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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date June 2003

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 40
  • Scalar BPM analyses of TE and TM polarized fields in bent waveguides

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1185 - 1198
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (815 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have applied the effective index method to reduce the two-dimensional (2-D) refractive index profile into the 1-D refractive index structure and modified the wave equations to obtain the paraxial wave equations. Then, transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarized fields in the curved single-mode planar waveguides are analyzed by using the scalar beam-propagation method (BPM) employing the finite-difference method with a slab structure. The bending loss in bent waveguides is analyzed for optical fields obtained from the BPM and comparisons are made between the loss for the waveguides with various radius of curvature and refractive index difference. The outward shift of the optical field, which is generated at the connection between a straight and a bent waveguide, is obtained from the results of calculation of location of the maximum optical intensity. The transition loss can be reduced by introducing an optimized inward offset at a straight-to-bend junction. The birefringence for TE and TM polarized fields in bent waveguides is calculated from the phase difference of the optical fields. The wavelength shift due to the birefringence of TE and TM polarized fields in bent waveguides is also calculated. View full abstract»

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  • Random surface error effects on offset cylindrical reflector antennas

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1331 - 1337
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (542 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The focus of this paper is to characterize the average power pattern of an offset cylindrical parabolic reflector antenna subject to random surface errors. A novel computational method is developed for studying the random surface error effects on the boresight gain loss and the sidelobe levels of the average power pattern. The particular antenna dimensions used for this study are similar to the specifications for the second generation precipitation radar (PR-2) mission. In keeping with the requirements in the PR-2 mission, both the Ku and Ka frequency bands are considered. Random surface error effects are also studied for different edge taper levels. In addition to analysis of a reflector with uniform random surface errors, a nonuniform surface error case is presented in this study. This is an important consideration for evaluating the suitability of large deployable membrane reflector antennas for the PR-2 mission. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental validation of electromagnetic edge waves on a PEC wedge

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1236 - 1241
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (448 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The dyadic Green's function for electric and magnetic fields of a point current source radiating in close vicinity of a perfectly electric conducting wedge (PEC) has been derived through two independent means by Pearson (1986) and by Buyukdura , Goad, and Kouyoumjian (1996). Asymptotically, a so-called the edge wave may be identified when the source and the observation points are in proximity to the edge but widely separated along the edge, and has become part of the canonical problems in asymptotic diffraction theory. Both of the formulations indicated lead to identical asymptotic results. To corroborate the existence of edge waves, a series of measurements has been performed and the measured data are fit to a model based on the asymptotic results. The fit of the data supports the asymptotic form. View full abstract»

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  • Circularly polarized single-fed wide-band microstrip patch

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1277 - 1280
    Cited by:  Papers (42)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (412 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For more than 25 years, the circularly polarized single-fed microstrip patch was considered to be extremely narrow-band. The reported performances are almost exclusively related to single patches printed on a dielectric substrate, which partially explains the frequency characteristics. The antenna proposed is a variation of the "almost square" patch and exhibits measured axial radio of less than 2.5 dB over a 13% bandwidth. The antenna was designed for wireless applications. View full abstract»

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  • Beamforming and interference canceling with very large wideband arrays

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1338 - 1346
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (607 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Future radio telescopes are envisioned to be beamforming arrays containing hundreds to millions of elements distributed over thousands of km2, with bandwidths that are 10% or more of the RF center frequency. It is awkward to analyze such systems using traditional narrowband beamforming theory. This paper presents a frequency-domain model that includes relevant features such as true time delay, distributed Doppler effects, and nonideal instrumental frequency response. Conventional beamforming - i.e., maximizing the gain in a certain direction subject to no other constraints - is analyzed in the context of the model. A simple method for suppressing interference in the beamformer output is also analyzed. In this method, a second beam is formed in the direction of the interference and subtracted from the output of the desired beam. Although the concept is sound, two problems are identified. First is the potential for partial or complete canceling of the desired source, along with the interference. The second problem is coloring of the noise spectrum, which may thwart the detection of weak spectral features. These problems are shown to be closely related to the array geometry, and some workarounds are suggested. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient wideband printed antennas on lithium niobate for OEICs

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1413 - 1415
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (296 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Printed antenna structures for integration with z-cut and x-cut LiNbO3 based optoelectronic devices are presented. The designs are based on the hi-lo stacked patch element, which yields a high efficiency broadband antenna. Experimental verification of both printed antennas is given. View full abstract»

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  • Element positioning for linear arrays using generalized Gaussian quadrature

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1357 - 1363
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB)  

    We present a novel approach for designing small narrowband linear arrays with unequally spaced elements. Our approach involves discretising a line source with a desirable beam pattern and relies on the fact that beam patterns are bandlimited. We show that, given a nonnegative weighting function for a line source, one can design a linear array of elements whose beam pattern approximates that of the line source to any desired degree of accuracy. We make use of the prolate spheroidal wave functions to analyze line-source beam patterns since they are eigenfunctions of the finite Fourier transform. These functions form a Tchebycheff system, which allows us to calculate exactly integrals involving these functions via a generalized Gaussian quadrature rule. This quadrature rule then gives the appropriate set of element positions and weights. We give results for several weighting functions and we consider both broadside and electronically scanned linear arrays. As an example we show how a broadside array with half-wavelength spacing and Dolph-Tchebycheff weights may be improved upon using the method described. View full abstract»

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  • New results for the effective propagation constants of nonuniform plane waves at the planar interface of two lossy media

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1206 - 1215
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1296 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a correction and a generalization of the solution presented previously (for original papers see R. D. Radcliff and C. A. Balams, "Modified propagation constants for nonuniform plane wave transmission through conducting media," IEEE Transactions in Geoscience Remote Sensing, vol. GE-20, no. 3, p. 408-411 (1982) and C. A. Balams, Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics, New York: Wiley (1989)) for the effective propagation constants of nonuniform plane waves at the planar interface of two isotropic homogeneous possibly lossy media of infinite transverse dimensions. View full abstract»

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  • Exact solution to diffraction problem by wedges with a class of anisotropic impedance faces: oblique incidence of a plane electromagnetic wave

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1216 - 1220
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (438 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper studies diffraction of an obliquely incident, arbitrarily polarized plane electromagnetic wave by an anisotropic impedance wedge with an opening angle 2Φ between 0 and 2π, and presents a closed-form exact solution to a class of impedance wedge faces and the related uniform asymptotic solution (UAS). On use of a unitary similarity transform, the boundary conditions on the wedge faces is brought into a form, which makes the exactly soluble class of impedance faces evident. The exact solution is found with help of the Sommerfeld-Malyuzhinets (1896, 1958) technique, a generalized Malyuzhinets function χΦ and the so-called S-integrals. A standard procedure yields therefrom the UAS. The exact solution agrees with known analytical results in special cases, and the numerical results of UAS are confirmed by that of parabolic equation method (PEM). View full abstract»

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  • Reduction of backward radiation for CPW fed aperture stacked patch antennas on small ground planes

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1411 - 1413
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (409 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A coplanar waveguide fed aperture coupled patch antenna mounted on a finite sized ground plane that incorporates a reflector element to reduce backward radiated fields is investigated. By altering the reflector element parameters, the rear field pattern can be adjusted to provide field cancellation in arbitrary directions. View full abstract»

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  • A new transform relationship for interpreting axial fields near a focus

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1230 - 1235
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (334 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new Fourier transform relationship is shown to apply between the axial distribution of a field near a focus and the field, averaged around the axis, in the aperture of the focussing device. If phase and amplitude are measured along the axis the transform gives the radial distribution in the aperture, averaged around the axis, of the field amplitude and of any deviations in phase from an ideally focussed wavefront. The transform is, therefore, useful in diagnosing surface errors in reflector antennas. It may also be of use in determining errors in optical aspheric lenses and mirrors where radial errors are more prevalent in manufacture than are azimuthal errors. If only axial power is measured, a Wiener-Khinchine relationship gives the autocorrelation of the averaged radial field distribution in the aperture. The autocorrelation by itself contains useful phase information and, in some instances, the averaged aperture field can be recovered from the autocorrelation through a process of modeling. Symmetry relationships are discussed together with a practical example where phase and amplitude in a radio telescope aperture are estimated by modeling from the autocorrelation function. View full abstract»

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  • A simple model for orbital diversity gain on Earth-space propagation paths

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1403 - 1405
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (316 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Simple formulas, appropriate for use by the system designer, have been generated to estimate orbital diversity gain on Earth-space propagation paths, as a function of satellite aperture angle, link frequency and elevation angles. The proposed relationships are based on a regression fitting analysis implemented on an analytical propagation model for calculating the outage probability of an orbital diversity protection scheme. The root mean square error of the simple model is less than 0.5 dB in all tested situations and over the entire range of angular separation, frequency and elevation angle. The resulting simple model is tested with experimental data taken from Japan. The agreement was found to be quite encouraging. Tabulated values for the 12 parameters are presented for some heavy rain climatic regions. The dependence on climatic zone is obvious. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of hard surfaces of cylindrical structures of arbitrarily shaped cross section using asymptotic boundary conditions

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1150 - 1156
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (471 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The surface equivalence principle is used to formulate the problem of infinitely long cylindrical structures of arbitrary cross section and loaded with metallic strips. The strips are tilted by an angle with respect to the cross section plane. Special cases are considered when the strips are directed along or transverse to the cylinder axis. The excitation is an oblique plane wave incident with arbitrary polarization. The asymptotic strip boundary condition (ASBC) is used to simplify the problem. The surface integral equations are solved using the method of moments. The numerical solution is verified with the series solutions of the circular cylinders loaded with helical strips. Several applications of hard surfaces are presented for structures loaded with tilted strips such as the struts loaded with tilted strips to reduce the equivalent blockage width of the struts and make it polarization independent. View full abstract»

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  • On the behavior of Koch island fractal boundary microstrip patch antenna

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1281 - 1291
    Cited by:  Papers (47)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1146 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The properties of the Koch island fractal boundary microstrip patch antenna are presented. The behavior at the fundamental mode and the existence of high-order modes that exhibit localized current density distributions is discussed. The main features are the size reduction of the patch resonating at the fundamental frequency when compared to Euclidean-shaped patches, and the application of localized modes in designing microstrip patch antennas with directive patterns. View full abstract»

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  • Highly efficient C-band circularly polarized rectifying antenna array for wireless microwave power transmission

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1347 - 1356
    Cited by:  Papers (19)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (859 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports a new circularly polarized (CP) high-gain, high-efficiency rectifying antenna (rectenna) array designed in a coplanar stripline (CPS) circuit. The array can maintain a constant dc output voltage regardless of its broadside orientation. The array is etched on Rogers Duroid 5870 substrate with εr=2.33 and 10 mil thickness. High-gain dual rhombic loop antennas and a reflecting plane are used in order to reduce the total number of rectenna elements necessary to cover a fixed area. Each antenna has a CP antenna gain of 11 dB and a better than 1 dB axial ratio fractional bandwidth of 4.7%. The single element rectenna achieves 81% RF-to-dc coversion efficiency at 5.71 GHz and uses a CPS band-reject filter (BRF) to suppress the reradiated harmonics by more than 19 dB. At 5.61 GHz, using an array loading of 150 Ω, a 3 × 3 rectenna array produces 0.86 W of dc output power with an RF-to-dc conversion efficiency of 78% and an axial ratio of 0.25 dB for an incident CP power density of 7.6 mW/cm2. View full abstract»

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  • Truncated Floquet wave full-wave (T(FW)2) analysis of large periodic arrays of rectangular waveguides

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1373 - 1385
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1492 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new hybrid technique has been recently proposed for the analysis of large periodic arrays. This method is based on a high-frequency representation of the active Green's function of a finite array, involving a Floquet wave (FW) expansion with the relevant edge and vertex diffracted ray fields originating at the array border. Using this representation, the unknown current of an appropriate fringe integral equation is expanded in terms of a few basis functions shaped as FW-induced diffracted rays. This representation drastically reduces the numerical effort and provides a physical insight into the mechanism of the array truncation. In this paper, this method is applied to the analysis of large arrays of rectangular waveguides opened on an infinite ground plane. Numerical results are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness and the numerical efficiency of the method. View full abstract»

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  • Radiation characteristics of corrugation loaded dielectric-coated conducting cylinder

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1321 - 1330
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (955 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The radiation characteristics of a corrugation loaded dielectric coated conducting cylinder are investigated theoretically for the infinite periodic and finite structures. For the infinite periodic structure, the mode matching method is applied. The integral equation is derived for the finite structure by use of the Fourier transform and mode expansion. The influences of the corrugation width, corrugation depth, dielectric thickness, cylinder radius, and finite corrugation number on the radiation characteristics (leakage constant, phase constant, and radiation pattern) are investigated. The results of the finite periodic corrugations are compared with those of the infinite extent structure and good agreement is found. To reduce the high side lobe of the uniform periodic structure, nonuniform quasiperiodic corrugation arrays are considered. The surface wave radiated by the structure having end-fire radiation pattern is also investigated. View full abstract»

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  • Comprehensive analysis and simulation of a 1-18 GHz broadband parabolic reflector horn antenna system

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1418 - 1422
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (553 KB)  

    A 1-18 GHz parabolic reflector horn antenna system featuring a broadband double ridged primary horn with a coaxial feed line is investigated. For the ridged horn antenna it is found that the radiation pattern, contrary to common belief, does not maintain a single main lobe in the direction of the horn axis over the whole frequency range. Instead, at frequencies above 12 GHz the main lobe in the radiation pattern starts to split into four lobes pointing in off-axis directions with a dip of up to 6 dB between them along the center axis. To investigate this phenomenon in detail, a combined method of moments and physical optics approach has been adopted to simulate the complete antenna system. View full abstract»

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  • On the lower bound of the radiation Q for electrically small antennas

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1263 - 1269
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (363 KB)  

    The fundamental question of the lower bound on the radiation Q of an electrically small antenna is of practical importance because of its relationship to the antenna bandwidth. Previous works predict a lower bound on the radiation Q that is usually too low and, hence, a bandwidth that can be optimistically large. This paper addresses why this is so and offers a new prediction for a realizable lower bound on the radiation Q. This new prediction is based on the far-field pattern, in both the visible and invisible spatial regions, in contrast to previous works based upon a near-field modal approach. Results for a linear dipole, bow-tie, and end-loaded dipole are presented to illustrate the validity of the lower bound presented herein. Radiation Q can be related to bandwidth provided the Q is adequately large. Implicit is the presence of a matching network as a part of the antenna system. Both the losses in the antenna and the losses in the matching network have an effect on the system bandwidth, the system efficiency and the system Q, of which the radiation Q is a part. These various relationships are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • An E-plane ferrite loaded simple waveguide radiator

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1315 - 1320
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (839 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Experimental investigations were conducted to examine the effect of dielectric loading on a ferrite loaded waveguide radiator (notch antenna). The antenna was made by symmetrically tapering an X-band waveguide. A cylindrical ferrite post was disposed at the apex of the notch and it was biased with a dc magnetic field. The antenna was tested for several notch angles namely 140°, 120°, 90°, 80°, 60° while ferrite was loaded with several dielectric sleeves, such as wood, polymer, pyrex. The dielectric loading with high permittivity material is found to give better radiation and scanning characteristics. The radial thickness of the dielectric ring is observed to affect the radiation. View full abstract»

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  • Smooth local cosine based Galerkin method for scattering problems

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1177 - 1184
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (649 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The smooth local trigonometric (SLT) functions are employed as the basis and testing functions in the Galerkin based method of moments (MoM), and sparse impedance matrices are obtained. The basic idea of SLT is to use smooth cutoff functions to split the function and to fold overlapping parts back into the intervals so that the orthogonality of the system is preserved. Moreover, by choosing the correct trigonometric basis, rapid convergence in the case of smooth functions is ensured. The SLT system is particularly suitable to handle electrically large scatterers, where the integral kernel behaves in a highly oscillatory manner. Numerical examples demonstrate the scattering of electromagnetic waves from two-dimensional objects with smooth contours as well as with sharp edges. A comparison of the new approach versus the traditional MoM and wavelet methods is provided. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency dispersive materials for 3-D hybrid solvers in time domain

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1199 - 1205
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (509 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The recursive convolution method to treat linear dispersive materials in the finite difference time domain (FDTD) is here generalized to an explicit finite volume solver and an implicit finite element solver. Both solvers are interfaced to FDTD resulting in two hybrid solvers. The stability of the solvers is analyzed and the accuracy is demonstrated in several scattering cases, where a plane wave illuminates a sphere with complex permittivity. Excellent agreement with the analytical Mie series solution is obtained for materials of Debye and Lorentz type as well as for a material consisting of two Lorentz poles. View full abstract»

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  • A novel center-slot-fed suspended plate antenna

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1407 - 1410
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (409 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a novel broadband suspended plate antenna with enhanced radiation performances, which is centrally fed by a balance-like feeding structure. The design consideration is discussed, and measured results are presented. The parametric studies are also included. View full abstract»

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  • Surface-wave suppression of resonance-type periodic structures

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1221 - 1229
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (691 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Periodic structures of the resonance type are investigated with a focus on the utilization of structure dispersion to achieve a wide-band operation for the surface-wave suppression. Both approximate and exact formulations are presented to illustrate wave processes involved in the resonant structure and to develop useful criteria for design purpose. In addition, experiments are performed to verify the phenomena with stopband and leakage associated with the resonance-type periodic structures. View full abstract»

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  • Array decomposition method for the accurate analysis of finite arrays

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1364 - 1372
    Cited by:  Papers (40)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (633 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Presented in this paper is a fast method to accurately model finite arrays of arbitrary three-dimensional elements. The proposed technique, referred to as the array decomposition method (ADM), exploits the repeating features of finite arrays and the free-space Green's function to assemble a nonsymmetric block-Toeplitz matrix system. The Toeplitz property is used to significantly reduce storage requirements and allows the fast Fourier transform (FFT) to be applied in accelerating the matrix-vector product operations of the iterative solution process. Each element of the array is modeled using the finite element-boundary integral (FE-BI) technique for rigorous analysis. Consequently, we demonstrate that the complete LU decomposition of the matrix system from a single array element can be used as a highly effective block-diagonal preconditioner on the larger array matrix system. This rigorous method is compared to the standard FE-BI technique for several tapered-slot antenna (TSA) arrays and is demonstrated to generate the same accuracy with a fraction of the storage and solution time. View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation includes theoretical and experimental advances in antennas.

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Editor-in-Chief                                                 Kwok W. Leung