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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date January 1963

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Displaying Results 1 - 18 of 18
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 0
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): c4
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Transient response of linear antennas driven from a coaxial line

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 17 - 23
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    The initial transient response of straight wires connected to coaxial lines is studied theoretically for the case where a pulse is applied to the coaxial line. The wave form of the return pulse is first found approximately for the case of a pulse of zero rise time. Since this does not correspond to any feasible experimental situation, the effect of a finite rise time is considered in detail. Numerical results are obtained for several special cases. View full abstract»

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  • Low-frequency scattering by rectangular cylinders

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 52 - 56
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
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    An integral equation formulation is used to investigate potential problems associated with low-frequency scattering by both dielectric and perfectly conducting cylinders of rectangular cross section. Induced dipoles and scattering cross sections are obtained for 1) waves with \bar{E} or \bar{H} parallel to the axis, and 2) directions of propagation perpendicular and parallel to the broad side of the rectangle. View full abstract»

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  • Modified progressive phasing for endfire arrays

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 13 - 17
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    The general problem of modifying antenna array patterns by adjusting only the phase of the elements is discussed. It is shown that, in the case of endfire arrays, considerable reduction of the sidelobe levels can be obtained by using small departures from progressive phasing. Simple formulas for the required phasing are derived. An alternative method, using only a single pair of "sidelobe-reducing" elements, is also given. View full abstract»

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  • A short way of solving advanced problems in electromagnetic fields and other linear systems

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 73 - 86
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1160 KB)  

    A linear system is characterized in the abstract by a source vector a , a response vector \alpha and a system matrix R , connected by \alpha = Ra . Specific interpretations for a , \alpha and R are given for electromagnetic fields, the scalar product a \dot Rb being the reaction. The advantages of this method are illustrated by application to various problems. Mode expansions are defined by the eigenvector equation Rm = C_{m}m , C_{m} being the eigenvalue and m the mode source. This means the mode is generated by a combination of electric and magnetic sources which, apart from the constant multiplier C_{m} , are everywhere equal to the electric and magnetic fields, respectively. Such mode expansions are applied to typical waveguide problems. Waveguide theory is set up in terms of unit voltage and unit current mode sources, v and i , where v \dot v = 1 = i \dot i . Then the definitions of waveguide current and voltage coincide with those for circuit theory, e.g., the mode current at cross section P is the reaction on a unit voltage source placed at P . The method also greatly simplifies scattering and antenna problems, such as the pattern of a monopole antenna which is immersed in a layer of gyrotropic plasma. View full abstract»

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  • A method of modeling array antennas

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 97 - 98
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
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  • The scattering cross section of a composite cylinder, geometric optics

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 86 - 93
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB)  

    The optical analogue of the scattering cross section of a composite cylinder is developed from a representation of the forward scattered amplitude as a continuous spectrum of radial eigenfunctions. The Debye approximation for the Hankel functions, which is valid when their arguments are large compared to the order, leads to a series of integrals which can be evaluated asymptotically by the method of stationary phase. The final result, for a certain range of parameters, is a diffraction correction plus a double sum of terms, each of which can be interpreted as an optical ray. It is shown that if the angular displacement between the incoming and scattered ray directions is (2m + 1)\pi , the ray must have been reflected at the conducting core of the cylinder at least 2m + 1 times. After the parameter ranges to which these results apply were determined, the nonlinear equations for the ray angles were solved on a large-scale digital computer and the scattering cross section of a number of composite cylinders was calculated as a function of frequency. The results are presented graphically. View full abstract»

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  • Curves for ground wave propagation over mixed land and sea paths

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 38 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (672 KB)  

    Specific numerical results are presented for ground wave propagation over paths which are part sea and part land. The problem is idealized to the extent that the earth is a smooth spherical surface. The method is based on a previous formulation in terms of mutual impedance between two vertical electric dipoles on an inhomogeneous spherical earth. Amplitude and phase of the ground wave are given for various combinations of the following parameters: frequency 1000, 100, and 20 kc; land conductivities 100 and 10 mmhos/meter; and a sea conductivity of 4 mhos/meter. Most of the curves exhibit the well-known recovery effect which occurs beyond the coast line for propagation from land towards the sea. View full abstract»

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  • Input impedance of the helical antenna

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 97
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  • Diffraction by a circular aperture in a unidirectionally conducting screen

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 56 - 67
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    The diffraction of a normally incident plane electromagnetic wave with wave number k by a circular aperture of radius a in a unidirectionally conducting plane screen of zero thickness and infinite extent is considered. In the limit of large ka , the ratio of the transmission cross section to the geometrical optics value \pi a^{2} , is found up to the order (ka)^{-3/2} . View full abstract»

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  • Radiation from a gyro-plasma sheathed aperature

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 2 - 12
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
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    It is shown that the presence of a gyrotropic plasma sheath covering a rectangular slot radiator may not alter significantly the radiation pattern when the static magnetic field is perpendicular to the slot. The plasma covered antenna remains omnidirectional and the radiated power is not significantly reduced when the cyclotron frequency \omega _{b} , the collision frequency \nu , and the operating frequency \omega , fulfill the inequality \omega _{b}^{2}\gg\omega ^{2}+\nu^{2} . It is also found that the matching between the plasma covered antenna and its surrounding is sharply improved for certain combinations of the plasma sheath parameters and the operating frequency. This finding may have an application in plasma diagnostics, the slab width L and the plasma frequency \omega _{p} can be determined by varying \omega _{i} and \omega according to an expression derived in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Radiation and reactive energy of aperture antennas

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 94 - 95
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB)  

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  • Frequency correlation of line-of-sight signal scintillations

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 46 - 51
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB)  

    The frequency autocorrelation of amplitude and phase scintillations of radio signals propagated over turbulent line-of-sight paths is calculated theoretically. The single scattering (Born) approximation to the electromagnetic response of the turbulent irregularities is used, limiting the results to small amplitude and phase variations. However, the results are valid for both Fresnel (near zone) and Fraunhofer (far zone) scattering. The calculations are made for an arbitrary model of the turbulent irregularities by using the spectrum method, which postpones the specialization of the analysis to a particular turbulence model until the wave-propagation aspects of the problem are completed. It is shown that the signal variations on adjacent carrier frequencies have high correlation for frequency separations comparable to the carrier frequency for all propagation conditions, indicating that the "medium bandwidth" for line-of-sight paths is very large. This also means that there should be negligible pulse distortion for high-speed data links or high resolution radars operating on line-of-sight paths. These predictions are compared with the few available experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • A probabilistic approach to the design of large antenna arrays

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 95 - 96
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
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  • Studies of within-the-horizon propagation at 9300 Mc

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 24 - 38
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    Propagation characteristics of radio signals in the 9300-Mc frequency range were investigated over a 113-km tropospheric within-the-horizon path in Eastern Colorado. Special attention was given to the short-term fading characteristics of the received carrier envelopes and to the bandwidth capability of the medium in this frequency range, which was studied by the comparison of amplitude variations of two CW carriers separated by 100 Mc in frequency. For this purpose, correlation coefficients between carrier envelopes as well as the distributions of carrier amplitude ratios were analyzed. Although these parameters are related, the amplitude ratio has some advantages as an indicator of selective fading phenomena for within-the-horizon paths. By sampling the 9250 and 9350 Mc instantaneous carrier amplitudes at the rate of one per second, an over-all value of 0.91 was obtained for their cross-correlation coefficient. The standard deviation of the amplitude ratios expressed in db at 9250 and 9350 Mc averaged 0.76 db, with a maximum hourly value of 1.81 db. These results include the effect of space diversity, as separate antennas were used for transmission and reception of the two carriers, but they support the feasibility of wide-band modulation techniques for within-the-horizon paths if judged by the statistics of amplitude variations at discrete frequencies at the limits of the band considered. Short-term and long-term fading characteristics at 9300 Mc are similar to the ones previously observed on lower frequencies over this path. An analysis of prolonged space-wave fadeouts in this frequency range resulted in fadeout depths up to 25 db below weekly transmission loss medians, approximately log-normal distributions of fadeout durations, and the expected diurnal variations of fadeout occurrence typical of a continental climate. View full abstract»

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  • On the delta aerial

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 98 - 100
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  • Back-scatter by dielectric spheres (Refractive index approx 1.6

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 68 - 72
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB)  

    Two independent sets of experimental results are presented on the back-scatter from plexiglass spheres. These are compared with theoretical computations for refractive indices m = 1.60, 1.61 and 1.61-0.0025i. For \alpha (ratio of perimeter to wavelength) \leq 7.5 , the upper limit of the experimental data, the theoretical values are practically identical to one another and agreement with experiment is excellent. For \alpha > 7.5 , the theoretical values diverge from one another. The small absorption coefficient has an increasingly important effect as the spheres grow larger, but even at \alpha \simeq 100 , the cross section remains above its asymptotic value. Except for the interval 30< \alpha < 40 , plexiglass spheres have larger cross sections than metal ones between 6 < \alpha < 60 . This is due to the focusing action of the dielectric sphere and the back surface reflection. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation includes theoretical and experimental advances in antennas.

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Editor-in-Chief                                                 Kwok W. Leung