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Parts, Hybrids, and Packaging, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date December 1976

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Displaying Results 1 - 19 of 19
  • Foreword: Special Issue on Hybrid Microelectronics

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 273 - 275
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Computer-Aided Thermal Anlaysis of a Hybrid Mutlistage Active Bandpass Filter/Amplifier

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 344 - 350
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    This paper describes the thermal analysis of a hybrid microcircuit to be used as a signal amplifier and conditioner for an IR tracking system. The details of circuit fabrication and an analysis of the electrical and noise performance of the circuit have been presented in a previous paper [1]. It is the purpose of this paper to describe the use of computeraided analysis to determine the thermal performance of the circuit and to present a computer-aided approach to the thermal design of hybrid microelectronic circuits. Thermal analysis and measurements are made, revealing the temperature distribution and power-dissipating capability. These results also provide design guidelines for the layout of heat-dissipating devices such as amplifier chips. Package convection and radiation as well as internal heat conduction are modeled using node point analysis. Temperature measurements provide verification of the thermal models. View full abstract»

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  • Thin-Film Microwave Integrated Circuits

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 309 - 316
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (2)
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    There has been an increase in the use of thin-film technology for the preparation of microwave circuits since it permits the realization of very complex circuitry with precision, reliability, and economy. The requirements for the realization of such circuits have made it necessary to extend the state of the art of the hybrid technology in many areas. Two new substrate types (fine-grain alumina and fused silica) and low-loss conductor systems that are both solderable and thermocompression (TC) bondable were introduced. Further complications which were overcome included bilevel patterns with laser-drilled plated via-holes, the control and measurement of the alumina substrates dielectric constant, and the use of laser trimming to adjust small geometries of tantalum nitride (Ta2N) termination resistors. Precise pattern delineation of conductors by laser machining, sputter etching, and selective plating was evaluated and the latter process was found to be the most economical and reliable, since the selective plating technique depends on good photoresist delineation, resist properties were evaluated with special attention given to the variation of linewidth as a function of exposure conditions and resist adhesion during the plating of the gold conductors to prevent underplating. The line shape of the resist was also determined as a function of exposure, development, mask-to-substrate distance, and postbake conditions. Linewidth tolerances such as ± 2.5 µm on fused silica and ±5.0 µm on alumina were routinely achieved. Microwave integrated circuits (an 18-GHz downconverter, a 1.7-GHz amplifier, a filter, and a demodulator) prepared by this technique are illustrated and their performances are discussed. These circuits are used in a digital transmission system currently under development. View full abstract»

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  • High-Voltage Damage and Low-Frequency Noise in Thick-Film Resistors

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 351 - 356
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    The results from a unified study of high-voltage damage and low-frequency noise in thick-film resistors are presented. Material microstructure and the mechanisms for charge transport and I/f noise are discussed to provide a basis for the interpretation of the experimental results. Experimental results showing a definite relationship between high-voltage damage and low-frequency noise are presented and interpreted. It is shown that noise parameters are extremely sensitive to the condition of interfacial regions within the conductive phase of the thick-film material. Because of this sensitivity to conductive-phase microstructure, noise measurements are recommended as a diagnostic tool for research on thick-film materials and as a diagnostic tool for quality-assurance efforts in the production environment. View full abstract»

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  • The Thermal Design of an LSI Single-Chip Package

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 371 - 378
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
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    Theoretical and experimental methods are used to predict the thermal properties of an air-cooled integrated-circuit package with a large LSl type of chip. A previously reported three-dimensional solution to the differential equation for steady-state heat transfer has been extended to include composite media with up to four layers of unequal thickness and thermal conductivity. The theoretical results are used to calculate the detailed thermal characteristics of a 1.3 X 0.6-in package with a 0.17-in square chip. Geometric and physical considerations include the effects of ceramic thickness and thermal conductivity, chip dimensions, lead conduction, and heat-sink variations. An empirical technique is used to determine the forced-convection heat-transfer coefficients for a variety of extruded aluminum heat sinks. The effects of fin length, air velocity, and number of fins per inch are measured. View full abstract»

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  • Heat Treatment of Dc-Sputtered Tin Dioxide Thin Films

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 357 - 360
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
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    Tin dioxide thin films were deposited by dc glow discharge sputtering using a compressed powder target. The conductivity of these films varied from 3 X 10-5 \Omega -1cm-1for pure SnO2to 1 \Omega -1cm-1for SnO2which was doped by adding 9 percent Sb2O3to the target. Transparency was above 85 percent. Films sputtered from targets containing more than 10 percent Sb2O3were highly resistive as a result of lattice disorder. Such films, however, became conductive upon post-deposition heat treatment. This paper presents the results of the heat treatment of these antimony-doped tin dioxide films. The variation of resistivity with temperature was found to be very complex. It not only depends on the previous heat-treatment history but also on the ambient sputter gas used during deposition. Heating beyond 400°C resulted in a general decrease in the conductivity of SnO2films. Below this temperature, successive heating and cooling in nitrogen caused increased conductivity and improved stability. View full abstract»

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  • Thermal Comparison of Flip-Chip Relative to Chip-and-Wire Semiconductor Attachment in Hybrid Circuits: An Experimental Approach

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 293 - 298
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    An important consideration for the hybrid-circuit manufacturer is the power dissipation of active devices on the circuit. Heat generated in the junctions of the devices affects circuit reliability, performance, and current handling capability. Theory of the thermal characteristics of various chip interconnect methods is available, but results are too generalized to be of much use for circuit design. This paper presents a theoretical consideration, but is primarily an experimental comparison of the thermal characteristics ( \theta js, \theta ja, Pmax) of solder-bump flip-chip and chip-and-wire attachment techniques under comparable conditions. The 2N2222A transistor electrical specification in flip-chip and in chip form (MMCF2222A and MMCS2222A, respectively) was chosen for the comparison. Substrates were prepared to offer a thermally fair representation of actual usage in the manufacture of hybrid circuits. The effect of conformally coating and directly heat-sinking chips through a substrate is also evaluated. Thermal resistance data from a previous experiment for flip chips, standard chips, and beam leads is offered for com- parison. View full abstract»

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  • UV/Ozone Cleaning of Surfaces

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 365 - 370
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (11)
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    The ultraviolet (UV)/ozone cleaning procedure is shown to be an effective method of rapidly removing a variety of contaminants from surfaces. It is a simple-to-use dry process which is inexpensive to set up and operate. It can produce · clean surfaces in air, at ambient temperatures. The experiments were performed on quartz and metal surfaces. The contaminants which were successfully removed include oils and greases (including silicones), fluxes, skin oils, and contamination adsorbed during prolonged exposure to air. The experiments were aimed at defining the variables and determining the optimum conditions for producing clean surfaces by UV irradiation. The important variables are: the contaminants initially present, the precleaning procedure, the wavelengths emitted by the UV source, the atmosphere between the source and sample, the distance between the source and' sample, and the time of exposure. For surfaces which are properly precleaned and placed within a few millimeters of an ozone-producing UV source, the process can consistently produce a clean surface in less than 1 rain. Experiments performed with two low-pressure mercury discharge UV sources, one which generates ozone and one which does not, indicate that the combination of short-wave UV light plus ozone produces a clean surface substantially faster than either short-wave UV light without ozone or ozone without UV light. View full abstract»

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  • Thin-Film Multilayer Capacitors Using Pyrolytically Deposited Silicon Dioxide

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 361 - 364
    Cited by:  Patents (13)
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    Thin-film multilayer high-energy-density capacitors have been constructed using a pyrolytically deposited phosphosilicate glass as the dielectric material with aluminum as the electrode material. Other electrode materials such as gold, chromium, and silicon were studied to determine the best electrode for this application. A careful study was made of the behavior of the oxide with respect to the formation of microcracks and pin holes in order to eliminate those problems. It was found that the stresses in undoped SiO2were too great to permit its use in this application. Capacitors having an area of 1 cm2with up to 20 layers were constructed using a doped oxide with a P2O5concentration of from 7 to 10 percent. View full abstract»

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  • Tantalum Thin-Film RC Circuit Technology for a Universal Active Filter

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 276 - 282
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (1)
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    This paper describes the physical layout, process sequence, and component properties of a universal active filter designated the standard tantalum active resonator (STAR). This active-filter building block was realized as a hybrid integrated circuit (HIC) using tantalum thin-film technology. Several different circuit configurations are possible using only one set of process photomasks and one HIC. This can be accomplished by a wide range of precise resistor values through the use of laser trimming and various interconnecting schemes for the components on the HIC via the printed wiring board. The STAR circuit is comprised of nine laser-adjustable tantalum thin-film resistors totalling a maximum of 1 M \Omega , two 5100-pF tantalum capacitors, and one operational amplifier. The capacitors are formed by anodizing tantalum to 190 V and depositing NiCr-Pd-Au as the adherent counterelectrode. The resistors are made from 300- \Omega / Box$^b tantalum oxynitride film which is preaged at 350°C for 1 h. The single-substrate RC process is amenable to batch processing and precision tuning, making it attractive for high-level production of precision filters. New thin-film design criteria and process developments permitted this circuit to be fabricated on a 16-pin dual-inline package ceramic substrate which could be packaged for machine insertion with commercially available insertion equipment. View full abstract»

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  • On the Interpretation of Noise in Thick-Film Resistors

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 378 - 380
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Noise in thick-film resistors is interpreted by comparison to experimental and theoretical results previously reported for noise in metals and semiconductors. This comparison provides an explanation for the observed dependence of noise on the thick-film-resistor geometry and the 100-fold increase-in noise amplitude over that of metals and semiconductors This comparison indicates that mobile-charge interactions with traps are an inherent feature of charge transport in thick-film resistors. View full abstract»

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  • A Technology of Thin-Film Hybrid Microwave Circuits

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 304 - 309
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
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    This paper describes the various thin-film processes that are being used to produce microwave integrated circuits, both microstrip and lumped element systems. The technologies described involve a combination of vacuum evaporation or RF sputtering, photolithographic, electrochemical, and microbonding processes used in sequence to achieve integrated resistor, capacitor, and conductor networks. Stable thin-film integrated nickel-chromium resistors are achieved with good microwave behavior. The usual conductor and interdigital capacitor systems are gold with either nickel-chromium or titanium underlay. The microwave circuits are produced on a variety of substrates which include alumina, ferrite, quartz, and sapphire. Some of the ancillary amplifier networks are produced on glass, A successful scheme for the fabrication of integrated anodized aluminium capacitor structures, compatible with the nickel-chromium/gold resistor conductor system, is outlined as well as preliminary results of such systems at GHz frequencies. Assembly techniques used for incorporating add-on components including chip capacitors, overlay couplers, chip resistors, and microwave semiconductor devices are included. Substrate preparation and the packaging of prototype assemblies are also included. Examples are shown of components and systems where the various technologies have been successfully applied. Data on the manufactured components are given, showing that good reliable performance can be achieved. While the processes are typically operated in the environment of a workshop for circuit development, they are adaptable for large-scale manufacture. View full abstract»

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  • Manufacturing Process for Hybrid Microcircuits Containing Vias

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 323 - 335
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
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    Hybrid microcircuits designed for use in radars require metallized vias to interconnect front-side tantalum-nitride chromium-gold thin-film networks with metallized back-side ground planes on 95 X 114-mm alumina substrates. Processes were developed for fabricating precision holes in alumina substrates, metallizing substrates on both sides and through the via, and dry-film lithographing 6- µm-thick gold to linewidths and spacings of 127 µm. Front- and back-side resistance measurements through the via were used to determine the surface finish and metallization thickness on the via wall. Hole fabrication methods investigated included ultrasonic drilling in already-fired alumina and punching or drilling holes in green alumina before the firing. Photolithography techniques were developed which protect both sides of the substrate and the vias from etchants and delineate a thin-film network consistent with critical hybrid-microelectronic-circuit (HMC) linewidth tolerances for RF circuits. A metallization technique was developed, using a planetary system, to evaporate chromium-gold on the front and back side (while simultaneously depositing the metallization on the via wall). Front-side-to-backside resistance measurements through the via showed that the manufacturing methods used were compatible with a stable low-resistance connection for RF circuitry in hybrid microcircuits. View full abstract»

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  • Wiggly Phase Shifters and Directional Couplers for Radio-Frequency Hybrid-Microcircuit Applications

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 317 - 323
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
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    A packaging technique which makes use of a wiggly (sawtooth) conductor-edge geometry between adjacent conductors has been developed for the fabrication of microwave hybrid microcircuit-directional couplers and phase shifters. The new technique provides approximately a 20-percent space saving as well as a significant improvement in circuit fabrication. View full abstract»

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  • Failure Modes of Beam-Lead Semiconductors in Thin-Film Hybrid Microcircuits

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 298 - 304
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Beam-lead semiconductor and passive devices have been utilized in hybrid microcircuits (HMC) to provide higher reliability. This is derived from the beam-lead device's improved bonding integrity plus the silicon nitride coating which reduces sensitivity to contaminants; however, their size requires special handling techniques to prevent handling damage. Other failure modes exist such as cracked nitride, pinholes in the nitride, inadequate plating, and smeared metallization. After two years of production usage totaling approximately 150 000 devices, The Bendix Corporation's Kansas City Division has compiled significant data on beam-lead devices including small-signal and power discrete semiconductors and digital integrated circuits. These failure modes are characterized and precautionary measures are described to minimize failures in HMC usage. View full abstract»

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  • Prevention of Bridging Failure in Mercury Switches

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 380 - 387
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
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    Service failures of sealed mercury switches in relays may occur by "sticking" or by "bridging," Analyses by scanning-electron-microscope microprobe and by X-ray diffraction revealed that bridging failures in certain make,before-break-type switches can be due to the accumulation of particles of NiHg4in the mercury which, because of increased viscosity, may form a quasi-steady bridge between the movable and fixed contacts. Doping of the mercury with copper and tin was proposed as a solution to the bridging problem based on the analysis of failed switches and the knowledge gained from previous studies of liquid-mercury/solid-metal interactions [1]. The results of an accelerated laboratory test and a field trial comparing the electrical characteristics of undoped and doped switches confirm that the failure mechanism is thermally activated. The undoped switches were prone to bridging failure. Prevention of bridging failure in doped switches is attributed to the preferential formation Of a tin-bearing layer which inhibits the dissolution of nickel and the subsequent formation of a viscous slurry of NiHg4in mercury. View full abstract»

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  • The Effects of Gold and Nickel Plating Thicknesses on the Strength and Reliability of Thermocompression-Bonded External Leads

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 282 - 287
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    External leads intended for thermocompression (TC) bonding to Au-metallized thin-film circuits are typically Cu-based alloys plated with Au or a combination of Ni and Au. The objective of this work was an evaluation of the Ni/Au system to determine the optimum plating thicknesses for reliable TC bonding. Also investigated was the minimum Au thickness necessary for TC bonding when the Ni diffusion barrier was omitted. Four criteria were evaluated: initial bondability; bond strength after accelerated aging; susceptibility to cracking in a 90° bend test; and fatigue behavior. The test vehicle was a 32-lead dual-in-line package utilizing alumina substrates metallized with Ti/Pd/Au films and Cu lead frames (CDA 102 and 110) electroplated with Ni and Au in the ranges of 0 - 41 µm and 0.4 - 20 µm, respectively (0 - 1630 and 15 - µin, respectively). Optimum strength and reliability with the Ni/Au system were obtained for a Ni plating thickness of 0.25 - 1.3 µm (10 -50 µin) and a minimum Au plating thickness of 2.5 µm (100 µin). For the special case of zero Ni thickness, acceptable TC bonds were obtained with as little as 0.6 µm (25 µin) of Au. View full abstract»

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  • The Hybrid Integration of a Multistage Active Bandpass Filter/Amplifier

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 336 - 344
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    This paper describes the fabrication, characterization, and analysis of a hybrid microcircuit to be used as a signal amplifier and conditioner for an IR tracking system. The entire circuit is integrated on a 1 X 2-in alumina substrate using thick-film resistors and conductors, some chip resistors in critical locations, chip capacitors, and monolithic integrated-circuit (IC) operational-amplifier (op-amp) chips. Fig. 1 shows a block diagram of the entire circuit. The transfer functions of each of the stages is derived. The predicted gain. peak and the shape of the measured bandpass agree well with experimental results. The computer simulation using an opamp "macromodel" [1] gives results very closely resembling the measured bandpass, and underscores the utility of computer circuit simulations in IC development. Stability and hybrid layout considerations are discussed. The noise figure is measured as a function of frequency for the given system source impedance of 5 M \Omega and also for 0.5 M \Omega to indicate the dependence of the noise figure on source resistance. The dominant sources of noise in the amplitier/filter and low-noise design considerations are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • The Case for Multichip LSI Packaging of High-Reliability Military Electronics

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 288 - 292
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    Only by a judicious combination of compatible materials, technology, and "production state of the art" can ruggedness, reliability, versatility, and utilization be realized. This choice can only be achieved through high-quality system · engineering which covers the architecture, detail engineering, manufacturing, inspection, and maintenance of the product throughout its entire service life. The thesis is that the electrical, electronic, thermal, mechanical, construction, test, and rework characteristics must be given proper weight at all points in the design. This paper presents an argument for uncased packages of multichip large-scale integrated (LSI) devices as the best solution for the high-reliability system applications presented here. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transaction ceased production in 1977. The current publication is titled IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology.

Full Aims & Scope