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Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date March 1982

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 35
  • Foreword

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Correction to "Solder Post Attachment of Ceramic Chip Carriers to Ceramic Film Integrated Circuits"

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 192
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    First Page of the Article
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  • X-Ray Lithography for Integrated Circuit Development and Manufacturing

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 118 - 121
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    X-ray lithography is a technology which has been waiting for a problem to solve that is tougher than its own problems. Development of X-ray lithography dates from the early 1970's [1]--[3] and since that time, improvements in resolution of optical and near UV projection aligners and step-and-repeat systems have kept pace with processing ability for fabrication of smaller components in silicon integrated circuits (IC's). However, 1 µm or smaller features are now a design requirement for semiconductor integrated circuits (SIC's) which will have a significant performance advantage over current manufacture [4], [5]. In addition practical means for fabricating high quality X-ray masks have been found [6] along with sensitive resists and resist systems which are designed for reactive ion etching (RIE) processes [7], [8]. Reliable, economical, and long-lived X-ray sources have also been developed, [9], thus enabling us to design and build X-ray exposure tools for SIC and other fabrication. In this paper the X-ray lithography system developed at Bell Laboratories will be described along with evaluation of its use in a laboratory SIC fabrication facility. Projections for future developments in X-ray lithography will be given. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of Fretting on the Contact Resistance of Palladium

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 158 - 166
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
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    The fretting of palladium contacts was studied at conditions relevant to their use in separable electronic connectors. Wrought, clad, and electroplated palladium mated to wrought palladium develop high contact resistance due to the formation of friction polymer. This can occur in ordinary room air which contains traces of organic air pollutants. Contact resistance changes diminish as force is increased. Static contact resistance measurements were made in small steps along wear tracks during fretting tests. It was found that the contact resistance increases were greatest at or near the ends due to the accumulation of polymer, and that the numbers of fretting cycles required to produce high contact resistance diminish sharply as track length is increased from 10 to 160 #m. Thin coatings of a polyphenyl ether contact lubricant significantly improve the stability of contact resistance, and contacts flooded with this fluid showed little degradation. This is attributable to its ability to disperse the polymer which is formed. Likewise, palladium contacts immersed in toluene, a polymer precursor commonly used in laboratory studies of friction polymerization, display stable contact resistance. These findings are compared to those of previous studies of the contact resistance of palladium during fretting, and it is shown that differences in interpretation of results are due to variations in the apparatus which were used. View full abstract»

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  • A New Economic and Reliable Contact Alloy for Connectors

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 74 - 80
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    The development of a new AuAgPd-base alloy for connectors is presented. The 70 weight percent (wt%) gold content, normally considered necessary for high quality connectors, has been successfully reduced to 39 wt% without causing any deterioration in the properties of the alloy. Indeed a marked improvement has been achieved with reference to strength and certain contact-specific features; this particularly relates to the edge creep behavior, tarnishing at elevated temperatures, and ductility. The steps involved in the metallurgical development are described. The alloy composition was optimized by systematically carrying the main constituents Au, Ag, Pd, and the alloying additions of Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Ge, and Pb. In particular, a full report is given on the mechanical and contact-specific properties of the resulting multicomponent alloy 39AuAgPd with defined additions of In and Sn. The alloy with this compositions, which was specified on the basis of the work described here, has the designation Hera® 277 S. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Properties of Conductive Elastomer as Electrical Contact Material

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 56 - 61
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    The conductive elastomer has both electrical and elastic properties. When the conductive elastomer is considered as an electrical contact material, it is possible to obtain conductive and elastic properties in one simple material. Therefore, the concept of metallic electrical contact can be changed to the elastomeric contact. Moreover due to excellent properties of facile shape formation, corrosion resistance, and air tight contact interface, the conductive elastomer is suitable for high density microsized connectors. However as it is very difficult to obtain as low a resistivity as in metals, the effectiveness of the elastomeric contacts is limited. The present study has been conducted to determine the electrical conduction mechanism and to find low resistivity materials. The specimen silicone rubber, in which electrical conductive particles such as carbon and metals were dispersed, was investigated. The resistivity versus conductive particle content, voltage versus current characteristics, resisitivity change in range of room temperature to liquid nitrogen temperature, and conduction mechanisms were discussed. In conclusion the conduction mechanism changes with the conductive particle content. For large content current paths were established by contact of particles, and for small content conduction electrons pass through the gap between particles by the Schottky conduction. Therefore, the resistance of the elastomer consisted of particle resistance, constriction resistance of the contact interface between particles, and the gap resistance. View full abstract»

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  • Surface Topography of Printed Wiring Boards and Its Effect on Flashover

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 142 - 146
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    Breakdown voltage values between conductor paths on epoxy-glass printed wiring boards (PWB's) are shown to lie on the Dakin curve relating the breakdown voltage with the dielectric constant and conductor separation on the insulator. However, the insulator surface roughness is shown to affect the breakdown voltage, the smoother the surface the lower the breakdown voltage. With a roughness (peak to valley) on the order of 10 µm or greater on epoxy-glass, the breakdown voltage approaches that of an equivalent air gap. Multiple filamentary discharges were observed per flash over similar to normal air breakdown. Erosion products from flashover include small copper spheres, from the damaged printed wiring lines, scattered around the damaged area on the PWB where, in many cases, the glass fiber supports were exposed. These effects can accelerate the degradation of the PWB insulator substrate. View full abstract»

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  • Fast Arc Running On Various Electrode Materials

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 32 - 37
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    A study on fast arc running between parallel flat electrodes is presented. This mode of a steady-state arc motion is investigated on various materials with respect to the influence of the magnetic blast field, the arc current, and the gap length. Fast running arcs were recorded by streak photographs, high speed frame movies, and signals of an optoelectronic device; information about the arc structure, velocity, and current density is given. View full abstract»

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  • Failure Analysis of Contaminated Gold-Plated Connector Contacts from Operating Communication Equipment

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 95 - 101
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    The complex phenomenon of surface contamination, leading to faulty contact performance of gold-plated connector-type contacts, has been investigated on the basis of data, samples, and observations originating from operating field equipment. Contaminated samples were collected, the environmental conditions under which they operated were determined, and their contact resistances and fritting voltages were measured. In addition the necessary analysis of their surfaces was carried out, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA), energy dispersive X-ray spectra (EDAX), and wavelength dispersive accessory (WDXA) techniques. In operating contacts there was a definite tendency for copper, silver, or zinc to migrate from the substrate or underplate through the continuous gold plating under the influence of operating voltages and currents. This, in turn, tended to increase both the rate and the extent of formation of contaminating corrosion products relative to those observed with contacts in nonoperating devices and those from laboratory tests that incorporated the relatively low air pollutant concentrations that were found at the indoor locations of operating equipments. View full abstract»

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  • Laser Processing in Silicon Microelectronics Technology

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 112 - 117
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    Laser irradiation may effect either thermal or chemical changes in target materials. A brief review of the mechanisms involved and a summary assessment of their potential for application in silicon microelectronics technology is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Fiber Optic Rotary Joints-A Review

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 37 - 41
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (3)
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    The rapid increase in the use of fiber optic signal transmission has spawned a need for "optical slip rings" to transfer optical signals across a rotating interface. Performance parameters that impact the development of these fiber optic rotary joints are investigated. The designs of existing single-channel fiber optic rotary joints are discussed with the intention of identifying design features that have the greatest impact on performance. The basic design feature of several multiple-channel fiber optic rotary joints is summarized. View full abstract»

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  • A Comprehensive Approach to IC Design and Fabrication

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 102 - 104
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    A comprehensive integrated circuit (IC) engineering curriculum is presented. The motivation for this curriculum and its implementation at Purdue University are discussed. The emphasis of the paper concerns two IC laboratory courses. View full abstract»

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  • Role of Reliability and Accelerated Testing in VHSIC Technology

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 138 - 141
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    In very high scale integrated circuits (VHSIC)/technology, reliability ground rules must be developed and included in chip design rules. This concept of "designed-in" reliability, rather than the traditional "tested-in" reliability approach, will be necessary in VHSIC. Accelerated testing becomes important as timely feedback on process, design, and reliability must be provided during technology development. The functional part numbers may be qualified by the technology qualification concept and by time zero functional performance verification of different part numbers. A voltage ramp test for rapid study (less than 100 h) of gate reliability of N-type metal-oxide semiconductor (NMOS) devices is discussed. HAST (highly accelerated stress test) may also be used to accelerate significantly the corrosion of the Al metallurgy of plastic encapsulated devices over the conventional temperature/humidity/bias test. View full abstract»

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  • The Effect of Lithium Upon the Erosion Kinetics of Ag-CdO Contacts

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 11 - 15
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    The erosion kinetics of metallurgically similar Ag-CdO contacts with and without Li have been investigated. Time-resolved spectroscopic measurements reveal significant differences in the temporal development of the temperatures and metal species concentration in the arc, associated with the presence or absence of lithium in the supporting contact. These differences correlate well with bulk erosion measurements and are consistent with a physical model involving greater spatial or temporal dispersion of the arc root in lithium-containing materials. View full abstract»

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  • Motion of Magnetically Driven Arcs on Oxidized Electrodes

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 86 - 89
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    Experiments were carried out on a number of oxidized metals such as copper, brass, aluminum, and steel. Two kinds of rectangular electrodes were investigated, narrow and wide electrodes. On the narrow oxidized electrodes the arc moved slowly and sometimes discontinuously during its first run. During subsequent runs the arcs moved continuously along the same path of the first run with speeds which were ten times faster than the first run. On the wide oxidized electrodes however no slowdown of the arc was observed during its first run. It ran right away continuously with speeds similar to the subsequent runs. View full abstract»

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  • Gate Arrays for VLSI Design

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 133 - 137
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    Because of the increasing complexity of new integrated circuits (IC's) and the limited supply of IC designers, structured design approaches are necessary. A gate array is a common approach to structuring, formalizing, and thus simplifying the design process. Existing gate arrays in various technologies (ECL, CML, ISL, STL, S-TTL, NMOS, CMOS, 12L, and linear) are described in terms of structure, gate count, and gate delay. A new gate array (the GAB-4000) contains more than 4000 five-collector (12L) gates. The GAB-4000 was designed for architectural flexibility and ease of layout. An entire microcontroller or microprocessor can be designed on one gate array chip. A new "wafer-scale" linear/digital master slice (the MSA-1000) is also described. The circuit emphasizes diode loads, active loads, and current sources rather than resistors. One can choose any chip size by sawing wherever desired. View full abstract»

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  • A Thermophysical Criterion for the Weldability of Electric Contact Material in a Steady-State Regime

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 147 - 152
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
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    A thermophysical criterion for the weldability of contact materials is determined as an unambiguous function of the fusion temperature and of the temperature dependences of the resistivity and thermal conductivity of these materials. The values of this criterion are calculated for most metals, a number of alloys, and some of sintered compounds usually applied in contact design. Also calculated is the dependence of the criterion on the preheating of the contact body, which is important for the estimation of weldability under conditions of circuit reclosing in the presence of a short circuit. Some limitations of the recalculation of the weldability criterion for conductors not mentioned in this paper are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Study of Contact Arc Discharge and Contact Welding Phenomena

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 62 - 68
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Contact welding phenomenon is very important, but it is very complicated. The partial welding phenomena, of which there are only a few examples in fundamental studies, have been considered on the basis of experimental results. We defined the partial uncomplete welding phenomena as the phenomena which occurs when the final contact closing time is longer than the initial contact closing time. In these experiments silver and silver-alloy contact materials are used. At first the relationships between arc duration and arc energy are measured by changing contact current and contact moving velocity. Also, the relationships between the number of operations, contact resistance, and contact surface temperature are measured. The arc duration and arc energy have quite good linear relations which we can estimate theoretically. Also, distributed arc energy is approximated by the normal distribution. View full abstract»

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  • Cutting Force Analysis of Split Beam Connectors

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 180 - 185
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
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    The insertion process of a bare wire into a split beam is analyzed using the theories of metal cutting. The insertion and the wire entry force, which are two important design considerations for insulation displacement type connectors, are calculated theoretically and found to agree with the values obtained from the experiment. View full abstract»

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  • Fringing Field Effect in MOS Devices

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 127 - 131
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    Fringing field action in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices is discussed theoretically. Line capacitance coefficients on silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) and bulk configurations are determined from a three-dimensional model. Increase of threshold voltage of narrow-width devices due to fringing is described. View full abstract»

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  • Graduate and Undergraduate Educational Methods for Microelectronics

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 105 - 111
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    Methods applicable to teaching microelectronics at the undergraduate and graduate level in conjunction with an industrial fabrication capability are presented. Results of three semesters of teaching microelectronics at the graduate level with emphasis on both digital and analog circuits are summarized. Plans for teaching an undergraduate course utilizing the fabrication of integrated circuits are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • High Current Arc Movement in a Narrow Insulating Channel

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 51 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
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    an experimental study has been performed to determine the arc speed and hesitation time of a high current arc inside a narrow insulating channel with a set of diverging copper arc runners and copper contacts. The dependence of arc speed on current, on diverging angle, and on runner width has been obtained. The results are qualitatively consistent with simple force considerations. Hesitation time (the time the arc remains immobile tH) is influenced by current and by runner width, both of which affect the magnetic force on the arc. The dependence of tHon contact opening speed leads to the concept of minimum gap for which the arc will start to move. View full abstract»

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  • Pluggable Connectors for Josephson Computers

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 166 - 170
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    A process has been developed for the fabrication of high density arrays of miniaturized pluggable connectors for interconnections in high performance computers using Josephson devices. Electrical contacts are made by inserting (at room temperature) arrays of metal pins, each about 200 µm long and 75 µm in diameter with a center-to-center spacing of 300 µm, into corresponding Si microsockets containing a liquid metal. Such pins and sockets have been successfully batch fabricated with high positional accuracy, using electrodischarge machining (EDM) and anisotropic etching techniques, respectively. The fabrication process is described here. View full abstract»

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  • Study of Contact Failures Caused by Organic Contamination on Ag-Si Contacts

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 90 - 94
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    Effects of residual contamination that increases contact resistance with mechanical operation was investigated. Metal sealed switches with Ag-Si internally oxidized contacts were used. Contact surface was contaminated in varying degrees by dipping them into trichloroethylene (CHCICCI2) containing 0-3.0 vol% of paraffin lubricant. Contact were mechanically operated more than 106times. Contact resistance increased gradually with operation, so long as the atmosphere contained oxygen. Contaminant was observed concentrated at the contact point. At the same time a method to evaluate surface organic contamination semiquantitatively was studied by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). View full abstract»

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  • An Evaluation of Palladium and Palladium-Silver Alloy in a Dual-in-Line Package Switch

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 16 - 22
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Palladium and R-156 alloy (60%Pd-40%Ag) were evaluated as potential substitutes for the gold contacts in a dual-in-line package (DIP) switch. The DIP switch was of the rocker type employing a spring loaded spherical gold electroplated ball as the movable contact. Prototype switches employing stationary contacts punched and formed from selectively striped inlay material of palladium or R-156 alloy were constructed. Switches were evaluated for the following: 1) thickness and hardness, 2) formability and adhesion, 3) porosity before and after 2000 cycles, 4) wearability, 5) contact resistance before and after 2000 cycles. The test data indicated that gold to palladium or gold to R-156 contact systems will provide stable contact resistance with acceptable wear properties over the life of the switch. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transaction ceased production in 1993. The current publication is titled IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology.

Full Aims & Scope