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Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on

Issue 1 • Date January 1983

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  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 0
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 0
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  • Editorial Notes

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Digital Satellite Communications Guest Editorial

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 2 - 4
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  • A Survey of Modem Design and Performance in Digital Satellite Communications

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 5 - 20
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1269 KB)  

    This paper summarizes the important aspects of digital modem (modulator-demodulator) design for linear and nonlinear satellite channels using time-division multiple access (TDMA). The modem performance degradations caused by transmission anomalies, such as amplitude and delay distortions, effects of single and cascaded nonlinearities, and band-limiting effects in nonlinear channels, have been examined using the test data gathered from various field test programs using INTELSAT IV satellites and laboratory simulations using both INTELSAT IV and INTELSAT V parameters. A systematic methodology has been prescribed to reduce the effect of transmission anomalies on the performance of the modems. This paper consists of three main sections; essential features of TDMA modem design, transmission anomalies and their effects on modem performance, and optimization of modem performance in the presence of transmission deviations. The latter includes a brief description of an advanced maximum-likelihood sequence detection (MLSD) technique for application to the nonlinear channel. View full abstract»

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  • Adjacent-Channel and Quadrature-Channel Interference in Minimum Shift Keying

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 21 - 28
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    In this paper we present formulas for the computation of error probability in the presence of quadrature-channel or adjacentchannel interference in addition to intersymbol interference in a minimum shift keying system. The filters in the receiver and transmitter are arbitrary but with a finite number of poles. The effect of phase jitter in the main channel, phase and symbol timing misalignment in the interfering channels, and sampling time jitter is taken into account. The probability of error is averaged over the phase and symbol timing misalignment. Numerical results are presented for Butterworth filters in the receiver and transmitter with two, three, and four poles. Curves of error probability as a function of various variables (signal-to-noise ratio, bandwidth of receiver and transmitter filters, number of poles, channel frequency separation, phase jitter, sampling time, and symbol timing and phase misalignment) are presented. The method of this paper can readily be applied to other filters; hence, it can be used in the design and prediction of the performance of digital communication systems. View full abstract»

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  • A New Baseband Linearizer for More Efficient Utilization of Earth Station Amplifiers Used for QPSK Transmission

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 46 - 56
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (725 KB)  

    The principles and applications of a new baseband linearizer are described. It is demonstrated that, with the use of our linearizer, significant improvements in the effective radiated power of the earth station high-power amplifier can be attained. In a particular example, the characteristics of the recommended INTELSAT V satellite simulator model are used. For the 120 Mbit/s QPSK transmission system operating in a complex interference environment, we show that with the new iinearizer the earth station high-power amplifier may be operated almost in full saturation while meeting the current INTELSAT requirements. This is a significant improvement in power utilization efficiency. Similar improvements could be obtained for small digital singlechannel-per-carrier earth stations. View full abstract»

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  • A Space-Division Multiple-Access Protocol for Spot-Beam Antenna and Satellite-Switched Communication Network

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 126 - 132
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (724 KB)  

    This paper identifies the characteristics of a point-topoint demand-assignment satellite-switched spot-beam antenna communication network for integrated data voice traffic. The described protocol is known as space-division multiple-access (SDMA) which uses an on-board central traffic controller, a fixed-assignment timedivision multiple-access (TDMA) protocol for reservations, and a rigid frame structure with separate data and voice subframes. Message and circuit switching are utilized for data and voice traffic, respectively. Synchronization is maintained by a looped-back reservation burst. A detailed delay analysis of data and voice traffic is presented for an arbitrary compound arrival process. A new method for the calculation of the data reservation and scheduling delays is derived. A comparison of the performance of the SDMA protocol to other protocols is shown. This paper demonstrates the feasibility and illustrates the design of the SDMA protocol. View full abstract»

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  • An Experiment in Integrated Digital Satellite Communications

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 143 - 152
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The experiment we conducted for integrated digital satellite communications is aimed at realizing integrated services digital networks by satellite communication. The experiment was carried out in 1980 using the Japanese experimental communication satellite "CS." This experiment uses 30/20 GHz small earth stations and demand-assignment time-division multiple-access (TDMA) systems. Communications between customer terminals, which contain video conferencing, high-speed facsimile communication, high-speed computer communication, and packet-switching signal transmission, were carried out through the experimental digital satellite link. This paper describes the configuration of the experimental integrated digital satellite communications system and the experimental results of communications between customer terminals. View full abstract»

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  • Alternate Architectures and Technologies for INTELSAT Type DSI Design

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 214 - 222
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
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    The digital speech interpolation (DSI) module is the most complex unit in a TDMA traffic terminal and the one which presents the most options to the equipment designer. The merits of various design approaches are contrasted and compared. The options arise in the choice of architectures and technologies for the realization of the module. There are several aspects to architectural choice in the unit design involving the amount of storage and nature of storage in the unit, the nature and type of the high speed interface, the nature of echo protection features, FEC encoding, and the degree and nature of the human interface for test and maintenance. In terms of storage, because the interpolation process takes time, the unit is by necessity memory-oriented and efficient choice of memory architecture is important. The two principal design choices here may be called "order and storage" and "storage and order." Store-and-order implies storage of data on all received channels (whether they are to be processed or not) followed by data routing for selected channels. Order-and-store implies immediate selection of that traffic to be processed. The architecture is also influenced by the choice of interface between the DSI and the "satellite" side equipment. The principal choice lies between word- and bit-oriented data transmission, but there are tradeoffs involving handshaking for control signals as well. The INTELSAT specifications governing DSI module performance give designers of specific equipment wide latitude in the human interface for testing and maintenance features and for the extent to which the unit will support the accumulation of traffic data statistics. The implications to system architecture of these choices are dealt with. Whatever the architecture may be, DSI module design requires a judicious selection of technologies. Among the questions are: memory technologies, allocation of functions among hardware and software, contending computer technologies for software - mplementation, and buffer design. The choices in software versus hardware implementations revolves around the various satellite channel to international channel mappings the unit must perform, and around the overload channel processing. Single card and single chip computers are shown to be useful tools in the design. Because of the interpolated nature of DSI operation, the design of a DSI unit is in a sense incomplete without an accompanying traffic simulator to verify performance. This unit performs the task of providing tests signals which contend for channels on a statistical basis. View full abstract»

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  • A Wide-Band Satellite Microwave Switch Matrix for SS/TDMA Communications

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 223 - 231
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1179 KB)  

    A lightweight, broad-band, 8 × 8 crossbar microwave switch matrix (MSM) has been developed for satellite-switched timedivision multiple-access (SS/TDMA) operation anywhere in the 6 GHz up-link and/or 4 GHz down-link bands. The nearly transparent performance characteristics in the 3.5-6.5 GHz band, for any of the highly flexible interconnect possibilities, have been facilitated by the design of a low-power-consuming resistively matched PIN diode switch. Broad-band push-pull connectors are used to simplify assembly and disassembly of this modular three-dimensional matrix. The switch control electronics (SCE) circuits have been implemented as custom-designed LSI chips for integration within the MSM input distribution networks. Design considerations and performance characteristics of the satellite switch matrix are presented. View full abstract»

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  • SS/TDMA Steady-State Synchronization: Analysis and Operation During Deep Signal Fades

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 199 - 207
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    An analysis of SS/TDMA steady-state synchronization is presented, in which the need for reliable sync maintenance during periods of deep signal fades, beyond the point of communications outage, is considered. The time required for sync-maintenance measurements, together with impact on guard time requirements, will lead to degradation of SS/TDMA transmission efficiency. The need to ensure a sufficiently low rate of occurence of errors in the syncmaintenance measurements also impacts transmission efficiency. A generalized formulation relating the degree of immunity to signal fading, degradation in transmission efficiency, and rate of occurrence of measurement errors is developed. Numerical results are obtained for a typical satellite communications system of current interest. It is shown that sync-maintenance systems can be designed to operate reliably during severe signal fades, orders of magnitude beyond the point of communication outage, at the expense of minimal degradation of transmission efficiency. For this level of performance it is shown that, with proper choice of parameters, virtually error-free syncmaintenance operation can be achieved. Numerical values of typical design parameters are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear Equalization of Digital Satellite Channels

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 57 - 62
    Cited by:  Papers (132)  |  Patents (2)
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    Conventional techniques attempting to compensate for the influence of linear and nonlinear distortion in digital satellite channels include optimization of channel filtering. With conventional linear filtering it has been experienced that there is still room for considerable improvement, so that it appears reasonable to investigate some forms of nonlinear filtering in an attempt to cope with those distortions. In this paper a nonlinear equalizer structure is proposed, and its performance is analyzed. It is shown, by some examples Of application to a 4-phase PSK satellite channel, that it can prove quite effective in terms of a tradeoff between performance improvement and hardware complexity. View full abstract»

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  • Performances of the Delay-Line Multiplier Circuit for Clock and Carrier Synchronization in Digital Satellite Communications

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 82 - 95
    Cited by:  Papers (42)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (912 KB)  

    This paper is concerned with clock and carrier synchronization in digital satellite transmissions, using the delay-line multiplier circuit. For clock recovery from baseband signal, with random data, a closed form formula is derived which gives the spectrum after multiplication, for any arbitrary pulse shape. This spectrum contains spectral lines at the clock frequency and its harmonics, and a continuous part which is the pattern noise. This pattern noise may be decomposed in noise in phase with the recovered clock, and noise in quadrature whose power spectral density is always zero at zero frequency. The effect of Gaussian noise on the channel is taken into account to calculate signal-to-noise ratio at the clock frequency as a function of the classical parameter E/N_{o} . With a modulated input carrier, the signal at the output of the delay-line multiplier may be separated into two parts: a low frequency signal that contains clock information and a bandpass spectrum signal around twice the carrier frequency that contains carrier information, when possible. Spectrum and signal-to-noise ratio in carrier recovery are studied for BPSK and offset quadrature modulation. View full abstract»

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  • Impact of a New TWTA Linearizer Upon QPSK/TDMA Transmission Performance

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 39 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (760 KB)  

    In transmitting a band-limited PSK/TDMA signal via satellite, the signal is distorted due to the nonlinearities of an earth station HPA and a satellite TWTA. To reduce the impairments due to these nonlinearities, a new TWTA linearizer, called a soft-limiter type linearizer (SL-LRZ), has been developed. The overall amplitude characteristic of a TWTA associated with an SL-LRZ is linear up to saturation and has a constant envelope beyond saturation. As to the AM/PM conversion characteristic, it has almost zero phase shift, irrespective of the operating point. The TWTA with SL-LRZ gives better bit error rate (BER) performance and less out-of-band emission (OBE) compared to cases where TWTA is operated by itself or with a conventional linearizer. In this paper, the impact of the new TWTA linearizer upon the transmission performance of a QPSK/TDMA signal is described. The transmission performance over a nonlinear satellite channel has been evaluated experimentally using a 120 Mbit/s QPSK modem and an INTELSAT V channel simulator. View full abstract»

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  • Differential PSK System with Nonredundant Error Correction

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 74 - 81
    Cited by:  Papers (22)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (672 KB)  

    Theoretical analysis and experimental results for a DPSK system with nonredundant error correction are described. The error correction capability of the proposed demodulation method is achieved without utilizing additional bandwidth. The demodulator utilizes outputs of differentially coherent detectors that employ the received signal delayed by two or more time slots as references. These outputs are shown to be the parity check sums of two or more conSecutive outputs of the conventional detector under noise-free conditions. The error rate performance of the proposed demodulation method is theoretically and experimentally studied for quaternary DPSK. Experimental results agree with the theory, which indicates that performance is superior to conventional DPSK by 1.2 dB, but poorer than coherent detection by 1.3 dB. This method can be applied effectively to TDMA communications and to on-board regenerative repeaters. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal On-Board Clock Control

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 208 - 213
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB)  

    This paper presents an optimal control procedure for an on-board oscillator which provides basic switching and processing timing on the satellite. Alternate methods of measuring oscillator drift are described, and a linear discrete optimization model is developed. The optimum system minimizes a long-term phase error for any possible oscillator drift satisfying a certain constraint. The proposed on-board clock control scheme requires only a voltage-controlled oscillator on board and has a number of advantages over other methods. View full abstract»

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  • The Use of Resource Sharing and Coding to Increase the Capacity of Digital Satellites

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 133 - 142
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (19)
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    Resource sharing is a technique which can improve the circuit availability of digital satellites operating at frequencies above 10 GHz, without requiring large fade margins. In this paper, the resource sharing concept is generalized by fully exploiting the available clear-air carrier-to-noise ratio of the satellite link to achieve very high transmission capacity while maintaining low rain outage. During clear-air conditions, convolutional codes with a large channel signaling alphabet are employed to permit a high rate of information transfer. When the fade depth exceeds the built-in fade margin, the signaling alphabet is reduced and enough time slots are borrowed from a resource sharing reserved pool to maintain the data rate at the fade site. It is shown that this approach greatly diminishes the impact of rain attenuation on satellite communications. Effective utilized capacities exceeding 85 percent of that possible if it never rains are feasible, and the increase in capacity compared to a system not using resourcesharing protection is typically a factor of 3-10. View full abstract»

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  • Symbiosis Between a Terrestrial-Based Integrated Services Digital Network and a Digital Satellite Network

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 103 - 109
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
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    Symbiosis between a terrestrial-based integrated services digital network (ISDN) and a digital satellite network (DSN) is investigated in this paper. The characteristics of the two networks and the types of traffic carried are first reviewed. Key technical issues that are likely to arise when these two networks are interconnected are then identified and examined in depth. Examples are the processing of voice and nonvoice traffic, efficient handling of synchronous and asynchronous traffic, and the plesiochronous interconnection of ISDN's via a DSN. Measures that may be adopted in each network to accelerate the symbiosis are identified. Finally, a somewhat speculative look at the potential competition between the ISDN and the DSN in two important communication service areas is offered. View full abstract»

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  • User Capacity of a Demand-Assigned Satellite Communication System with a Hybrid TD/FDMA Up-Link and a TDM Down-Link

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 110 - 117
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    The advent of processing satellites which perform demodulation and remodulation of received signals has made it practical to consider satellite communication systems in which the up-link and down-link multiplexing/multiple-access schemes are different. This paper considers a satellite communication system in which channels are demand-assigned, and in which a hybrid time-division/frequencydivision multiple-access approach is employed for the up-link and pure time-division multiplexing is employed for the down-link. This scheme has significant advantage for systems which may be subject to electronic jamming. The user capacity is analyzed in general, and numerical results are given for some specific parameters of interest. Depending on the number of ground terminals in the network, it is found that the user capacity of the system can be limited by either the terminal's or the satellite's channel capacity. View full abstract»

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  • Performance Analysis of a DCPSK Up-Link for a Regenerative Satellite Repeater

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 63 - 73
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (976 KB)  

    A mixed analytic and simulation method is described for the study of a DCPSK up-link used in a regenerative satellite transmission system. A great variety of impairments is considered and their effects on error probability are evaluated, thus emphasizing the performance evaluation in a "real situation." A case study is worked out in detail to stress the design-oriented approach. View full abstract»

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  • Performance Evaluation of an Integrated Access Scheme in a Satellite Communication Channel

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 153 - 164
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1072 KB)  

    A method for realizing a circuit and packet integrated access scheme in a satellite communication channel is considered. Two kinds of terminals are assumed, namely, bursty terminals for handling bursty traffic and heavily loaded terminals for long-holdingtime message traffic. In this method, the channel frame is divided into two subframes: one is for bursty terminals, and the other is for heavily loaded terminals. The subframe for heavily loaded terminals is further divided into two subchannels, a reservation subchannel (consisting of small slots) and a message subchannel. The bursty terminals transmit their packets in their dedicated subframes on the slotted ALOHA protocol. The heavily loaded terminal having a message transmits, first of all, a reservation packet in a randomly selected small slot of the reservation subchannel to reserve slots in the coming message subchannels. One slot in the same position of each of the succeeding message subchannels is reserved for the terminal until the end-of-use flag, transmitted from the terminal, is received by the satellite. Mean transmission delays for both kinds of traffic in this method are analytically obtained. We show that there exists an optimal frame length which minimizes mean transmission delay for one kind of traffic while keeping mean transmission delay for the other kind under some permissible value. View full abstract»

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  • Performance of IJF-OQPSK and Partial Response (PR) IJF-OQPSK Modems in a Nonlinearly Amplified and Adjacent-Channel Interference Satellite Environment

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 29 - 38
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (696 KB)  

    The performance of intersymbol-interference and jitterfree offset-QPSK (IJF-OQPSK) and partial-response (PR) IJFOQPSK modems in a nonlinearly amplified multichannel environment is studied and compared to that of conventional QPSK and OQPSK modems. Power efficiency is maximized by operating the high-power amplifier (HPA) in full saturation. The effect of adjacent-channel interference and flat fade on the performance of illustrative nonlinear satellite systems is investigated. Simulation and measurement results are reported. It is shown that both IJF-OQPSK and PR-IJF-OQPSK modems exhibit a significant performance improvement compared to QPSK and OQPSK modems, in illustrative SCPC and on-board regenerative satellite systems, they provide an improvement of more than 4 dB compared to QPSK. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of Jitter and Cycle Slipping of Phase Reference Upon Unique Word Missed Detection in QPSK Systems

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 95 - 102
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    The effects of phase jitter and cycle slipping of the recovered carrier upon unique word (UW) missed detection in QPSK systems are investigated. Schrempp et al. have already presented the relationship between the UW missed detection probability (UWMP) and the bit error probability, which is simple and useful as long as the phase reference is noiseless. However, when the authors recently made some theoretical and experimental assessments of UW missed detection, they found that the above disturbances of the recovered carrier significantly affected the UW missed detection performance. Specifically, the actual UWMP was often worse than that predicted hy Schrempp et al. In fact, a bottoming effect takes place in the UWMP versus UW length characteristic. In this paper, after obtaining the conditional symbol and bit error probabilities for the recovered carrier with some phase error, we discuss the nature of phase fluctuation and cycle slipping for the recovered carrier. Consequently, we derive general expressions for the UWMP in both CPSK and DCPSK transmissions. The UWMP's are numerically calculated, and are then compared to our experimental data. View full abstract»

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  • One-Way Multiaddress Satellite Data Communication System

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 118 - 125
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    An experimental one-way multiaddress data communication system accommodating many small receive-only terminals is described. In this system, a digital facsimile is used as the output equipment. A simple one-way transmission protocol adopting the flag synchronization method has been developed so that facsimile equipment of different speeds can be used. The receive-only terminal comprises an antenna, an RF receiver, a demodulator, and a channel selector. The antenna is an offset parabolic type with an effective diameter of 60 cm and uses a printed spiral type primary radiator. Dimensions of the terminal are 70 cm wide, 88 cm deep, and 126 cm high. The satellite channel bit rate is 64 kbits/s in order to transmit multiple facsimile data simultaneously. Experiments using the Japanese "CS" satellite have been carried out to verify the system feasibility. The normal bit error rate was less than 10-6and line errors occurred less than once in three facsimile transmissions. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications focuses on all telecommunications, including telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television, by electromagnetic propagation.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Muriel Médard
MIT