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Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date December 1983

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 29
  • Foreword

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 362
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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  • IC Failure Rate Estimates from Field Data

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 568 - 572
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    An estimate of the field failure rate for transistor-transistor-logic (TTL) integrated circuit electronic components was obtained by monitoring the field operation of a clinical chemistry diagnostic system over a period of seven years. The utility of the field data resulting from system monitoring lies in a well-defined instrument operating profile and maintenance reporting system. The array of TTL components used in the instrument represents small- and medium-scale integration complexity. The components operate in a laboratory environment. Based upon 636 million component operating hours, the TTL integrated circuit field failure rate estimate is 0.016 percent per thousand hours. View full abstract»

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  • Nondestructive Screening for Low Voltage Failure in Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 510 - 516
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
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    Low voltage failure in multilayer ceramic capacitors is now generally accepted to be associated with an electrochemical dissolution of electrode materials in a humid environment and subsequent migration and deposition of material between electrodes of opposite polarity. This migration is particularly related to surface cracks or linked porosity. A novel screening technique for chip capacitors has been developed at Standard Telecommunication Laboratories (STL) that can detect the structural defects that are likely to give rise to low voltage failure. The technique is rapid and nondestructive, and is particularly suited to on-line production testing of chips as well as being suitable for goods inward inspection by the customer. Encapsulated capacitors can also be screened and information is then obtained concerning the quality of the encapsulation View full abstract»

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  • Firing Studies With a Model Thick Film Resistor System

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 430 - 435
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    A model resistor system consisting of RuO2 and a single glass was used to study the effects of heating rate, maximum temperature, and Iaolding time at maximum temperature on sheet resistance and temperature dependence of resistance. It was shown that proper selection of the firing parameters can yield good quality resistors having predetermined properties without the use ot' any chemical additives. The results were used to test theoretical models of charge transport, and it was shown that none of the available models can correlate the wide range of properties resulting from the varying firing conditions. View full abstract»

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  • A Comparative Study of Electroplated Palladium as a Contact Finish

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 389 - 395
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    In this study a lower cost replacement for gold as an electrical contact material has been investigated. In the initial phase of the study, the performance of hard gold, palladium, and palladium-nickel alloy both with and without a Soft go1d overlay were compared. ACtual connector hardware using these contact finishes were subjected to two tests: wear at elevated temperature and humidity and exposure tO a humid chlorine and hydrogen sulfide environment. The results of these tests were compared on the basis of resistance measurements of the connector contacts. As interest foCused on the use of a proprietary Bell System palladium with a gold overlay as a substitute finish, other connectors were evaluated including round and square pin contacts, bifurcated and trifurcated socket contacts, button type contacts, printed wiring board fingers, and card edge connectors. For all the cases studied a finish of 25-µ in pa!ladium With 1-µ in gold overlay has been found to be a suitable replacement for the gold contacts used on these devices and is now in use in several contact applications. View full abstract»

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  • The Influence of Fast Infrared Firing on Thick Film Materials

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 436 - 442
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Because of increasing concern with rising energy and equipment costs, greater emphasis is being placed on identifying units and processes with improved throughput and/or operating cost reductions. Recent utilization of the near infrared firing process, which was developed for metallizing solar cells with thick film materials [1] has resulted in its consideration by the hybrid circuit industry [2]. The differences in heat transfer between wire-wound conventional and near infrared furnaces are discussed. Test procedures and results are then described for Heraeus-Cermalloy resistor and conductor materials. The analytical and performance tests show equivalent or improved performance with near infrared (IR) firing. Finally an operating cost comparison of conventional wire-wound and IR furnaces with equivalent throughput shows that substantial savings result from using IR firing. View full abstract»

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  • Low Energy Electron Microscopy Utilized in Dynamic Circuit Analysis and Failure Detection on LSI-VLSI Internal Circuits

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 527 - 536
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    Nonloading and nondestructive signal probing of state-ofthe-art semiconductor arrays has been achieved with the electron beam (E-beam) probe, utilizing scanning electron microscopes (SEM's). To apply the electron beam circuit prober successfully, a low energy setup was developed in order to prevent damage which can be caused by any high energy electrons interacting with the sample in the typical SEM. Using a converted SEM (AMR 1000) with primary beam energies below 770 eV, the accumulation of trapped charges in the quartz or polymide surface insulators was prevented. The probable electron penetration depth with these low energy electrons corresponds to 10 nm or less on conventional silicon based microcircuits. The greatest concerns connected to the usage of very low energy beams were the lack of adequate spatial resolution and the available sample beam current (illumination), especially when using tungsten cathodes. These two concerns are eliminated, as our results have demonstrated better than 100 nm spatial resolution when using 750 eV primary beam energy, and adequate brightness even with a 360 eV beam when it is applied in the stroboscopic mode with less than 1 ' percent duty cycle. View full abstract»

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  • Development of Copper-Carbon Fiber Composite for Electrodes of Power Semiconductor Devices

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 467 - 472
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    In power semiconductor devices, a supporting electrode made of materials such as molybdenum or tungsten is inserted between a silicon wafer and a copper block. The electrode functions as a means for alleviating thermal stress acting on the wafer, as well as a means for conducting electric current. A copper--carbon fiber composite suitable to be the supporting electrode has been developed. The properties of the composite structure are expected to vary depending on the orientation of the fibers. In the case of disk-shaped electrodes usually employed for power devices, the thermal expansion coefficient of the composite has to be isotropic at least on the surface contacting the silicon wafer. That is, two-dimensional isotropy is required. For this purpose, carbon fibers were embedded in a copper matrix in either a weaving, bidirectional, or spiral arrangement. The properties of these composites were adjusted within a certain range by changing the volume, kind, and/or arrangement of carbon fibers. This new composite was applied to a new resin molded diode. The properties of this new diode compared favorably with those of conventional diodes using molybdenum or tungsten electrodes. It is concluded that the new composite electrode with carbon fibers satisfies all of the major requirements for the electrodes in power semiconductor devices. View full abstract»

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  • Structured Copper: A Pliable High Conductance Material for Bonding to Silicon Power Devices

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 460 - 466
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
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    The large difference in thermal expansion between silicon and the high conductivity metals is a major problem to be solved in the packaging of high power silicon devices. One solution is by the use of structured copper which is made of many separate copper wires and can he directly attached to silicon without introducing large stresses. Methods of preparing structured copper are presented along with some examples of its application. View full abstract»

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  • A Cost-Effective High-Performance Alternative to Conventional Gold Plating on Connector Contacts

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 395 - 407
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    Two approaches have been used with some success to counter the effects of the high and volatile costs of gold as used in electronic connectors. One emphasizes gold conservation, using selective plating techniques wherever applicable and reduced-thickness coatings where possible. That approach is reviewed, and the successes and practical limitations pointed out. The other approach, to develop alternative materials, particularly palladium, is also discussed. Functional problems, some confirmed and others anticipated, have limited the general applicability of this approach. A third approach has proved very successful. Palladium plating was developed, not as a surface contact material, but as an additional barrier undercoat for gold. This approach is shown to permit ultra-thin gold surface layers to be used, with performance properties equal to and in some respects superior to conventional gold platings. Production prototype data are provided for an optimized composite layered coating which we call AMP-Duragold.® View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Thin Wires for Electrical Interconnections

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 494 - 502
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    A miniaturized universal testing machine was used to measure the yield stress, elastic and anelastic modulus, load relaxation, and low cycle fatigue properties of bonding wires. These material properties were found to be sensitive to the mierostructure of the material produced by a variety of thermal and mechanical treatments. The relations established between structure and properties can potentially be used as a basis for optimizing the bonding wire perform- ance. View full abstract»

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  • Test Structure Methodology of IC Package Material Characterization

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 560 - 567
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
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    A methodology in assembly/packaging technology of semiconductor integrated circuits (IC's) is described Which serves a threefold purpose: it aims at characterizing and selecting electronic assembly/Packaging materials; it directs optimization and control of assembly/packaging processes; and it identifies failure mechanisms which determine product reliability. Case example applications of the methodology are reported including application to package molding compound characterization arid chip mount material selection. Conclusions are given in which a broadening of the methodology tO identify early warning indicators for prediction of later reliability failures is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Critical Component Requirements for Vapor Phase Soldering Leadless Components on Circuit Board Assemblies for Military Electronics

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 443 - 454
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Leadless components have an established assembly technology and a good history of reliable performance in hybrid applications. However, their attachment to printed circuit boards with vapor phase soldering is a relatively recent technology. Some critical component requirements are discussed which are necessary to ensure cost effective processing yields and reliable field performance. New specification requirements are proposed for leadless component terminations, for solderability of printed circuit board pads and component terminations, and for limits on precious metal dissolution into solder joints. View full abstract»

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  • Alcohol Modified RTV Silicone Encapsulation for Integrated Circuit Device Packaging

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 485 - 493
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (1)
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    Room temperature vulcanized (RTV) silicone elastomer has been proven to be one of the most effective encapsulants for mechanical, moisture, electrical, and alpha particle protection of bipolar, metal--oxide semiconductor (MOS), and hybrid integrated circuit (IC) devices. This RTV material is also one of the few commercial polymer materials that meets Bell System encapsulant specifications. The chemistry of the silicone elastomer and its intrinsic properties as an IC device encapsulant will be addressed. The advantages of using the alcohol modified silicone encapsulant for mechanical protection, enhancement of electrical performance in bias humidity temperature (BHT) testing, and protection against alpha particle-induced "soft errors" in memory devices (e.g., the 64K DRAM) will be discussed. The physical, mechanical, and cure properties of the alcohol modified silicone dispersions have been investigated and the performance of these encapsulants in bias humidity temperature electrical testing and production coating experiments has also been characterized. When the alcohol diluent is added according to the prescribed method in concentrations at or below the optimum level for coating performance, no degradation of specified properties is observed. The optimum formulation for the alcohol modified Dow Corning encapsulant has been identifid as six weight percent dry isopropyl alcohol added to the DC3-6550 RTV silicone as received. View full abstract»

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  • Low Firing Temperature Multilayer Glass-Ceramic Substrate

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 382 - 388
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (6)
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    A glass-ceramic material, which has a low constant View full abstract»

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  • Influence of the Chip Temperature on the Moisture Induced Failure Rate of Plastic Encapsulated Devices

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 537 - 543
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    Moisture-induced failures have frequently been cited as a significant disadvantage of plastic-encapsulated devices compared with more expensive ceramic packaged components. An investigation has been carried out to determine why in systems predominantly in operation, the moisture-induced failure rate is many times lower than expected. The results show that self-heating of the component or of the total system in the rack is an active protection against moisture, because the relative humidity (RH), which decreases as the temperature increases, is the dominant parameter in moisture-induced failures, rather than water partial pressure. Since the relative humidity depends exponentially on the temperature at a constant water partial pressure, an increase of 10°C compared to ambient, increases the lifetime of a plastic component in accelerated tests, and consequently under actual operating conditions, by about one order of magnitude. This temperature effect is therefore the key to employing plasticencapsulated components in long-term systems. A very Careful analys!s of the operating conditions, however, is necessary in the case of intermittent operation. The protection by chip excess temperature is not present during the switch-off time of the system and the moisture can easily diffuse through the plastic material to the chip surface. An investigation was carried out which examined the water uptake and release as a function of ambient conditions and chip excess temperature of the components. Based on these results a computer program was developed and various intermittent operating conditions were simulated. Worst-case conditions are small time ratios (on-time divided by sum of on- and off-time), almost independent of the chip excess temperature. Information is given on how to simulate intermittent operation during accelerated life tests. View full abstract»

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  • The Quality of Die-Attachment and Its Relationship to Stresses and Vertical Die-Cracking

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 414 - 420
    Cited by:  Papers (25)  |  Patents (1)
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    The residual stresses after die-attachment have been studied experimentally using a test chip with diffused resistor strain gauges. Extensive measurements are reported for the following dieattachment/leadframe combinations: Au-Si/Alloy 42, epoxy adhesive/ Copper 194, and polyimide adhesive/Copper 194. Two-dimensional distributions of the stresses in the device surface are shown, and additional thickness measurements of the adhesive layer are used to assess the amount of stress relaxation occuring in adhesive die-attachment. Large variations in the measured stresses were found for die-attachment with polyimide adhesive. Thickness measurements and radiography showed that the stress variations are caused by large voids formed during the drying cycle of the adhesive. The effect of voids on die-attachment stresses is analyzed, and its potential as a cause of vertical die-cracking is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • For Hybrids: A Way to Higher Chip Yields

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 421 - 429
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    A procedure by which a program was developed and carried out to improve chip yields for hybrid microcircuits is described. Once the need for improvement was established, steps were taken to identify those areas with potentially high payback in cost and reliability. Chips with small bonding pads were redesigned to a larger pad, enabling easier targeting and second/third bonding chances. Extensive investigations were conducted into contamination, workmanship, receiving inspection, and engineering. Every area was found to be a fertile field for improvements and the resulting corrective action program has been shown to sharply improve yields. View full abstract»

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  • Ta-SiC Thin Film Resistors for Highly Reliable Thermal Printing Heads

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 377 - 381
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (3)
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    A Ta-SiC thin film resistor has been newly developed for highly reliable thermal printing heads. The Ta-SiC film, which is formed by a sputtering technique, has a stable amorphous structure containing microcrystalline Tac. The film crystallization hardly develops, even at temperatures up to 800°C. In addition to this structural stability, it has chemical stability and oxidation resistance. A thermal printing element test piece has been fabricated composed of a 17 at% Ta-SiC heating resistor, Al conductor, and a sputtered SiC surface protective layer on a g!azed alumina substrate. High temperature resistor annealing and alkaline metal- and lead-free glaze substrate adoption are effective for stability improvement. As a result, highly reliable high speed thermal printing elements were realized, Which could generate more than 5 x 108heatpulses at above 500°C peak temperature with 0.5-2.0 ms short electric current pulses. View full abstract»

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  • Design Method for Slotted Beam Springs for Insulation Displacement Contacts

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 408 - 413
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
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    Analytical models are derived to obtain the deflection characteristics of slotted beam springs Used for insulation displacement contacts. A wide range of useful spring designs is covered by the three models described. It is found that bending and shear of the cantilever beam, as well as the rotation and displacement at the build-in end, each contribute about equally to the total deflection. The models are tested with results obtained with the finite element method (FEM). Excellent agreement was found for the three versions ana- lyzed. View full abstract»

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  • Reaction of Contact Materials With Vapors Emanating from Connector Products

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 553 - 559
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The interaction of organic vapors, evolving from connector housings, printed Wiring boards (PWB's), and wire insulations, etc., with the connector contact materials may cause the formation Of surface films and a contact resistance (CR) increase. In this study, the results of an experiment to study the effects of outgassing of different plastics on various contact materials are presented. The contact materials used in this study were Au, WE #3 metal (70Au, 30Ag), Pd, R156 (60pd, 40Ag), DG Pd (diffused gold palladium), and DG R156 (diffused gold R156); the plastics employed were from connectors used in BELLPAC® backplanes, PWB's, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) coated wires. The material systems Were exposed up to four months at two different environmental conditions: a) 120°C and b) 60°C at 95 percent RH. Condition a) was found to be more severe on material systems from a contact resistance standpoint than condition b). Recommendations for the appropriate acceleration tests are made based upon these experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Development of Nondestructive Pull Test Requirements for Gold Wires on Multilayer Thick-Film Hybrid Microcircuits

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 503 - 509
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
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    Thermosonic wire bonding !s used to attach 1-mil gold wires to muitilayer thick-film hybrid microcircuits manufactured by the Bendix Corporation, Kansas City Division, for the Department of Energy. A study was conducted to develop a realistic nondestructive pull test limit which would detect unacceptable wire bonds and would be compatible with production processes without applying excessive stress to the wires. The effect of environmental testing on wire bond strength was also examined. A 1.5-gf nondestructive pull test limit was incorporated into production which provided an adequate screen for unacceptable bonds without significantly increasing rework time and cost for wire failures. No degradation of wire bond strengths resulted from environmental testing. View full abstract»

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  • Thermal Deformations Observed in Leadless Ceramic Chip Carriers Surface Mounted to Printed Wiring Boards

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 544 - 552
    Cited by:  Papers (19)  |  Patents (1)
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    Leadless ceramic chip carriers and other surface mountable components can be soldered to printed wiring boards. It is wellknown, however, that temperature changes and temperature gradients can cause large strains in the solder joints. What is not widely appreciated is that the joints are not in simple shear even on a macro scale, much less on a micro scale. We consider three modes of joint deformation, characterized by the disp!acement of the pads (or lands) to which the solder is attached. Mode A, which is "shearlike," is characterized by a difference in the in-plane displacements of the two pads. Mode B, associated with bending, is characterized by a change in the angle between the planes of the two pads. Mode C, which is "tensionlike," is characterized by a difference in out-of-plane displacement of the two Pads. Any given thermal change Will produce a superposition of these three modes of deformation. These deformations were measured using strain gauges and holographic interferometry, two techniques which complement each other in several ways. A strain guage measures in-plane displacements, giving modes A and B; it measures only one part of the sample; and it is suitable for thermal chamber or power cycling. Holographic interferometry measures out-of-plane displacements, giving modes B and C; it measures every part of the sample; and it is most suitable for power cycling studies. In thermal chamber cycling, we find that above 50°C the chip carrier and the board expand as if they were independent. At lower temperatures, the considerable tractions that develop cause board bending (mode B), as well as nonlinearity in the temperature dependence of the mode A deformation. The board tends toward the chip carrier for decreasing temperature. The bending causes any given row of solder joints to have a distribution of mode C deformations, some tensile and some compressive (corner joints are in tension). When power is applied to a chip carrier mounted on a printed wiring board, the average temperature rises, causing mode A deformation similar to that in a thermal chamber. The temperature gradient through the thickness Of the board, however, causes the board to bend toward the chip carrier, overcoming the effect of the tr- action on the joints, which is in the opposite direction. All three modes of deformation are proportional to the power. Mounting of the printed wiring board has a strong influence on modes B and C. Rigid clamping of the board decreased modes B and C deformation by a factor of two compared to that of a board with free edges. View full abstract»

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  • Pulse Propagation Properties of Multilayer Ceramic Multichip Modules for VLSI Circuits

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 480 - 484
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (4)
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    The dramatic increase in switching speeds and circuit density in very large-scale integrated (VLSI) chips combined with denser packaging necessitates careful consideration of all the electrical characteristics of multichip modules (MCM). The development of high performance large-scale computers places many challenging requirements on packaging development engineers. High speed circuits demand low inductive interconnections, low cross talk, controlled characteristic impedance, power integrity, proper line resistance, high power dissipation, and minimum time of flight. Multichip modules provide short interconnection paths and eliminate one complete level (i.e., the card level) of packaging. Interconnect schemes and circuits must be designed such that the system can operate within electrical constraints such as capacitance loading intra, and interlayer crosstalk. The demand for a large number of input/output (I/O) pads on VLSI chips and the vast number of wiring channels needed to interconnect them in a multichip module leads to Various compromises in the electrical design of the wiring planes, such as types of ground planes and the number of signal planes between references. In this paper basic electrical parameters such as self and mutual capacitanceS, characteristic impedance, propagation delay, intra- and interlayer crosstalk are evaluated for five types of module designs. A family of tables consisting of capacitance and inductive matrices, which completely characterize the transmission lines and the matched term!nation coupled noise is presented for muitilayer ceramic (MLC) modules. View full abstract»

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  • Improved Glass-to-Metal Sealing Through Furnace Atmosphere Composition Control

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 455 - 459
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    The ability is demonstrated to produce consistently an intergranular oxide layer between 2 µm and 10 µm depth on Kovar alloy using a humidified hydrogen nitrogen furnace atmosphere. Oxidizing the Kovar to a 2-10-µm intergranular depth promotes strong chemical/mechanical bonding between the metal and the borosilicate glass typically used in the production of matched glass-to-metal seals. Furnace dew point, hydrogen concentration, residence time, and decarburization pretreatment were studied to determine their effect on oxide formation. A reproducibility study was performed to demonstrate the high consistency and repeatability of the system in an actual production environment. Bubble formation in the glass after sealing is discussed and is shown to be a result of overoxidation. All three steps of matched sealing (decarburiziug, oxidizing, and sealing) are studied with emphasis on control of the oxidizing step. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transaction ceased production in 1993. The current publication is titled IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology.

Full Aims & Scope