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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date March 1966

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  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1966 , Page(s): 0
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  • Comments on "Mathematical analysis of microwave breakdown in flowing gases"

    Publication Year: 1966 , Page(s): 253 - 254
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  • Comments on "Shadowing of random surfaces

    Publication Year: 1966 , Page(s): 253
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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  • Correction to "Note on nonlinear microwave breakdown"

    Publication Year: 1966 , Page(s): 254
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  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 1966 , Page(s): c4
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  • Parametric properties of fields in a slab of time-varying permittivity

    Publication Year: 1966 , Page(s): 183 - 194
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    Plane waves in a nonconducting charge-free medium with a permittivity given by \epsilon(t) = \epsilon/(1 -2p \cos 2\Omega t) can be written as products of Mathieu functions and exponentials \exp (ikx) . The behavior of the waves, which depends on the choice of the wave number k , is deduced entirely from the properties of the Mathieu functions. In a periodically varying medium of infinite extent, one encounters exponentially increasing waves for certain bands of wave numbers. The existence of such waves in a permittivity-modulated slab immersed in a medium of arbitrary constant permittivity is investigated by attempting to satisfy the condition of continuity of the fields at the interfaces. It is found that the modulation index 2p must exceed a critical value if exponentially increasing waves are to be produced. This critical value is shown to depend on the width of the slab and on the relation of the permittivities of the slab and the surrounding medium. For the case that 2p is less than that critical value, the response of the slab to a normally incident plane wave is described. It is shown that the slab may be designed to act as a parametric oscillator, amplifier, filter, or frequency converter. View full abstract»

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  • Properties of a phased array of rectangular waveguides with thin walls

    Publication Year: 1966 , Page(s): 163 - 173
    Cited by:  Papers (34)
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    The radiation impedance of an infinite array of open rectangular waveguides has been calculated by a function-theoretic method for H plane and quasi- E plane beam scanning directions. The mutual coupling between columns has also been obtained. The amplitudes of the coupling coefficients decay asymptotically as r^{-3/2} while the phase difference between successive coupling coefficients approaches that to be expected from free space wave propagation. This asymptotic behavior is independent of waveguide dimensions for both planes of scan. It is similar to the asymptotic behavior of a line-source-excited wave propagating over a lossy surface. This suggests that the interface between an array and free space may in general be treated as such a surface. The coupling coefficients are used to determine the properties of an array, which has a finite number of active elements surrounded by an infinite passive array. Also, the edge effect due to the finiteness of an array is evaluated. View full abstract»

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  • Radiation from a vertical dipole in a warm plasma--Part II

    Publication Year: 1966 , Page(s): 213 - 219
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    A numerical evaluation of the integrals that constitute the formal solution of the problem of a vertical dipole, which is situated in a homogeneous, warm plasma half-space above a perfectly conducting plane, is considered. An asymptotic series expansion is obtained for these integrals by the double saddle point method of integration. The dominant terms of the solution in the far field are shown to consist of a surface wave, which arises from the residue of a pole, and a space wave, which is the leading term of the saddle point contribution. The space wave is identified as the geometrical ray approximation to the solution. It is demonstrated that the surface wave can propagate when the source frequency is either above or below the plasma frequency. The transfer of power from an incident acoustical ( p ) mode to a boundary-generated electromagnetic ( e ) mode, and from an incident e mode to a boundary-generated p mode, is investigated at a plasma-conductor interface. It is evident in both situations that only a small percentage of the incident power is transformed into the boundary-generated mode. In the case of a vertical dipole, however, it is shown that, at source frequencies which are near to the plasma frequency, the power in the incident p mode is much larger than that in the e mode. Thus, the boundary-generated e mode, which is due to the incident p mode, is as large as the reflected e mode due to an incident e mode. As a result of this effect, it is pointed out that one can represent the reflected e mode by two image sources. View full abstract»

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  • Asymptotic behavior of the coupling coefficients for an infinite array of thin-walled rectangular waveguides

    Publication Year: 1966 , Page(s): 248 - 249
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
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  • Radiation from a vertical dipole in a warm plasma--Part I

    Publication Year: 1966 , Page(s): 207 - 212
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The radiation characteristics of a vertical electric dipole which is situated in a homogeneous, warm plasma half-space above a perfectly conducting plane, is considered. The problem is formulated in terms of two vector potential functions, one of which is used to represent the electromagnetic mode, while the other is used to represent the acoustical mode. The potentials are expressed in terms of their Fourier integral representations, and the formal solution is found by the use of signal-flow graphs. View full abstract»

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  • Current distribution and impedance per unit length of a thin strip

    Publication Year: 1966 , Page(s): 252
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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  • Multiple scattering from inhomogeneous media

    Publication Year: 1966 , Page(s): 202 - 207
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    Scalar multiple scattering from randomly distributed, discrete point scatterers is investigated numerically by solving the problem exactly on a point-by-point basis and comparing it with the behavior of a single "bulk" scatterer, which, as assumed in available multiple-scattering theory [1]-[3], is an "average" substitute for the assembly. Apart from providing a check on the theory, the effect of inhomogeneities in the distribution can be investigated very conveniently by this scheme, whenever a solution is possible. The main conclusion is that, at relatively high frequencies, the amount and angular distribution of the backward-scattered energy depends very critically on these inhomogeneities. View full abstract»

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  • Swept-frequency antenna gain measurements

    Publication Year: 1966 , Page(s): 173 - 178
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    This paper presents a method of making a swept-frequency antenna gain measurement which yields a result based upon the known gain vs. frequency of a standard antenna. This antenna consists of a 295-mm length of X -band waveguide with a cover flange on one end. It is an inexpensive and very satisfactory gain standard. The error analysis, which gives the accuracy of the resulting gain figure, consists of evaluating the conjugate mismatch losses at the antenna feed point or junction. This method of measuring gain is shown to yield useful gain data from an antenna test range that is not free of reflections. Gain vs. frequency curves are given for the standard gain antenna and a test antenna, having estimated accuracies of at least 0.27 dB and 1.00 dB, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • A gain optimization principle for arrays responding to quasi-monochromatic periodic signals

    Publication Year: 1966 , Page(s): 250
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  • The long Yagi-Uda array

    Publication Year: 1966 , Page(s): 128 - 137
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
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    The King-Sandler array theory is used to analyze the excitation of a surface wave along a semi-infinite Yagi array, as well as the scattering of such a wave at the end of a semi-infinite array. A method for approximately analyzing the behavior of finite Yagi arrays is presented which involves the matching of two terminal-zone solutions for semi-infinite arrays. Before attempting to correlate the derived theory with the more rigorous array theory, an experimental study of a twenty-element Yagi array was undertaken, and all results are shown to be accurately predicted by the King-Sandler theory. An extensive set of numerical data is presented to compare wave theory with array theory, and once again the agreement is excellent. Finally, the new theory is shown to predict a certain critical point in the data at which the wave solution ceases to exist. This point is also observed to enter dramatically into the King-Sandler solution, thus providing a final contribution to the evidence which links the wave theory to the accepted King-Sandler theory. View full abstract»

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  • Application of ray tracing to predicting the properties of a small, axially symmetric, missle radome

    Publication Year: 1966 , Page(s): 244 - 246
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
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  • Antenna cost, efficiency, and system noise

    Publication Year: 1966 , Page(s): 249 - 250
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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  • Propagation through the atmosphere at a wavelength of 3.3mm

    Publication Year: 1966 , Page(s): 228 - 235
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    The general propagation characteristics of 3.3-mm waves through the atmosphere are determined. The measured absorption of the atmosphere is in fair agreement with the Van Vleck-Weisskopf theory. An approximation for the zenith attenuation in decibels through the atmosphere is 0.28+0.31w , where w is the precipitable water in centimeters. The effects of varying attenuation on the determination of the brightness temperature of extraterrestrial sources is considered. The usual radio refraction expression appears adequate for 3.3-mm waves for zenith angles less than 70 degrees. View full abstract»

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  • Comprehensive analysis for E-plane of horn antennas by edge diffraction theory

    Publication Year: 1966 , Page(s): 138 - 149
    Cited by:  Papers (37)
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    Edge diffraction theory is used in analyzing the radiation characteristics of typical horn antennas. The far-sidelobe and backlobe radiation has been solved without employing field equivalence principles which are impractical in the problem. A corner reflector with a magnetic line source located at the vertex is proposed as a model for the principal E -plane radiation of horn antennas. A complete pattern, including multiple interactions and images of induced line sources, is obtained in infinite series form. Diffraction mechanisms are used for appropriate approximations in the computations. The computed patterns are in excellent agreement with measured patterns of typical horn antennas. Radiation intensity of the backlobe relative to mainlobe intensity is obtained as a back-to-front ratio and plotted as a function of antenna dimensions. View full abstract»

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  • Large diameter dielectric rod end-fire antennas

    Publication Year: 1966 , Page(s): 239 - 240
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  • Mutual impedance of linear antennas in the presence of a stratified dielectric

    Publication Year: 1966 , Page(s): 195 - 202
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    Two linear flat strip antennas lie in an interface between several dielectric layers. The mutual and self-impedance of the antennas is computed, based on a variational formulation of the antenna impedance with symmetrical and antisymmetrical excitation conditions. For free space surrounding the antennas, the present variational formulation provides a closer agreement with measurements than past solutions of the iterative type. For antennas in a dielectric slab, the mutual impedance is shown to be increased by increasing electrical thickness of the layer, but decreased by increasing dielectric losses. The present calculations tend to agree with transmission line approximations of the antenna impedance for insulated antennas in a highly lossy medium, but the two sets of calculations differ for small antenna separations and for lower dielectric losses, in particular if the permittivity of the lossy medium is also lower. View full abstract»

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  • Permanently magnetized ferrite antenna windows for improving electromagnetic wave transmission through a plasma

    Publication Year: 1966 , Page(s): 251 - 252
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  • Numerical solutions for an infinite phased array of rectangular waveguides with thick walls

    Publication Year: 1966 , Page(s): 149 - 158
    Cited by:  Papers (30)
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    A numerical analysis of an infinite phased array of open rectangular waveguides has been made which includes the effects of wall thickness. Two planes of scan, the H and quasi- E planes, have been considered. In these cases, the general vector problem can be expressed in the form of a scalar one-dimensional Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. The approximate fields obtained numerically from the integral equation are used for the evaluation of the input complex reflection coefficient. A variational expression for the reflection coefficient is developed and used for improving the accuracy. Numerical results for the H and quasi- E plane scans are presented as a function of wall thickness and scan angle. Agreement with experimental results is very good. View full abstract»

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  • Impedance of a loop antenna in a conducting medium

    Publication Year: 1966 , Page(s): 242 - 243
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  • Radiation efficiency of a short cryogenic antenna

    Publication Year: 1966 , Page(s): 246
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation includes theoretical and experimental advances in antennas.

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Editor-in-Chief                                                 Kwok W. Leung