds are valid for transmission over the additive white Gaussian noise channel, and require only the knowledge of the weight spectrum of the code words. After illustrating these bounds, we extend them to fading channels. Contrary to the union bound, our bounds maintain their effectiveness below the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at which the cutoff rate of the channel equals the rate of the code. Some applications are shown. First, we derive upper bounds to the minimum SNR necessary to achieve zero error probability as the code block length increases to infinity. Next, we use our bounds to predict the performance of turbo codes and low-density parity-check codes. View full abstract»

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  • On optimizing the backoff interval for random access schemes

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2081 - 2090
    Cited by:  Papers (59)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To improve channel throughput and the fairness of random access channels, we propose a new backoff algorithm, namely, the sensing backoff algorithm (SBA). A novel feature of the SBA scheme is the sensing mechanism, in which every node modifies its backoff interval according to the results of the sensed channel activities. In particular, every active node sensing a successful transmission decreases its backoff interval by an additive factor of the transmission time of a packet. In order to find the optimum parameters for the SBA scheme, we have studied the optimum backoff intervals as a function of different numbers of active nodes (N) in a single transmission area with pure ALOHA-type channels. We find that the optimum backoff interval should be 4N times the packet transmission time when the random access channel operates under a pure ALOHA scheme. Based on this result, we have calculated numerically the optimum values of the parameters for SBA, which are independent of N. The SBA scheme operates close to the optimum backoff interval. Furthermore, its operation does not depend on a knowledge of N. The optimum backoff interval and the SBA scheme have been studied also by simulation. It is shown that the SBA scheme out-performs other backoff schemes, such as binary exponential backoff (BEB) and multiplicative increase linear decrease (MILD). As a point of reference, the SBA scheme offers a channel capacity of 0.19 when N is 10, while the MILD scheme can only offer 0.125. The performance gain is about 50%. View full abstract»

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  • Optimum DMT-based transceivers for multiuser communications

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2038 - 2046
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (533 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper considers discrete multitone (DMT) modulation for multiuser communications when multiple users are supported by the same system, a zero-padding redundancy is employed at the transmitter output, and linear redundancy removal is used at the channel output. These users may have differing quality of service (QoS) requirements, as quantified by bit rate and symbol-error rate specifications, and are each assigned an equal number of subchannels. Our goal is to minimize the transmitted power, given the QoS specifications and subject to the knowledge of the channel and the second-order statistics of the colored interference at the receiver input. In particular, we find an optimum bit-loading scheme that distributes the bit rate transmitted across the various subchannels belonging to each user, and, subject to this bit allocation, we determine the precise subchannels assigned to each user, the optimum transceiver characterized by the input/output block transforms, and the redundancy removal operation. A major conclusion is that even though the optimum bit-rate allocation differs from the single-user case, the optimum transceiver does not. Further, it is determined entirely by the channel and interference conditions, and is unaffected by the QoS requirements. View full abstract»

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  • Rotationally invariant and rotationally robust codes for the AWGN and the noncoherent channel

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2001 - 2010
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper investigates the design and robustness of rotationally invariant (RI) codes. First, RI codes are extended to the case of serially concatenated (SC) trellis-coded modulation (TCM) and several high-rate powerful RI-SCTCM codes are designed over 8-phase-shift keying and 16-quadrature amplitude modulation alphabets. The investigation continues by considering more realistic channels that introduce cycle slips during phase estimation, and thus rotate only part of the transmitted codeword. It is proven that RI codes with small state space are robust in these channels, even when traditional coherent decoders are utilized. Furthermore, it is demonstrated through simulations that the addition of a simple stopping criterion to the coherent iterative decoding algorithm is sufficient for robustness of the more powerful RI-SCTCM codes when partial codeword rotations are considered. Finally, it is investigated whether RI codes are useful for transmission in the noncoherent channel. It is proved that RI codes are as good as any other good codes for this channel when the phase dynamics are low, and optimal decoding is performed. However, it is shown that for a certain class of receivers, RI codes are also robust to partial phase rotations in this channel. View full abstract»

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  • Performance of multiuser detection in multirate DS-CDMA systems

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1979 - 1983
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (333 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The performance of multirate direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems is considered. We compare two multirate schemes: variable spreading length (VSL-CDMA) and multicode (MC-CDMA). The performance in terms of asymptotic multiuser efficiency (AME) and near-far resistance (NFR) for various detectors are evaluated. Analytical and numerical results demonstrate that in multirate systems, MC-CDMA has a similar performance to that of VSL-CDMA employing low-rate detection in terms of multirate AME (MAME) and multirate NFR (MNFR). A lower bound for the optimal MNFR is also obtained and is shown to be that of the linear decorrelator in multirate systems. Thus, this implies that the decorrelator is no longer optimal in the sense of MNFR. View full abstract»

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  • Soft decision-directed MAP estimate of fast Rayleigh flat fading channels

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1965 - 1969
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (294 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An iterative receiver with soft-decision feedback is derived by using the expectation-maximization algorithm for maximum a posteriori estimate of fast Rayleigh flat fading channels. Simulation results indicate that in a fast fading environment, the derived receiver can perform better than an iterative receiver with hard-decision feedback. View full abstract»

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  • Bounding performance and suppressing intercarrier interference in wireless mobile OFDM

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2047 - 2056
    Cited by:  Papers (186)  |  Patents (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (871 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    While rapid variations of the fading channel cause intercarrier interference (ICI) in orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), thereby degrading its performance considerably, they also introduce temporal diversity, which can be exploited to improve performance. We first derive a matched-filter bound (MFB) for OFDM transmissions over doubly selective Rayleigh fading channels, which benchmarks the best possible performance if ICI is completely canceled without noise enhancement. We then derive universal performance bounds which show that the time-varying channel causes most of the symbol energy to be distributed over a few subcarriers, and that the ICI power on a subcarrier mainly comes from several neighboring subcarriers. Based on this fact, we develop low-complexity minimum mean-square error (MMSE) and decision-feedback equalizer (DFE) receivers for ICI suppression. Simulations show that the DFE receiver can collect significant gains of ICI-impaired OFDM with affordable complexity. In the relatively low Doppler frequency region, the bit-error rate of the DFE receiver is close to the MFB. View full abstract»

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  • A rank-reduced LMMSE canceller for narrowband interference suppression in OFDM-based systems

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2126 - 2140
    Cited by:  Papers (41)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (838 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a narrowband interference (NBI) canceller that suppresses spectral leakage in an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM)-based system caused by a narrowband (NB) signal. We assume that the spectrum of the NB signal is within the spectrum of the OFDM signal. This can be the case, e.g., on digital subscriber lines (DSL) and in new unlicensed frequency bands for radio transmission. The canceller makes linear minimum mean-square error estimates of the spectral leakage by measuring the NBI on a few modulated or unmodulated OFDM subcarriers. It uses a model of the NB signal's power spectral density as a priori information. Using a frequency invariant design, it is possible to cancel NBI from signals that are changing their frequency location with significantly reduced complexity overhead. The operational complexity of the canceller can be lowered by using the theory of optimal rank reduction and using the time-bandwidth product of the NB signal. Analytical performance evaluations, as well as Monte Carlo simulations, show that, without perfect a priori information, this canceller can suppress the spectral leakage from a strong NB signal (e.g., with equal power as the OFDM signal) to well below the background noise floor for typical applications where it causes negligible signal-to-noise ratio and symbol error rate degradation. View full abstract»

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  • Average level crossing rate and average outage duration of generalized selection combining

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1997 - 2000
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (354 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper presents an analytical methodology for the evaluation of the average level crossing rate and the average outage duration of generalized selection combining. More specifically, it presents a general approach when this scheme is employed over independent, but not necessarily identically distributed, fading channels. The general approach is then specialized to independent identically distributed Rayleigh fading paths. Selected numerical examples and plots are also provided and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Near-far resistance of linear receivers in chip-asynchronous CDMA systems with random signatures

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1975 - 1978
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (388 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper quantifies the robustness of linear receivers, such as minimum mean-squared error and decorrelating receivers against the near-far problem in chip asynchronous direct-sequence code-division multiple-access systems with random signatures, where both of those linear receivers achieve the optimum near-far resistance. Due to the asynchronism of the system, different symbols of a user see different interference structures which affect their performance differently. Thus, instead of concentrating on any particular symbol of a user, we analyze the average optimum near-far resistance of a randomly selected symbol of that user by providing simple tight upper and lower bounds on it. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive transmission with discrete code rates and power levels

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2115 - 2125
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (776 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Throughput maximization of an adaptive transmission system with a finite number of transmission power levels and code rates for communication over slow fading channels is analyzed, based on the concept of information outage. Properties of throughput maximizing policies lead to an iterative algorithm that yields good system designs. Numerical results show that carefully designed discrete adaptive transmission systems with a small number of power levels and code rates can achieve throughput values close to ergodic capacity. View full abstract»

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  • Performance analysis of convolutionally coded DS-CDMA systems with spatial and temporal channel correlations

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1984 - 1990
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (538 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Combined spatial and temporal processing has been shown to increase the potential link capacity enormously for wireless communication systems, especially when the channels between different transmit and receive antenna pairs are uncorrelated. We consider both spatial and temporal channel correlations that may be encountered in space-time processing and present the performance analysis of convolutionally coded direct-sequence code-division multiple-access systems. An upper bound for the average bit-error probability (P~b) is derived for the case of perfect channel estimation, and an analytical approximation for P~b is derived in the case of erroneous channel estimates. The analytical approach is general enough to be applicable to various space- and time-diversity situations, such as wideband multipath channels and antenna arrays. View full abstract»

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  • Performance and design of space-time coding in fading channels

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1991 - 1996
    Cited by:  Papers (37)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (439 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The pairwise-error probability upper bounds of space-time codes (STCs) in independent Rician fading channels are derived. Based on the performance analysis, novel code design criteria for slow and fast Rayleigh fading channels are developed. It is found that, in fading channels, the STC design criteria depend on the value of the possible diversity gain of the system. In slow fading channels, when the diversity gain is smaller than four, the code error performance is dominated by the minimum rank and the minimum determinant of the codeword distance matrix. However, when the diversity gain is larger than, or equal to, four, the performance is dominated by the minimum squared Euclidean distance. Based on the proposed design criteria, new codes are designed and evaluated by simulation. View full abstract»

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  • A sliding window PDA for asynchronous CDMA, and a proposal for deliberate asynchronicity

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1970 - 1974
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The probabilistic data association (PDA) method is extended to multiuser detection over symbol-asynchronous code-division multiple access (CDMA) communication channels. A direct extension as well as a sliding window processing method are introduced. While achieving near-optimal performance with O(K3) computational complexity in synchronous CDMA, K being the number of users, it is shown that, in asynchronous CDMA, the probability of group detection error of the proposed PDA method is very close to the performance lower bound provided by an ideal clairvoyant optimal detector, and the computational complexity is only marginally increased to O([h/s]K3) per symbol, where h and s are the width and the sliding rate of the processing window, respectively. Due to the outstanding performance of the PDA detector in heavily overloaded asynchronous systems, it is observed that an optimally designed synchronous system can be easily outperformed by an arbitrarily designed asynchronous system. Hence, it is proposed to use asynchronous transmission deliberately, even when synchronous transmission is possible - asynchronous is better than synchronous!. View full abstract»

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  • Optimization of a triangular PFDR antenna in a fully diffuse OW system influenced by background noise and multipath propagation

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2103 - 2114
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1335 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Optical wireless (OW) systems are generally impaired by multipath propagation and directional interference in the form of background noise. We present original results for a fully diffuse OW system that employs a novel triangular pyramidal fly-eye diversity receiver (PFDR). The received pulse shapes are evaluated at various locations on the communication floor and the background noise collected on the three faces of the pyramid is determined. It is demonstrated that, through optimization of the PFDR field-of-view, the directional background interference can be reduced and that the received pulse shape can be improved. The computed error probability shows a marked improvement when our optimized PFDR antenna is used instead of the conventional photodetector used in traditional diffuse optical wireless systems. View full abstract»

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  • On the usefulness of outer-loop power control with successive interference cancellation

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2091 - 2102
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (652 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multiuser detection (MUD) performance can be significantly better than the conventional matched filter receiver in CDMA systems. Further, since optimal MUD is exponentially complex, research has mainly focused on suboptimal approaches such as successive interference cancellation (SIC). SIC requires a geometric distribution of received powers to achieve equal performance for all received signals. We propose a power control scheme for SIC to achieve this profile (or the profile corresponding to any desired and achievable set of error rates) based on frame-error rate (FER) or bit-error rate (BER). Specifically, we derive the relationship between received power and BER for linear SIC and show that for unlimited mobile powers, a deterministic distributed BER-based outer-loop power control drives the received powers to the optimal power profile. The convergence of the deterministic BER-based algorithm is examined in the absence of inner loop power control errors. The simulated performance of a stochastic version of this algorithm is examined using instantaneous FER measurements. The stochastic algorithm is shown to provide unbiased estimates of the true power updates and converge to the optimal power vector provided the mobiles have unlimited power. We consider power limits for specific mobiles and find that individual mobile limits do not affect the performance of other signals. We examine the impact of system loading, multiple FER targets, error correction, and inner loop power control error on the performance of the algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • On the low-rate Shannon limit for binary intersymbol interference channels

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1962 - 1964
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (325 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For a discrete-time, binary-input, Gaussian channel with finite intersymbol interference, we prove that reliable communication can be achieved if, and only if, Eb/N0>log2/Gopt, for some constant Gopt that depends on the channel. To determine this constant, we consider the finite-state machine which represents the output sequences of the channel filter when driven by binary inputs. We then define Gopt as the maximum output power achieved by a simple cycle in this graph, and show that no other cycle or asymptotically long sequence can achieve an output power greater than this. We provide examples where the binary input constraint leads to a suboptimality, and other cases where binary signaling is just as effective as real signaling at very low signal-to-noise ratios. View full abstract»

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  • Editorial "exceedingly well read"

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1961
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Discussion of "Instantaneous Reactive Power pq Theory and Power Properties of Three-Phase Systems"

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2141
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (142 KB)  

    First Page of the Article
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  • Abstracts of forthcoming manuscripts

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2142
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Reviewers list 2003 IEEE communications society IEEE Transactions on communications editorial staff 2003

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2143 - 2146
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (151 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

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University of British Columbia