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Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 2003

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 30
  • Errata: Search radar detection and track with the Hough transform

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 382 - 383
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (71 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Presents revisions to various equations and formulas as well as arguments in the above-named article [ibid., vol 30, no 1, pp 102-125, Jan. 1994]. View full abstract»

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  • Use of genetic algorithms in ISAR imaging of targets with higher order motions

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 343 - 351
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (707 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Genetic algorithms (GA) are proposed for inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging. GA is used for motion parameters search in place of exhaustive search in the adaptive joint time-frequency (AJTF) algorithm. While maintaining the same accuracy, GA has lower computational complexity, especially for targets with higher order motions. View full abstract»

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  • Global range alignment for ISAR

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 351 - 357
    Cited by:  Papers (58)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (497 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new technique is developed for range alignment in inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging. The shifts made to the echoes are modeled as a polynomial, and the coefficients of this polynomial are chosen to optimize a global quality measure of range alignment. This technique is robust against noise and target scintillation, and avoids error accumulation. In addition, the shift in the time domain is implemented by introducing a phase ramp in the frequency domain, which removes the limitation of integer steps. View full abstract»

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  • Road profile recognition for autonomous car navigation and Navstar GPS support

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2 - 12
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (745 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We discuss autonomous car navigation based on updating dead reckoning (DR) by road profile recognition (RPR). The navigation system requires sensors to detect changes in altitude and driving direction which are installed in modern cars for different purposes (e.g. ABS sensors). The layout of the navigation system is discussed and simulations are carried out over driving distances of approximately 150 km on the basis of realistic road data and ordinary sensor accuracies. Positioning errors of lower than 10 m (standard deviation) are observed. To achieve this accuracy the synchronization error between measured and mapped data must be continually estimated. The introduced navigation method is ideal to complete present commercial car navigation systems using Navstar GPS. View full abstract»

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  • PDAF with multiple clutter regions and target models

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 110 - 124
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (955 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the theory of a new multiple model probabilistic data association filter (PDAF). The analysis is generalized for the case of multiple nonuniform clutter regions within the measurement data that updates each model of the filter. To reduce the possibility of clutter measurements forming established tracks, the solution includes a model for a visible target. That is, a target that gives sensor measurements that satisfy one of the target models. Other features included in the algorithm are the selection of a fixed number of nearest measurements and the addition of signal amplitude to the target state vector. The nonuniform clutter model developed here is applicable to tracking signal amplitude. Performance of this algorithm is illustrated using experimentally recorded over-the-horizon radar (OTHR) data. View full abstract»

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  • Detection of polyphase pulse compression waveforms using the radon-ambiguity transform

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 335 - 343
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (489 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The recently developed Radon-ambiguity transform (RAT) detects unknown linear frequency modulated (LFM) signals by computing line integrals through the origin of the signal's ambiguity function (AF) magnitude. It is shown that this method also detects the step LFM and frequency-derived polyphase pulse compression waveforms with varying performance degradation. Simulations are provided to estimate the detection loss relative to the LFM. View full abstract»

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  • Design and implementation of a matrix converter PMSM drive without a shaft sensor

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 228 - 243
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (744 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel controller design for a sensorless permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive system, which is fed by a matrix converter is proposed. First, a rotor position estimating technique is proposed to obtain the shaft angle of the motor. Next, a two-degree-of-freedom proportional-integral (PI) controller, including a forward-loop controller and a load compensator, is proposed to improve the performance of the system. The whole drive system has satisfactory transient responses and load disturbance rejection abilities. In addition, the parameters of the PI controller are calculated by using a frequency-domain parameter optimization technique. Only simple algebraic computation is required. Finally, a 32-bit TMS320C40 digital signal processor is used to execute the sensorless technique and all of the control loops, including a current-loop and a speed-loop. Several simulated and experimental results are shown to validate the theoretical analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive algorithms for radar detection of turbulent zones in clouds and precipitation

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 357 - 367
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (784 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The adaptive algorithm synthesis theory is used to develop new algorithms applied to radar signals in the detection of turbulent zones in clouds and precipitation. The efficiency of these new algorithms is analyzed. Simulations of weather radar signals on the one hand and modeling and testing of the processing algorithms on the other hand are performed for comparative analysis. The results demonstrate a significant superiority of the new algorithms in comparison with the widely used pulse-pair algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Exploitation of the W-band for high capacity satellite communications

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 82 - 93
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (843 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The scientific mission DAVID (Data and Video Interactive Distribution) of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) will pioneer the use of the W-band for a challenging telecommunications experiment. The unavailability of channel measurements and the technological limitations in that frequency range imply a system assessment based on channel extrapolation and a wise error control strategy. In that frame, a system approach is proposed that will allow the exploitation of the W-band for high capacity satellite communications. The results obtained through that approach in the assessment of the DAVID W-band experiment are provided and their perspectives identified and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and parameter optimization of agile beam radar tracking

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 13 - 33
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1243 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the work presented here, we address parameter optimization for agile beam radar tracking to minimize the radar resources that are required to maintain a target under track. The parameters to be optimized include the track-revisit interval as well as the sequence of pairs of target signal strengths and detection thresholds associated with successive illumination attempts in each track-revisit. The effects of false alarms and clutter interference are taken into account in the modeling of target detection and in the characterization of tracking performance. Based on the detection model and tracker characterization, the parameter optimization problem is formulated. Typical examples of the optimization problem are numerically solved. The optimal solution gives an off-line scheduling of the parameter set. It also provides insight into the selection of a near-optimal parameter set that is appropriate for real-time implementation. View full abstract»

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  • Sequence CLEAN technique using BGA for contiguous radar target images with high sidelobes

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 368 - 373
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    High resolution range profiles usually suffer from range sidelobe artifacts which cause reduction in the dynamic range. The sidelobes can be greatly reduced by a deconvolution technique called Coherent CLEAN. The Coherent CLEAN algorithm is based on the assumption that the scene consists of isolated and independent targets. However, many real-life targets are contiguous. The sidelobes and the mainlobes of these closely spaced point sources interact constructively and destructively causing spurious peaks and peak mislocations. A technique called Sequence CLEAN uses the highest m peaks at a time to determine the best sequence of target subtraction. This involves searching an m-ary tree, which is computationally expensive. We propose the use of the breeder genetic algorithm (BGA) to determine the optimal sequence of target cancellation for Sequence CLEAN. This results in a substantial decrease in the computational complexity. The parameters required for the genetic algorithm have been analytically derived. An expression for the number of generations required to reach convergence by BGA is also derived. It is found that the BGA is able to determine the best sequence of subtraction without performing the exhaustive tree search. Analytical results have been verified by simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Robust space-time adaptive processing for airborne radar in nonhomogeneous clutter environments

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 70 - 81
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (843 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Space-time adaptive processing (STAP) holds tremendous potential for the new generation airborne surveillance radar, in which the phased array antennas and pulse Doppler processing mode are adopted. A new STAP approach using the multiple-beam and multiple Doppler channels is presented here for airborne phased array radar. The approach with space-time multiple-beam (STMB) architecture is robust to array errors and has very low system degrees of freedom (DOFs). Hence, it has low sample support requirement and it is very suitable for the practical planar phased array radar under nonhomogeneous clutter environments. Meanwhile, a new nonhomogeneous detector (NHD) based on the correlation dimension (CD) is also proposed here, which is used as an effective method to screen tracing data prior to detection processing. It can further improve the performance of the STAP approach in the severely nonhomogeneous clutter environments. Therefore, a scheme that incorporates the correlation dimension nonhomogeneity detector (CD-NHD) with the STMB is recommended, which we term CD-NHD-STMB. The experimental simulation results indicate that: 1) the STMB processor is robust to array element error and has high performance under nonhomogeneous clutter environments; 2) the CD-NHD is also effective on the nonhomogeneous clutter. As a result, the CD-NHD-STMB scheme is robust to array element error and nonhomogeneous clutter, and therefore available for airborne phased array radar applications. View full abstract»

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  • Aircraft flight parameter estimation using acoustic multipath delays

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 259 - 268
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (667 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The signal emitted by an airborne acoustic source arrives at a stationary sensor located above a flat ground via a direct path and a ground-reflected path. The difference in the times of arrival of the direct path and ground-reflected path signal components, referred to as the multipath delay, provides an instantaneous estimate of the elevation angle of the source. A model is developed to predict the variation with time of the multipath delay for a jet aircraft or other broadband acoustic source in level flight with constant velocity over a hard ground. Based on this model, two methods are formulated to estimate the speed and altitude of the aircraft Both methods require the estimation of the multipath delay as a function of time. The methods differ only in the way the multipath delay is estimated; the first method uses the autocorrelation function, and the second uses the cepstrum, of the sensor output over a short time interval. The performances of both methods are evaluated and compared using real acoustic data. The second method provides the most precise aircraft speed and altitude estimates as compared with the first and two other existing methods. View full abstract»

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  • Detection of obstacles in the flight path of an aircraft

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 176 - 191
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1126 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), along with members of the aircraft industry, recently developed technologies for a new supersonic aircraft. One of the technological areas considered for this aircraft is the use of video cameras and image-processing equipment to aid the pilot in detecting other aircraft in the sky. The detection techniques should provide high detection probability for obstacles that can vary from subpixel to a few pixels in size, while maintaining a low false alarm probability in the presence of noise and severe background clutter. Furthermore, the detection algorithms must be able to report such obstacles in a timely fashion, imposing severe constraints on their execution time. Approaches are described here to detect airborne obstacles on collision course and crossing trajectories in video images captured from an airborne aircraft. In both cases the approaches consist of an image-processing stage to identify possible obstacles followed by a tracking stage to distinguish between true obstacles and image clutter, based on their behavior. For collision course object detection, the image-processing stage uses morphological filter to remove large-sized clutter. To remove the remaining small-sized clutter, differences in the behavior of image translation and expansion of the corresponding features is used in the tracking stage. For crossing object detection, the image-processing stage uses low-stop filter and image differencing to separate stationary background clutter. The remaining clutter is removed in the tracking stage by assuming that the genuine object has a large signal strength, as well as a significant and consistent motion over a number of frames. The crossing object detection algorithm was implemented on a pipelined architecture from DataCube and runs in real time. Both algorithms have been successfully tested on flight tests conducted by NASA. View full abstract»

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  • Robust altitude estimation for over-the-horizon radar using a state-space multipath fading model

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 192 - 201
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (733 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In previous work, a matched-field estimate of aircraft altitude from multiple over-the-horizon (OTH) radar dwells was presented. This approach exploits the altitude dependence of direct and surface reflected returns off the aircraft and the relative phase changes of these micro-multipath arrivals across radar dwells. Since this previous approach assumed high dwell-to-dwell predictability, it has been found to be sensitive to mismatch between modeled versus observed micro-multipath phase and amplitude changes from dwell-to-dwell. A generalized matched-field altitude estimate is presented here based on a state-space model that accounts for random ionospheric and target-motion effects that degrade the dwell-to-dwell predictability of target returns. The new formulation results in an efficient, robust recursive maximum likelihood (ML) estimation of aircraft altitude. Simulations suggest that the proposed technique can achieve accuracy within 5,000 ft of the true aircraft altitude, even with relatively high levels of uncertainty in modeling of dwell-to-dwell changes in the target return. A real data result is also presented to illustrate the technique. View full abstract»

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  • Understanding commutations in switching converters. II. Analysis and synthesis of DC-DC regulators

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 298 - 317
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1016 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.39, no.1, p. 282-297 (2003). This paper illustrates a general method to formulate the equations for the analysis of commutations and of the effects caused by large step-wise perturbations, large change of parameters, and circuit failures in switching converters including transformers, feedback circuitry, and soft-switching cells. The matrix equations obtained by means of the modified nodal analysis-based method proposed in this work are useful for theoretical inspection of switching converters as well as for numerical simulations. The examples of applications concern the analysis and the synthesis of switching converters and show that the Compensation Theorem (CT)-based model may help in selecting circuit topologies valid for the circuit design. View full abstract»

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  • Airborne/spacebased radar STAP using a structured covariance matrix

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 269 - 281
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (848 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is shown that partial information about the airborne/spacebased (A/S) clutter covariance matrix (CCM) can be used effectively to significantly enhance the convergence performance of a block-processed space/time adaptive processor (STAP) in a clutter and jamming environment. The partial knowledge of the CCM is based upon the simplified general clutter model (GCM) which has been developed by the airborne radar community. A priori knowledge of parameters which should be readily measurable (but not necessarily accurate) by the radar platform associated with this model is assumed. The GCM generates an assumed CCM. The assumed CCM along with exact knowledge of the thermal noise covariance matrix is used to form a maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of the unknown interference covariance matrix which is used by the STAP. The new algorithm that employs the a priori clutter and thermal noise covariance information is evaluated using two clutter models: 1) a mismatched GCM, and 2) the high-fidelity Research Laboratory STAP clutter model. For both clutter models, the new algorithm performed significantly better (i.e., converged faster) than the sample matrix inversion (SMI) and fast maximum likelihood (FML) STAP algorithms, the latter of which uses only information about the thermal noise covariance matrix. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and characterization of a monobit receiver for electronic warfare

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 244 - 258
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (789 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Detection of simultaneous signals and real-time operation are basic characteristics in broadband electronic warfare (EW) receivers. A digital channelized monobit receiver represents an attempt to achieve both features at the expense of low instantaneous dynamic range. This paper presents a detailed theoretical and experimental analysis, and characterization of the performance of this promising receiver composed of a monobit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and a filter bank based on a monobit implementation of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT). View full abstract»

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  • Design and calibration of the SeaWinds Scatterometer

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 94 - 109
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1122 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The SeaWinds Scatterometer is a Ku-band Earth orbiting remote sensing radar. It has a 1 m dish antenna shared by two beams with respective nadir look angles of 40 and 46 deg, scanning azimuthally to provide greater than 90% daily coverage of the Earth at an altitude of 800 km. The first sensor was launched in 1999 and produces sea surface wind field to 2 m/s accuracy at 25 km resolution. The design and calibration of the SeaWinds radar is described here. View full abstract»

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  • 3-D E-CSAR imaging of a T-72 tank and synthesis of its SAR reconstructions

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 211 - 227
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (977 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The results of three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of a T-72 tank using its angular azimuthal (turntable) and linear elevation synthetic aperture data at X band are presented. This is achieved using an accurate and computationally efficient wavefront (Fourier-based) reconstruction algorithm for elevation and circular (E-CSAR) data. The E-CSAR 3-D images are then used to synthesize 2-D spotlight and stripmap slant plane synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the target at a desired range and squint angle. For this purpose, a procedure is introduced that incorporates the spatially varying azimuthal and elevation Doppler signatures of individual reflectors on the target as well as the mean range, azimuth, and elevation of the flight path. Results using the E-CSAR images of the T-72 tank are provided. View full abstract»

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  • Blind adaptive decision fusion for distributed detection

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 34 - 52
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1080 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We consider the problem of decision fusion in a distributed detection system. In this system, each detector makes a binary decision based on its own observation, and then communicates its binary decision to a fusion center. The objective of the fusion center is to optimally fuse the local decisions in order to minimize the final error probability. To implement such an optimal fusion center, the performance parameters of each detector (i.e., its probabilities of false alarm and missed detection) as well as the a priori probabilities of the hypotheses must be known. However, in practical applications these statistics may be unknown or may vary with time. We develop a recursive algorithm that approximates these unknown values on-line. We then use these approximations to adapt the fusion center. Our algorithm is based on an explicit analytic relation between the unknown probabilities and the joint probabilities of the local decisions. Under the assumption that the local observations are conditionally independent, the estimates given by our algorithm are shown to be asymptotically unbiased and converge to their true values at the rate of O(1/k12/) in the rms error sense, where k is the number of iterations. Simulation results indicate that our algorithm is substantially more reliable than two existing (asymptotically biased) algorithms, and performs at least as well as those algorithms when they work. View full abstract»

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  • Understanding commutations in switching converters. I. Basic theory and application of the Compensation Theorem

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 282 - 297
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (990 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The analysis of synchronous commutations in switching converters is discussed. A reduced resistive circuit for the analysis of synchronous commutations is introduced by applying the Compensation Theorem. Based on a matrix model, a new method for the analysis of both hard and soft synchronous commutations is formulated, which permits a straightforward understanding operation of switching converters. The method of analysis is presented herein in its basic version, for the analysis of nonisolated hard-switching converters, while the general formulation and its applications to the analysis and synthesis of DC-DC regulators is presented in the companion paper Part II. View full abstract»

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  • Two-dimensional evolutionary programming-based CLEAN

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 373 - 382
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (647 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this work, we present a novel two-dimensional (2-D) scattering center extraction method, called 2-D evolutionary programming (EP)-based CLEAN. The 2-D EP-based CLEAN uses the ideal point scattering model and EP for optimization. Our algorithm has accuracy, robustness and better resolution than the fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based CLEAN. Further, it does not require the transformation of measured data from the polar frequency domain to the Cartesian frequency domain or to the image domain. Numerical simulations are performed to verify the characteristics of the proposed algorithm, such as resolution, robustness and accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • Explicit formulas for two state Kalman, H2 and H target tracking filters

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 53 - 69
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (797 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The continuous time, two state, target tracking problem is considered from the Kalman, H2, and H filter viewpoint. While previous treatments were numerical in nature, analytic transient responses and infinite horizon solutions with analytic performance expressions are presented here. Tracking indices, involving the maneuver and measurement uncertainties, are shown to have a role for both the steady state and transient responses. In addition, the H tracker has a sensor index involving the performance bound and measurement uncertainty, which, along with the tracking index, plays a significant role in the H tracker expressions. Analytical expressions for the probability of target escape, the probability that the target position will be outside the radar beamwidth (BW), are developed not only to compare the performance of various trackers, but also as a design tool to meet tracking specifications. Examples illustrate the performance of the target trackers as a function of the error gain upper bound. View full abstract»

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  • New split-winding doubly salient permanent magnet motor drive

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 202 - 210
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (590 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new split-winding doubly salient permanent magnet (DSPM) motor drive is proposed. This DSPM motor drive offers the advantages of high power density, high efficiency, and wide speed range. The corresponding operation, analysis, implementation, and experimentation are successively presented. Finally, experimental results are used to confirm that the proposed DSPM motor drive offers high efficiency over a wide output power range, exhibits good dynamic performance, and extends the constant-power operation range significantly. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems focuses on the equipment, procedures, and techniques applicable to the organization, installation, and operation of functional systems designed to meet the high performance requirements of earth and space systems.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Lance Kaplan
Army Research Laboratory