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Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date December 1986

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 32
  • Foreword

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 327
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A Low Cost Lead Frame Techonology for Automated Laser Packaging

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 455 - 457
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The current price of packaged high quality 1.3 um lasers for lightwave communications makes them prohibitively expensive for local applications. To demonstrate a way of reducing this high price a laser mount has been designed and fabricated using an inherently inexpensive stamping process. The design is adaptable for automated bonding testing and accelerated aging, which promises significant further cost reduction. This low cost forming offers a laser mount which is entirely compatible with the lead frame processing techniques developed for light emitting diodes (LED's) and silicon devices. Features of the new laser-mount include a novel pedestal design which exposes both laser facets, chip protection from mishandling, and features for the precise location of both the laser chip and the ceramic standoff. The projected cost for the laser mount in volume production is less than $0.25. View full abstract»

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  • VLSI Packaging Technique Using Liquid-Cooled Channels

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 328 - 335
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (5)
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    A new packaging technique which employs innovative indirect liquid cooling is described. The technique involves mounting very large-scale integrated (VLSI) chips on a multilayered alumina substrate which incorporates very fine coolant channels. In particular, an investigation into the optimal structure for the cooling section by computer simulation and by experiment involving the physical implementation of this structure is discussed. The numerical solution of the coolant flow distribution obtained ensures that the coolant distributor and collector structure dimensions can be determined to meet the uniform velocity distribution condition. Additionally, the channel cross section is designed to be 800 um wide x 400 um high to achieve a lower thermal resistance. An outline of an indirect liquid cooling package fabricated based on the results of these structures is presented. The package mounts a 5 x 5 array of 8-mm2VLSI chips on a substrate measuring 85 mm x 105 mm. The substrate features 29 very fine coolant channels, six conductor layers, and 900 input/output (I/O) pins. The technique permits the realization of an allowable heat dissipation higher than 400 W per package at a flow rate of 1.0 1/min. Furthermore, since the thickness of the cooling section is smaller than 1.0 mm, the volume power density increases 17 kW/l or more. This cooling capability is tenfold greater than that obtained by conventional indirect water cooling. View full abstract»

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  • Noncontact Bent Pin Detection Using Laser Diffraction

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 458 - 463
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    The use of optical diffraction is investigated to detect bent pins on a high-density multi-chip integrated-circuit module as an intermediate step in a robotic assembly process. A fixed laser beam shines on a fixed optical array while the robot moves the pins of the module through the beam at four different orientations. (While two scans are mathematically adequate, four scans are required because of the physical characteristics of this particular module.) The optical array is continuously scanned and the resultant images are processed to detect specific abnormalities in the diffraction pattern. If a flaw is detected, software determines the approximate location of the defective pin and whether it should be straightened manually or sent back for rework (determined by the angle of bend). View full abstract»

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  • The Preparation and Properties of 4.7 uF 2220 Size 50 V Z5U Relaxor Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 464 - 468
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A new dielectric for multilayer ceramic capacitors is currently undergoing factory qualification. This dielectric is based on a nonstoichiometric lead magnesium niobate relaxor material. Dielectric constants in excess of 15000 have been achieved for bodies which sinter close to 900°C with 100 percent Ag internal electrodes. The use of very high Ag content electrode systems means that there is a considerable cost reduction so that multilayer ceramic chip capacitors become cost competitive with solid tantalum chip capacitors. The preparation and properties of the dielectric material are described and life test data are presented showing that capacitors of the new dielectric are extremely stable for periods up to two years at ambient and upper rated temperature. A direct comparison is made between the electrical properties of 4.7 uF 50 V 2220 size Z5U multilayer chip capacitors manufactured from the new relaxor dielectric and the equivalent value tantalum chip capacitors. View full abstract»

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  • Fatigue of 60/40 Solder

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 423 - 432
    Cited by:  Papers (117)
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    Plastic strain versus fatigue life data are presented for tests run at -- 50, 35, 125, and 150°C. It was found that these data could be correlated by the Coffin-Manson fatigue law, with an exponent of approximately 0.5 for the tests run at -35°C to 125°C. At 150°C the exponent was reduced to 0.37. These results were obtained for plastic strain limited tests. Different results are obtained when total strain limits are employed. This difference is discussed. The influence of cycling frequency and temperature changes are also discussed. A model is presented which describes the influence of plastic strain and cycling frequency. Corrections to the model predicted fatigue life, which account for temperature changes, cycling waveshape, and joint geometries, are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Polyimide - Substrate Bonding Studies Using \gamma -APS Coupling Agent

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 364 - 369
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
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    Application of polyimides in microelectronics fabrication for interlevel dielectric, passivation, or device isolation requires that the polymer films maintain interface integrity with a variety of surfaces at high temperature and during solvent processing. y-aminopropyltriethoxy-silane (y-APS) in aqueous solution is the most commonly employed adhesion promoter for the bonding of polyimides to inorganic substrates including silicon oxide, silicon nitride, and ceramic. The adhesion of pyromellitic-dianhydride-oxydianiline (PMDA-ODA) derived polyimide films on y-APS-treated silicon oxide and silicon nitride surfaces under high-temperature processing is considered. Using the standard 90° peel test for adhesion measurements, it is shown that polymer-substrate interface stability is completely maintained even after multiple thermal cycles with 25° \rightarrow 375° \rightarrow 25°C excursions in nitrogen and in forming gas ambients. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of the polyimide side and the substrate surface exposed in the peel adhesion measurement was used to ascertain the elemental composition and detailed chemistry at the locus of failure. These data show that the peel occurs within the polyimide film near the polymer/substrate interface. View full abstract»

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  • Current-Leakage Failures in Hybrid Microcircuits

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 403 - 409
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    Electrical failures due to excessive current leakage have been observed in several hybrids during both hot and cold temperature testing. Failures have been correlated with increased amounts of ionic and gaseous contamination in the package. Short-term failures at cold temperature appeared to be due to ammonia (from the substrate-attach epoxy) condensing on the substrate and acting as a conductive medium for ionic and polar species adsorbed on the surface. Short-term failures at hot temperature were consistent with surface inversion leakage. Long-term failures after burn-in at 125°C were due to silver electromigration from the die-attach epoxy. Associated materials and electronic testing are also reported. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of the Stability of Gold and Palladium Alloy Connector Contacts Subjected to Vibration

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 480 - 484
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    Printed wiring board connector contacts utilizing gold and various palladium based alloys have been subjected to vibration testing to accelerate degradation caused by fretting or frictional polymer formation. The resistance of each contact was measured before the test and at various intervals throughout the test. The results show that the contacts with the maximum gold content are the most stable in this test. Pure palladium contacts mated with pure palladium contacts are the least stable. Further tests have shown that palladium-based materials covered with thin gold or gold-rich layers perform satisfactorily. View full abstract»

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  • A Mechanism for Board Warpage by Thermal Expansion of Surface Mounted Connector

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 508 - 512
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    A mechanism of printed circuit (PC) board warpage caused by a thermal mismatch between a surface mounted connector and a PC board is demonstrated. Both the increase and the decrease in temperature enlarge the space between the PC board and the surface mounted (SM) connector. Basically four nondimensional parameters control this mechanism. They are the thermal strain mismatch, the ratio of bending stiffnesses of the PC board and the SM connector, the ratio of elongation stiffnesses, and one geometric parameter. In practical applications, these parameters can be evaluated only when structural details of the electronic package are determined. Though the board warpage by the mechanism discussed herein is small for practical applications, this warpage could induce a sufficient tensile force in soldered joints that could cause damage. View full abstract»

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  • Charge Carriers and Time Dependent Currents in BaTiO3-Based Ceramic

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 469 - 474
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    The following items are treated for BaTiO3-based ceramic and multilayer ceramic (MLC) capacitors: type of charge carrier, mode of transport, and time dependence of conductivity during degradation. For a specific X7R-type ceramic, the charge carrier is verified to be the electron by several independent measurements. Seebeck voltages are negative; Galvanic voltages are zero; leakage currents are constant over long time periods; space charge limited currents are evident. The shapes of complex impedance plots depend on ceramic composition, indicating that grain boundary impedance may be present in some cases and not others. A quantitative model based on ionic movement is presented to account for leakage currents that increase exponentially with time. Evidence for ionic movement for specific Z5U capacitors is reported. Degradation can be reversed by reversing bias polarity or by storage under zero bias. View full abstract»

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  • Screen Printing Grade Polyimide Paste for Alpha-Particle Protection

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 370 - 373
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (2)
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    Polyimide coatings are becoming an important means of providing large-scale memory devices with protection against alpha-particle induced soft error. Efforts to develop a cost-effective method of application have led to the introduction of screen-printable polyimide materials. Conventional polyimide formulations are not suitable for screen printing because their filler particles fire larger than 4 um, which results in more than one pinhole per square centimeter. In addition, the N-methyl-pyrrolidone (NMP) solvent in the formulations breaks down silicone applicators and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) screen emulsion and evaporates so fast that pot life of the formulations is limited to 2 h. Research has led to the development of new manufacturing techniques to produce smaller sized filler particles to eliminate pinholes as well as a new solvent system that extends the useful pot life of the material. View full abstract»

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  • High-Density Optical Digital Datalink with Double-Sided Packaging

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 450 - 454
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    A fiber optic receiver is apt to be disturbed by electromagnetic interference by adjacent circuits because of its low input power level. Therefore, in a duplex optical datalink consisting of a transmitter and a receiver, the crosstalk from the transmitter to the receiver may become an obstacle in increasing the packaging density. An approach to fabricating a transmitter on one side of an FR-4 four-layer printed wiring board (PWB) and a receiver on the other side, thus suppressing the interference between the two circuits and realizing a compact and low-cost optical digital datalink, is described. The receiver using this new packaging technique achieved an optical sensitivity of -- 32 dBm for a 10-9 bit error rate (BER) at a transmission rate of 8.192 Mb/s for the CMI data format. Since the output optical power of the transmitter is -15 dBm or more, this optical datalink provides transmission over a 700 m distance using a 15 dB/km loss optical fiber. View full abstract»

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  • Parametric Study of Heatspreader Thermal Performance in 48 Lead Plastic DIP's and 68 Lead Plastic Leaded Chip Carriers

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 347 - 352
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
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    A study of material and dimensional parameters that affect the thermal performance of heatspreaders internal to 48 lead dual in-line package (DIP) and 68 lead plastic leaded chip carrier (PLCC) molded plastic packages is given. It was found that package thermal resistance is relatively insensitive to heatspreader thermal conductivity and thickness, while variations in area can greatly influence thermal resistance. However, increasing the heatspreader area beyond a certain size will not reduce thermal resistance significantly. View full abstract»

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  • Reliability of Metallized Ceramic/Polyimide Substrates

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 396 - 402
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A new packaging technology has been developed to allow increased switching speeds, lower noise levels, and increased circuit density. The package consists of a ceramic substrate with two layers of copper circuitry separated by a polyimide layer. Extensive accelerated stress testing was performed on the chip carrier to determine the reliability exposures. We found no dielectric or interlayer failures after 2000 h at 85°C/80 percent relative humidity (RH). Almost no detectable resistance drift was observed in the interlayer connections. It was concluded that the polyimide chip carrier is very stable and will meet or exceed all design objectives. View full abstract»

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  • Composite- Type pin Grid Array package

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 336 - 340
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (3)
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    A composite pin grid array (PGA) package was developed. This package is composed of the base, the polyimide film with the wiring paths of copper, and the cap. An attractive feature of this package is its electrical performance. Moreover, this package is suitable both for customization and for mass production at relatively low cost with reduced lead time from design to production. View full abstract»

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  • Rapidly Solidified Soft Solder Die-Attach Technology

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 416 - 422
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    Soft solders used in the die-attach of power packages are prone to fatigue failure. Conventionally east soft solders typically contain nonhomogeneous Phases and organics. Failure analysis usually shows extensive voids, cracks, and segregation of metals in the die-attach medium, which leads to increased thermal resistance and catastrophic failure during power cycling. Soft solders manufactured via rapid solidification are formed into ribbon directly from the molten metal. The microstructure is homogeneous and free from organics. A study was performed to establish an optimum die-attach process utilizing rapidly solidified soft solder and tO quantify the reliability improvement. View full abstract»

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  • Translucent A1N Ceramic Substrate

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 386 - 390
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (4)
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    A translucent aluminum nitride (AlN) substrate has recently come into the market which has a thermal conductivity of 140 W/mK at room temperature and 130 W/mK at 100°C, eight times that of alumina (Al2O3) and one-half to two-thirds that of beryllia (BeO). Its excellent electrical and mechanical properties as well as inherent light transmitting property ensure that the new AlN material can be used as high-performance ceramic substrates for high-power and high-speed semiconductor modules. Metallization of the ceramic has been done by three methods: 1) tungsten metallization by a co-firing process, which is a fundamental technology for the coming multilayer AlN packages; 2) metallization with silver-palladium (Ag/Pd) conductor and ruthenium-oxide (RuO2) resistor, which was developed for the translucent AlN substrate; and 3) molten metal metallization, which gives very high adhesive strength. Development of an improved AlN ceramic with a thermal conductivity exceeding that of BeO is also described. View full abstract»

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  • Die Attach Evaluation Using Test Chips Containing Localized Temperature Measurement Diodes

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 410 - 415
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    The die attach related problems of lifting and die cracking become more critical with increasing size of integrated circuit (IC) devices. For this reason, a thermal test utilizing specialized chips and an automated system has been designed for the evaluation of large die attach integrity. Both void detection and statistical characterization of sample populations are possible. While an actual estimation of void size is not made, a quantitative evaluation by comparison is established. The correlation of test measurements with die attach related failures provides a useful tool for process evaluation. Examples of studies done with gold-silicon eutectic die attach are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Friction and Wear of Electrodeposited Palladium Contacts: Thin Film Lubrication with Fluids and with Gold

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 485 - 491
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
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    Palladium deposits with a thin gold overcoat are less expensive than an equivalent thickness of gold plate. They have, therefore, become an important contact material for high reliability separable electronic connectors. The purpose of the gold overcoat in wiping contacts is to provide a low shear strength interfacial layer, or solid lubricant, thereby lowering the adhesive wear rate of the system. In the present study, the friction and wear of various thicknesses and compositions of gold plate on the palladium were determined in sliding against diffused gold 60Pd40Ag (DG R-156) and a cobalt-hardened gold plate. In some cases, a supplementary coating of a polyphenylether fluid was applied to the contacts. It was found that cobalt-gold electroplate on the palladium was superior to pure soft gold despite its much greater hardness. Furthermore, the polyphenylether markedly improved sliding performance in all cases. These results are discussed in the light of friction and wear theory. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Properties of Cr - Al Alloy Thin Films

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 391 - 395
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    Electrical properties of Cr-Al alloy thin films which were deposited on 96-percent alumina substrates by using resistance-heated evaporation have been investigated. The resistivity of the thin films took a maximum value (2.2 x 10-5 Omeg *m) at 25 at % Al. The temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of the thin films had negative values for Al contents between 6 and about 80 at %, with the maximum negative value occurring at 25 at % Al. The thickness dependences of resistivity and TCR were very small at film thicknesses of 260-2400 A. The thin film containing 25 at % Al had an excellent heat resistance; i.e., changes in TCR and resistivity caused by holding at 773 K for 28.8 ks in a nitrogen atmosphere were less than 20 percent and 100 ppm/K, respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis and observation with transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed that the thin film containing 25 at % Al consisted of microcrystals (about 1000 A in diameter) of bcc-Cr. The crystal structure remained unchanged after the heat treatment at 773 K for 3.6 ks in a nitrogen atmosphere. Cr-Al bulk alloy containing 30 at % Al quenched from 1223 K into iced water also had a negative TCR and high resistivity. From these results, it can he concluded that the electrical characteristics of the thin film is closely related to that of Cr-Al bulk alloy. View full abstract»

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  • Fiber Optic Components

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 440 - 449
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    A review of the development of fiber optic components is given. Both single-mode and multimode technologies are addressed. Performance comparisons between various components are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Signature Analysis: Simulation of Inventory, Cycle Time, and Throughput Trade-Offs in Wafer Fabrication

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 498 - 507
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
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    Signature analysis provides a powerful heuristic method for the planning of simulation experiments and for the interpretation of simulation results. Signature analysis has been developed within the context of simulation of the dynamics of wafer fabrication operations in integrated circuit manufacturing. Graphical display of cycle time, throughput, and inventory provides a "signature" of the dynamic behavior of a given operation. Signatures of manufacturing operations are used to address several management issues. The effects of unplanned equipment failures are shown. The variation of signatures with initial inventory and with different time frames for management decisions is illustrated. The extension of signature analysis to other simulations is indicated. View full abstract»

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  • Multilythics - A New Circuit Technology

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 341 - 346
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    A process which combines the functional versatility of thick-film materials with the complexity and integrity of multilayer co-fired manufacturing was developed. This process allows us to integrate many passive functions into the "substrate" itself. The exterior surface of the device then needs only support active devices, special components like crystal oscillators, and devices requiring precision trimming. Therefore it is possible to significantly reduce the size of assembled circuits. This size reduction offers major improvements in high-frequency performance. Additionally, incorporating multiple components into the device reduces the number of interconnects and, therefore, improves the device reliability through assembly and in service. Finally, small size coupled with economies of manufacturing scale indicate that the technology will prove cost effective as well. The name chosen connotes multifunctional circuits in monolythic form. The technology will be introduced briefly and illustrated with examples of radio frequency interference (RFI) filter arrays, hybrid-circuit equivalents for audio-frequency applications, and an emitter-coupled logic (ECL) chip package for very high performance gate-array chips. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of Bromine in Molding Compounds on Gold - Aluminum Bonds

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 379 - 385
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    Degradation rates of gold wire ball bonds on aluminum bonding pads were studied in two molding compounds as a function of bromine concentration, temperature, and time at temperature. The measure of degradation was the resistance increase of the aluminum-gold contact. The rate of degradation was observed to increase with increasing bromine content and temperature for both molding compounds. However, the bromine content dependence of the activation free energy of the degradation reaction indicates a different degradation mechanism for each molding compound. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transaction ceased production in 1993. The current publication is titled IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology.

Full Aims & Scope