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Antennas and Propagation, IRE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date October 1959

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Displaying Results 1 - 24 of 24
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 0
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Leaky-wave antennas I: Rectangular waveguides

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 307 - 319
    Cited by:  Papers (66)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1120 KB)  

    A microwave network approach is employed for the description and analysis of leaky-wave antennas. This approach is based on a transverse resonance procedure which yields the complex propagation constants for the leaky waves. A perturbation technique is then applied to the resonance equation to obtain results in simple and practical form. These procedures are illustrated by application to a number of practical leaky rectangular waveguide structures. Very good agreement is obtained between the theoretical results and the measured values. View full abstract»

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  • A flush-mounted leaky-wave antenna with predictable patterns

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 320 - 329
    Cited by:  Papers (30)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1008 KB)  

    This paper describes the design and the measured performance of a large, flat antenna consisting of an inductive grid spaced over a conducting surface. The analysis employs the transverse-resonance method to determine the radiating properties of the structure. This analytical technique is shown to predict very accurately the amplitude and phase of the illumination along the aperture of the antenna. An antenna was built with an 18- by 24-inch aperture and tested over the frequency band from 7-to-13 kmc. The results of these tests confirm the theoretical predictions in every detail. A pencil beam from the antenna scans in the H-plane (perpendicular to the antenna) from 20\deg to 60\deg from the normal to the aperture as the frequency changes from 7-to-13 kmc. The H-plane beamwidth remains virtually constant over most of this band. The first H-plane sidelobe or shoulder is at least 29 db below the main lobe from 7-to-10 kmc, and at least 23 db below from 10-to-13 kmc. All H-plane sidelobes beyond three or four beamwidths on either side of the main lobe are at least 40 db below the main lobe everywhere in the 7-to-13 kmc band. At the design frequency the measured pattern agrees with the theoretical pattern within a fraction of a db down to 40 db below the peak of the main lobe, even though the gain of the antenna at this frequency is only 33 db. View full abstract»

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  • The unidirectional equiangular spiral antenna

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 329 - 334
    Cited by:  Papers (40)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (594 KB)  

    Circularly polarized unidirectional radiation, over a bandwidth which is at the discretion of the designer, is obtainable with a single antenna. The antenna is constructed by wrapping balanced equiangular spiral arms on a conical surface. The non-planar structure retains the frequency-independent qualifies of the planar models, and, in addition, provides a single lobe radiation pattern off the apex of the cone. Practical antennas have been constructed with radiation patterns and input impedance essentially constant over bandwidths greater than 12 to 1 and there is no reason to assume that these cannot be readily extended to more than 20 or 30 to 1. View full abstract»

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  • Closely-spaced transverse slots in rectangular waveguide

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 335 - 342
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (1)
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    The traveling-wave modes associated with an infinite, periodic structure are considered. An approximate equation for the propagation constants of these modes is derived through the use of Fourier analysis and an approximate application of the reaction concept. In the homogeneous case considered, it is found that two dominant modes may exist: an attenuated fundamental mode representing a perturbation of the dominant mode of a closed rectangular waveguide, and an unattenuated surface wave, which is similar to the wave associated with a corrugated surface waveguide. By means of the appropriate variation of physical parameters, including the slot length and spacing, essentially independent control of the attenuation constant and phase velocity of the fundamental mode is possible over a wide range. Typical curves of the propagation constant in terms of these parameters are given, and the results of experimental measurements are shown to be in close agreement with the theory. View full abstract»

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  • Generalizations of spherically symmetric lenses

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 342 - 345
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
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    The purpose of this paper is to generalize the solutions of some spherically symmetric lens and lens-reflector problems recently treated by Kay. The original problem was to find a variable-index structure, with a point source at its surface or at infinity, which would produce a beam of finite angular width, having a prescribed variation of intensity with angle. It is shown that a prescribed exit beam can be obtained from a point source at any given distance from the lens, and that the index of refraction may be specified more or less arbitrarily in the outer part of the lens. A special case is solved in terms of tabulated functions. View full abstract»

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  • Radiation properties of a thin wire loop antenna embedded in a spherical medium

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 345 - 352
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (592 KB)  

    Formulas for certain radiation properties of a spherical antenna are derived theoretically. The antenna, which consists of a spherical medium, such as ferrite, with a thin wire loop embedded just below the surface in an equatorial plane, is driven by a slice generator. For the spherical medium, the permeability K_{m} and the dielectric constant K_{e} are assumed to be scalars and, in general, complex. The solutions are facilitated through the expansion of the fields in terms of characteristic orthogonal spherical vector wave functions. The properties for which formulas are derived are current distribution, input impedance, input power, radiated power, power loss in the spherical medium, and the efficiency of the antenna. For radiation resistance, not only the general case formula but also the formula for electrically small antennas is given, and the difference between these formulas, for media assumed lossless, is shown graphically. View full abstract»

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  • The conductance of dipoles of arbitrary size and shape

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 353 - 358
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The real part of either the impedance or the admittance of dipoles of arbitrary size and shape can be computed rigorously without solving a boundary value problem of a partial differential equation. In analogy to a well-known method of potential theory, fields of standing waves can be generated by integrals over current filaments so that for a given frequency there exist dipole shaped surfaces normal to the electric field surrounded by distant surfaces of vanishing electric field strength. Boundaries of perfect conductors may be supposed to coincide with a dipole shaped surface and a distant closed surface. The transients of such fields of standing waves are intimately related to the steady state of the free radiating dipole, since, before the first waves reflected from the distant enclosure have come back, the dipole cannot know whether or not it is enclosed. Corresponding to the type of current filament, either the resistance, or the conductance, of the radiating dipole can be calculated by direct integrations, while the shape of the dipole is determined by an ordinary differential equation of first order. As an example, we compute a family of dipoles that all have the same conductance G=(254 \Omega )^{-1} and a length 2h between limits \lambda /2\leq 2h\leq 1.36\lambda /2 . View full abstract»

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  • The launching of surface waves by a parallel plate waveguide

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 359 - 368
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    The excitation of the lowest TM surface wave in grounded dielectric slab by a terminated parallel plate waveguide is discussed. The ground plane is the continuation of the lower plate of the waveguide and the infinite dielectric slab is partially filling the waveguide. The thickness of the slab, the height of the parallel plate waveguide, and the frequency are such that only the lowest slow wave can propagate in the partially filled waveguide and the grounded dielectric slab. The Fourier transform of the field scattered by the termination of the upper plate of the waveguide is found by means of the Wiener-Hopf technique and the far fields obtained by the method of steepest descents. The percentage of power reflected back into the waveguide, of power transmitted to the surface wave in the slab, and of power radiated into the open space are plotted vs the thickness of the slab for different heights of the waveguide and \epsilon=2.49 . This method of excitation is found to be very efficient. If the dimensions of the waveguide and the slab remain within a considerably wide range, the efficiency obtained for a given frequency is very close to the optimum. Therefore, the adjustments for maximum efficiency are not critical. View full abstract»

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  • Random errors in aperture distributions

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 369 - 372
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (326 KB)  

    The effects of random manufacturing errors on polar diagrams of antennas are analyzed in terms of the radius of correlation and mean square magnitude of the errors. The basis of the method is the Wiener-Khintchine theorem. Approximate general formulas are given for the reduction in gain and lowest probable sidelobe level. The implications of the theory are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Successive variational approximations of impedance parameters in a coupled antenna system

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 373 - 379
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    In this paper, a new variational formulation for a single impedance parameter of an m -antenna system is presented. This formulation enables one to determine any self impedance Z_{ii} , one at a time, merely by exciting antenna i alone and leaving all the other antennas open circuited. For determining any mutual impedance Z_{ij} , only two independent excitations, one the same as that used for determining Z_{ii} and the other for determining Z_{jj} , are required. Thus, if all the m(m+1)/2 impedance are required, only m independent excitation conditions are needed. In contrast to this, the formulation available in the literature is based on m(m+1)/2 independent excitation conditions. Because of a reduced number of excitation conditions and the way they are assumed, the physical nature of the problem is made simpler and easier to comprehend. Such comprehension helps considerably in the choice of trial current distributions for a specific application. Two methods of evaluating the successive higher-order approximations are also given. One is based upon an orthogonalization process, and the other is based upon the successive inversion of matrices. In the evaluation of a certain order approximation, both methods have the advantage of utilizing all the work already done for the lower-order approximations; and at the same time, additional work required is considerably reduced. It is believed that the formulation, as well as the two methods of successive approximations, will also be useful in other problems. View full abstract»

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  • A new method for obtaining maximum gain from yagi antennas

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 379 - 386
    Cited by:  Papers (45)  |  Patents (1)
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    In conventional Yagi design, optimum performance requires separate adjustments in a number of parameters-the array length and the height, diameter, and spacing of the directors and reflectors. By introducing the notion of a surface wave traveling along the array, it is possible to demonstrate experimentally the interrelationship between these parameters. With this, the gain then depends only on the phase velocity of the surface wave (which is a function of the height, diameter, and spacing of the directors) and on the choice of the reflector. Thus, maximum gain for a given array length, for any director spacing less than 0.5 \lambda , can be obtained by suitable variation of the parameters to yield the desired phase velocity. A design procedure that provides maximum gain for a given array length is presented. View full abstract»

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  • A dipole antenna coupled electromagnetically to a two-wire transmission line

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 386 - 392
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The properties of a dipole antenna coupled electromagnetically to a two-wire transmission line are studied experimentally. It is found that the coupling of the antenna to the transmission line can be maximized by a proper choice of 1) the angular position of the antenna with respect to the transmission line, 2) the length of the antenna, and 3) the separation of the antenna from the transmission line. The effect of the spacing between the wires of the transmission line on the optimum parameters is investigated. It is found that the optimum angular position of the antenna is not noticeably altered if, instead of a single antenna, an array of properly located antennas is used as the load. The advantage of an antenna array built on this coupling principle is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • An ionospheric ray-tracing technique and its application to a problem in a long-distance radio propagation

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 393 - 396
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    A method is given for the determination of the equation of a ray path in a known ionosphere where there axe no horizontal gradients. It can partially take into account the effects of the magnetic field of the earth. The method was applied to an oblique path between Ottawa and Slough (5300 km) to determine certain properties of the one-hop mode. From this it is shown that at times one hop direct ray propagation is possible over this path. View full abstract»

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  • The effect of multipath distortion on the choice of operating frequencies for high-frequency communication circuits

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 397 - 404
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Harmful multipath distortion on high-frequency facsimile services and telegraphic services operating at high speeds occurs when the received signal is composed of two or more components arriving by different modes over the same great-circle path with comparable intensities, but having travel times which differ by an amount equal to an appreciable fraction of the duration of a signal element. The dependence of multipath distortion on the relationship of the operating frequency to the MUF is discussed and a new term, the multipath reduction factor (MRF), is introduced which permits calculation in terms of the MUF of the lowest frequency which can be used to provide a specified measure of protection against multipath distortion. The MRF has a marked path-length dependence and is calculated as a function of path length for representative values of the other parameters involved by making use of an ionospheric model. It is then shown how the MRF can be used in connection with world-wide MUF prediction material to determine the minimum number of frequencies which must be assigned to a high-frequency communication service of continuous availability operating at high speed. Some comparisons with observations are discussed, and finally conclusions are drawn concerning manner of operation and choice of operating frequencies to reduce or to eliminate harmful multipath distortion. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of 3-cm radio height-gain curves taken over rough terrain

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 405 - 413
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    This report describes the effect of terrain and meteorological conditions on the height-gain pattern of 3.2-cm radio waves over various short transmission paths. Equivalent reflection coefficients are obtained and potential reflection areas are investigated. A study of the time variations in the height of nulls in the signal strength pattern is made and the relationship between movement of the nulls and the corresponding refractive index distribution is considered. View full abstract»

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  • Electron densities of the ionosphere utilizing high-altitude rockets

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 414 - 418
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    The problem of determining the electron densities in the E -region of the ionosphere is approached by using 6-mc pulse transmissions from a rocket to several ground receiving stations. A logical and complete development, using dyadic techniques, is given for obtaining the propagation constant of the dissipative, anisotropic ionosphere. Special cases of the magneto-ionic formulas are given, and comparison of the ionosphere with a distributed-constant transmission line is made. In a nondissipative ionosphere, formulas are developed establishing the relationship between the effective electron density and the relative transmission delay of the 6-mc pulse. A description of the University of Utah's vertical incidence experiment is given in which a 6-mc pulse from an airborne transmitter is received simultaneously at several ground receiving stations. The relative 6-mc time-delay data from three Aerobee high-altitude rockets launched from Holloman Air Development Center on July 1, 1953, November 3, 1953, and June 13, 1956, were obtained and, from these, electron density was calculated. Curves showing the profile of electron density as a function of altitude as calculated both during the rocket ascent and descent are presented. The curves indicate a general increase of electron density throughout the E - region, rising from nearly zero at 85 km to a maximum of about 2 \times 10^{11} electrons/m3. The maximum altitude attained by the rockets allowed exploration up to 137 km above sea level. View full abstract»

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  • A scatter propagation experiment using an array of six paraboloids

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 419 - 428
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Using an antenna system whose aperture could be varied in four-foot steps between 4 and 24 feet, aperture-to-medium coupling loss measurements have been made on a 2720-msec, 216- mile path. These measurements reveal an intrinsic variability in the scattering mechanism which is not accounted for in most current theories. Diversity and fading-rate measurements were also made. A simple mathematical model of the diffracted field yields calculated values of the normal component of the wind which agree well with the measured wind. Calculated and measured values of fading rate are also seen to be in good agreement. An estimate is made of the turbulent wind velocity. View full abstract»

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  • Sweep-frequency studies in beyond-the-horizon propagation

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 428 - 433
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    This paper considers the bandwidth characteristics of the propagating medium in tropospheric beyond-the-horizon propagation. To study this problem, a frequency-sweep experiment was performed over a 171-mile experimental circuit. A 4.11-kmc transmitter was frequency modulated at a 1000-cps rate over a 20-mc band. The receiver was swept nonsynchronously over the same band at a 30-cps rate. The resultant pulses were displayed on an oscillograph and photographed at the rate of one frame every two seconds. The experiment used a 28-foot transmitting antenna and 8-, 28- and 60-foot receiving antennas. Sequences of selected sweep-frequency pictures are shown for various antenna combinations and transmission conditions. The bandwidths from the experiment are compared with a calculation based on the common volume geometry. Photographs of signals received simultaneously from a twin-feed horizontal diversity system are also shown and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Geometrical optics approximation of near-field back scattering

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 434 - 435
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  • Scanning antenna arrays of discrete elements

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 435 - 436
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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  • On the use of uniform circular arrays to obtain omnidirectional patterns

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 436 - 438
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
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  • Status of tropospheric extended range transmission

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 439 - 440
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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  • Contributors and back cover

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): c4
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The Transactions ceased publication in 1962. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation.

Full Aims & Scope