Scheduled System Maintenance:
On Monday, April 27th, IEEE Xplore will undergo scheduled maintenance from 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM ET (17:00 - 19:00 UTC). No interruption in service is anticipated.
By Topic

Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on

Issue 6 • Date September 1986

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 23 of 23
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 0
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (268 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 0
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (371 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Guest Editorial

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 773 - 774
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (254 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Models for analysis of packet voice communications systems

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 847 - 855
    Cited by:  Papers (116)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (993 KB)  

    In a packet voice communication system, packets are fed to a common queue by a number of independent voice sources and are removed from this queue on a first-come-first-serve basis for transmission over a communication link of finite capacity. Each voice source alternates between active periods, during which packets are generated at regular intervals, and inactive periods, during which no packets are generated. In this paper, we discuss three models, a semi-Markov process model, a continuous-time Markov chain model, and a uniform arrival and service model, to assess the queueing behavior of such systems. Numerical results obtained from each of the three models are compared to each other, to results obtained from a discrete event simulation program, and to results obtained from an M/D/1 analysis. Parameters of the model are the average duration of active and inactive periods, the packet generation rate, the communication link capacity, and the total number of voice sources. Conclusions are drawn regarding which models appear to be most appropriate in the parameter ranges investigated. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Approximate Delay Analysis and Results for Asymmetric Token-Passing and Polling Networks

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 783 - 793
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (872 KB)  

    Notwithstanding much effort, explicit analytical results for average message delays for asymmetric token rings are currently unavailable. We develop an excellent and relatively simple analytic approximation which readily demonstrates the effects of the many system parameters on delay-throughput performance. The approximation applies to any cyclically served network (including rings, polling networks, and unidirectional fiber optic broadcast networks) with independent time-slot arrivals and gated service. The approximation becomes exact for symmetric loading. An equation for the moment-generating function of the joint terminal service times is obtained via an imbedded Markov chain. Two matrix equations are then derived, one for the mean terminal service times of the N queues and another for the joint second central moments. A two-dimensional difference equation for the second central moments is then obtained. This difference equation together with Kleinrock's conservation law is used to approximate the mean delay at each queue. The peak approximation error is typically a few percent for various loading distributions including heavy or highly asymmetric loading, even if the statistics for message arrivals, message lengths, or walk times vary among the queues. Actual delay-throughput results are presented for various terminal loadings. Also included is a procedure to upperbound the error of our approximation for any message and walk time statistics, given the terminal utilizations. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Recursive Approximation Technique for a Combined Source Queueing Model

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 919 - 925
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB)  

    The model studied in this paper captures the combined effects of finite and infinite source traffic-often used to model interactive and batch traffic, respectively-when they contend for a single server resource. The finite source traffic is modeled by heterogeneous finite sources, the infinite source traffic by a stationary Poisson process, and the single server is assumed to have exponentially distributed service times with distinct service rates for the different customer types. All customers share a common queue and are serviced in FIFO order. A special case of this model where the N finite sources are identical combines two fundamental and widely used models (the repairman and M/M/1 models) in a natural manner. Regardless of the homogeneous or heterogeneous nature of the finite sources, the combined source model is not product form due to the realistic assumption that service rates are distinct for different customer types (batch and interactive traffic typically have different CPU processing requirements). In this paper, we show how to recursively calculate all mean quantities of interest in an approximate but quite accurate manner for the general heterogeneous model. The accuracy of the recursive technique is established in part by contrasting the approximate solution to simulation results for a wide parameter range, and in part by studying the asymptotic behavior of the approximation. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Bandwidth Allocation Strategies in Wide-Band Integrated Networks

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 869 - 878
    Cited by:  Papers (39)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (976 KB)  

    A common digital transmission facility in a wide-band integrated service digital network (ISDN) provides shared access to a community of heterogeneous users. Traffic demands from these users vary in their arrival rate, their service time, and their bit rate. In order for this type of communication system to handle its traffic demands with high efficiency and flexibility, a close control of access to the shared bandwidth is required. We model the system by a general multiserver queueing system where customers demand service from a random number of servers. If no waiting is allowed, this queueing model is readily analyzed, and various server allocation strategies can be studied. If the various access requests are queued for service, then the system calls for efficient strategies for allocating servers to waiting customers. In this case, exact analysis of the underlying queueing model becomes quite difficult. For this case, we present some analytic and simulation results of the performance of the system under several server allocation policies. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Average Delay Approximation of M/G/1 Cyclic Service Queues with Bernoulli Schedules

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 813 - 822
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (992 KB)  

    The Laplace Transform (and the first two moments) of the busy period of the recently introduced M/G/1 vacation model with a Bernoulli schedule is completed exactly. This expression makes it possible to estimate the average waiting time of each queue for the Bernoulli schedule cyclic service queue. Consequently, the weighted average of the mean waiting time can be minimized over the class of Bernoulli schedules. The Bernoulli schedule has the advantage over exhaustive schedules (or classical priority schedules) in that the performance of one class of traffic is somewhat insulated from the adverse effects of high utilization in a different class of traffic. The analysis of cyclic service queues can be applied to processor schedules and token ring local area networks as well as components of other data communication systems. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Transient Analysis of Markovian Queueing Systems and Its Application to Congestion-Control Modeling

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 891 - 904
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1344 KB)  

    In applied queueing theory, it is often important to deal with transient system behavior. Performance evaluation of congestioncontrol mechanisms in a packet-switching network is an excellent example in which there is frequently a strong need to deal with the intrinsic dynamic character of congestion. In that case, the queueing models have to be analyzed for a transient environment. In this paper, we show that such problems can be treated in a uniform way, when the system of coupled differential equations describing the system-state or flow process is solved numerically. For this, the fourth-order RungeKutta procedure allows a good balance between memory requirements, computing time, and accuracy. To illustrate the explanatory power of this kind of transient queueing analysis, three models will be considered: the common-store queueing system showing the priority deadlock, the foreground-background congestion-control mechanism, and a two-level global congestion-control mechanism. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Backbone Network Design and Performance Analysis: A Methodology for Packet Switching Networks

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 946 - 965
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2216 KB)  

    This paper describes a packet network design and analysis (PANDA) model which captures the important features of different packet technologies. This model evolved from many iterations with technology developers and network planners over several years. The main contribution is a methodology for designing low-cost backbone packet networks with satisfactory performance which is both practical and useful. This methodology is useful for investigating cost/performance tradeoffs of various network capabilities and components, thus providing a means for identifying potential cost and performance bottlenecks for different packet technologies and to guide capability requirements for new technologies. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Computable Bounds for Conditional Steady-State Probabilities in Large Markov Chains and Queueing Models

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 926 - 937
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1016 KB)  

    A method is presented to compute, for the steady-state conditional probabilities of a given Markov subchain, the best lower and upper bounds derivable from the submatrix of transition probabilities between the states of that subchain only. The bounds can be improved when additional information, even fragmentary, on the entire chain is available. When the submatrix has a special structure, analytical expressions of the bounds can be obtained. The method is shown to be useful and economical to bound performance measures in large nonproduct-form queueing network models of computer communication systems. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Characterizing Superposition Arrival Processes in Packet Multiplexers for Voice and Data

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 833 - 846
    Cited by:  Papers (278)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1488 KB)  

    This paper analyzes a model of a multiplexer for packetized voice and data. A major part of the analysis is devoted to characterizing the aggregate packet arrival process resulting from the superposition of separate voice streams. This is done via the index of dispersion for intervals (IDI), which describes the cumulative covariance among successive interarrival times. The IDI seems very promising as a measurement tool to characterize complex arrival processes. This paper also describes the delays experienced by voice and data packets in the multiplexer using relatively simple two-parameter approximations. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Model for Telephone Networks and Its Use for Routing Optimization Purposes

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 966 - 974
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (816 KB)  

    The problem studied here concerns the modeling of call blocking in telephone networks. From the usual assumptions such as exponential arrivals and holding time, lost call cleared, the state of the network is described by a finite Markov chain. From the transition probabilities of this process are derived the differential equations associated with the average occupancy of all trunk groups. These traffic equations are simplified by considering independence of blocking for trunk groups in series. The blocking probabilities are estimated using fictitious offered traffic and the Erlang B formula. Such representation takes into account peaky or smooth traffic characteristics. We develop this one-moment model for routing policies such as load sharing and overflow routing. Performances of the model are given in comparison to the solution of the exact Markov chain model or the results of Monte Carlo simulation. Finally, an application to routing optimization and network dimensioning is treated. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Diffusion Approximations for Time-Dependent Queueing Systems

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 905 - 918
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1128 KB)  

    This paper deals with queueing systems which reveal timedependent behavior. The goal of the paper is to present a set of results which can be applied to the analysis of computer-communication systems. Some new results on the time-dependent analysis of the GI/GI/1 queue and of general queueing networks are given. All these results are based on a transient diffusion model of a single server queue. A parametric-decomposition method of the time-dependent analysis of queueing networks is presented. The method permits the analysis, of the networks where the arrival, service processes and also the routing matrix are time-dependent. It makes possible the analysis of various aspects of computer-communication systems, especially the adaptive routings, the strategies of flow and congestion control, the influence of short overload peaks and other time-varying phenomena in such systems. To illustrate these applications, a simple example of the analysis of the centralized adaptive routing in packet-switching networks is presented. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Markov Modulated Characterization of Packetized Voice and Data Traffic and Related Statistical Multiplexer Performance

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 856 - 868
    Cited by:  Papers (445)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1176 KB)  

    We study the performance of a statistical multiplexer whose inputs consist of a superposition of packetized voice sources and data. The performance analysis predicts voice packet delay distributions, which usually have a stringent requirement, as well as data packet delay distributions. The superposition is approximated by a correlated Markov modulated Poisson process (MMPP), which is chosen such that several of its statistical characteristics identically match those of the superposition. Matrix analytic methods are then used to evaluate system performance measures. In particular, we obtain moments of voice and data delay distributions and queue length distributions. We also obtain Laplace-Stieitjes transforms of the voice and data packet delay distributions, which are numerically inverted to evaluate tails of delay distributions. It is shown how the matrix analytic methodology can incorporate practical system considerations such as finite buffers and a class of overload control mechanisms discussed in the literature. Comparisons with simulation show the methods to be accurate. The numerical results for the tails of the voice packet delay distribution show the dramatic effect of traffic variability and correlations on performance. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Performance Analysis of a Polling System with Single Buffers and Its Application to Interconnected Networks

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 802 - 812
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (864 KB)  

    We first consider the interdeparture process of a symmetric polling system with single buffer at each station, where distributions of transmission time and switchover time are assumed to be general. Under the assumption that consecutive interdeparture times are independent, the probability distribution is analyzed and the LaplaceStieltjes transform is given. Numerical examples show that the coefficient of variation of interdeparture time is not monotonic with respect to the arrival rate. Based upon the analysis, we can obtain the characteristics of outbound traffic if we are concerned with unidirectional traffic flow. In general, however, there is inbound traffic from external networks in the interconnected communication system and its effect on performance characteristics should be taken into account. We next propose the model of a polling system having the traffic from outside the system. The model consists of homogeneous stations with single buffers and a depot station with infinite buffer where inbound traffic is dealt with. We analyze the model and obtain throughput and mean waiting time for the case of constant transmission time and constant switchover times. Numerical examples show that the throughput of the system is not sensitive to inbound traffic if the total load of the system is moderate. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Approximate Analysis of Time-Synchronous Packet Networks

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 879 - 890
    Cited by:  Papers (34)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1000 KB)  

    In this paper, models and analytical techniques are developed to evaluate the performance of the backbone networks of discrete-time linked-cluster packet networks. The theoretical results are validated by extensive computer simulation. The results of this research may be applied to the design of multiprocessor networks, local area networks, and cellular, terrestrial, and satellite packet networks. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Diffusion Approximation for a Token Ring System with Nonexhausive Service

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 794 - 801
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (632 KB)  

    This paper derives approximate formulas for a token ring system with nonexhaustive service, which is commonly used in local area networks. In order to obtain performance measures, the token ring system is regarded as a multiqueue model with cyclic service. The model under consideration is a generalization of the ones treated in the literature. The virtual load probability density function is derived via a diffusion approximation technique. The relation between the virtual load and the actual waiting time is presented. The approximate formula obtained here is evaluated by comparing it to simulation results as well as to other results presented in the literature. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • End-To-End Performance Modeling of Local Area Networks

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 975 - 985
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1072 KB)  

    This paper presents a generic modeling framework for synthesizing existing modeling techniques into a hierarchical structure for representing the end-to-end path between subscriber devices on local area networks (LAN's). The modeling framework is based on analytical queueing network models in a hierarchical decomposition along the layers of communications protocols in the LAN. The methodology can be used during the various phases of LAN system design as well as for capacity planning during the operational phase. The level of system detail that can be examined using the methdology ranges from the architectural level to the component level. A survey of existing LAN models is given and their applicability to the heirarchical framework is discussed. The methodology is described and a case study is presented. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The Asymptotic Analysis of Some Packet Radio Networks

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 938 - 945
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (680 KB)  

    The purpose of this paper is to present an asymptotic performance analysis of a class of multihop radio networks using the calculus of residues. The analysis provides a closed-form approximation of global performance measures, whose precision increases exponentially with the size of the system. The complexity of computing these approximations is independent of the problem size. The method is easily applicable to a variety of topologies and access protocols. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Packet Trains--Measurements and a New Model for Computer Network Traffic

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 986 - 995
    Cited by:  Papers (127)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1096 KB)  

    Traffic measurements on a ring local area computer network at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are presented. The analysis of the arrival pattern shows that the arrival processes are neither Poisson nor compound Poisson. An alternative model called "packet train" is proposed. In the train model, the traffic on the network consists of a number of packet streams between various pairs of nodes on the network. Each node-pair stream (or node-pair process, as we call them) consists of a number of trains. Each train consists of a number of packets (or cars) going in either direction (from node A to B or from node B to A). The intercar gap is large (compared to packet transmission time) and random. The intertrain time is even larger. The Poisson and the compound Poisson arrivals are shown to be special cases of the train arrival model. Another important observation is that the packet arrivals exhibit a "source locality." If a packet is seen on the network going from A to B, the probability of the next packet going from A to B or from B to A is very high. Implications of the train arrivals and of source locality on the design of bridges, gateways, and reservation protocols are discussed. A numbet of open problems requiring development of analysis techniques for systems with train arrival processes are also described. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Computation of the Variance of the Waiting Time for Token Rings

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 775 - 782
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (664 KB)  

    The main new result in this paper is a simple expression for the variance of the waiting time for a token ring with an infinite number of stations, nonsymmetric Poisson traffic, deterministic ring delays, and virtually identical service distributions. These results can be considered as an approximation to the large ring where no individual station dominates the traffic. In the process, the exact equations for obtaining the variance of the waiting time for arbitrary traffics and service densities are found. In general, if there are n nonsymmetric stations, about n3equations need to be solved. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Performance of Integrated Packet Voice/Data Token-Passing Rings

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 823 - 832
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (848 KB)  

    This paper presents performance results that indicate that packetized voice service can be provided on a token-passing ring without adversely affecting the performance of data traffic. This is accomplished by introducing a relatively mild priority structure: stations are limited to a single packet transmission per medium access, and voice packets are given access priority over data packets at the same station. In addition, voice traffic is allowed longer packet lengths than data traffic. Several versions of this basic scheme are considered: 1) the number of active stations is constrained so that voice packets are guaranteed access within one packetization period, 2) no guarantee on access time is provided and voice packets are discarded when the waiting time exceeds one packetization period, and 3) no guarantee on access time is provided and voice packets are buffered until they can be transmitted. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications focuses on all telecommunications, including telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television, by electromagnetic propagation.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Muriel Médard
MIT