IEEE Transactions on Parts, Hybrids, and Packaging

Volume 12 Issue 1 • March 1976

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Displaying Results 1 - 16 of 16
  • New Editorial Staff Comments

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s): 1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • In appreciation

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s): 2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Foreword: Special Issue on Electrical Contacts

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s): 3
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Arc Termination Current on Breaking Contacts

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):7 - 11
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (619 KB)

    Studies were made of the arc termination current on the breaking contacts with an inductive load. Test contacts were 2 mmphicross rods of tungsten, gold, palladium, silver and platinum. The arc termination current was found to be closely related to an arc duration. The relation between the arc termination current and the arc duration was independent of the closed contact current (1-5A),... View full abstract»

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  • Silicone Oils on Electrical Contacts-Effects, Sources, and Countermeasures

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):24 - 28
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (952 KB)

    Insulating deposits are formed on operating relay and switch contacts when silicone oils are present on them. The characteristics of these tenaceous black films are discussed. Potential sources of silicone contamination are discussed and precautions which should be taken to avoid contact failures from the use of silicone materials are outlined View full abstract»

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  • The use of Ag-W-CdO and AgSi3N4as Contact Materials

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):20 - 24
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1032 KB)

    Three different contact combinations were investigated: (a) Ag-W operated against Ag-CdO, (b) Ag-W-CdO contact pair, (c) Ag-Si3N4contact pair. A hot pressing technique was used to make the contacts for (b) and (c). The contacts were tested by switching a 20 A, 110V circuit and then examined using a Scanning Electron Microscope. It was found that: (a) The Ag-W vs Ag-CdO produc... View full abstract»

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  • Carbon, Graphite, and Contacts

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):62 - 74
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1872 KB)

    The "black art" of carbon and graphite technology is yielding to the science of materials and applications. This review represents the present state of this art; and since carbon, graphite, and contacts come together in so many different ways and in so many important ways, it is reasonable to discuss them in this context. From the developments in this field have come materials which have made poss... View full abstract»

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  • Metal Transfer Characteristics in Arcing Pd-Ag 40 wt. Percent Versus Au Capped Pd-Ag 40 wt. Percent Metal Alloy Contacts

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):15 - 19
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (904 KB)

    The surface elemental composition of metal alloy contacts used in relays can change after the contacts have undergone arcing. In this work, selective area Auger electron spectroscopy was Used to analyze the elemental composition of the surfaces of Pd-Ag 40 wt.% versus Au capped Pd-Ag 40 wt.% metal alloy contacts, after they were subjected to arcing. When a contact pair consisting of Pd-Ag 40 wt.% ... View full abstract»

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  • The Lubrication and Environmental Protection of Alternatives to Gold for Electronic Connectors

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):51 - 56
    Cited by:  Papers (21)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (848 KB)

    A study was made of the ability of various lubricants to provide adequate protection for non-noble metal coatings in hostile environments. These include high humidity, salt spray, and industrial air pollutants. Platings included various types and thicknesses of tin, tin-lead, silver, and gold. The results have shown that specific lubricants can provide a high degree of environmental protection and... View full abstract»

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  • Contact Resistance Behavior of the 60 Pd-40 Ag Alloy in Tarnishing Environments

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):29 - 33
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (712 KB)

    Bell Laboratories has recently approved the use of the 60% palladium-40% silver alloy as a replacement for pure palladium on the general purpose wire spring family of relays. In reaching this decision, many people at the Columbus, Ohio, location carried out exhaustive tests to compare Pd and this particular Pd-Ag alloy with respect to all relevant failure modes of electrical contacts. This paper r... View full abstract»

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  • Intermetallic Growth and Contact Resistance of Tin Contacts After Aging

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):33 - 39
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1472 KB)

    The microstructure and the X-ray diffraction properties were studied for tin electroplates deposited from bright acid baths as well as from a stannate bath. Aging at 50°C for 7 years, largely converted 5µm coatings to various intermetallic compounds: Cu6Sn5and Cu3Sn or Ni3Sn4depending on the substrate. Dull tin electroplates showed l... View full abstract»

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  • A Comparative Study of the Performance of Electrical Sliding Contact Lubricants in a Chemically Active Atmosphere

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):45 - 50
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (776 KB)

    The performance of sliding contact lubricants including a diester-chlorofluorocarbon blend, a neopentylpolyolester-diester blend, a four ring polyphenyl ether, a perfluoroalkylPolyether, and a perfluorotributyl amine in an atmosphere composed of several chemical compounds has been determined. The chemical compounds were those that outgassed at 65°C from electro-mechanical assemblies normally ... View full abstract»

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  • Low Voltage Initiation of Damaging Arcs Between Electrical Contacts

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):56 - 61
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1008 KB)

    Metallic arcs were found to precede the firm contacting of electrical contacts which were closed without bounce. When the open-circuit voltages were below the ionization potential, the initiation of these arcs was found to depend on the presence of asperities on the .surfaces and on asperity contacting, melting, and pinching off by magnetic forces. The arc is thought to be initiated inductively wh... View full abstract»

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  • The Particles of Contact Activation

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):11 - 15
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (800 KB)

    Particles formed by arcing on relay contacts both in various activating (organically contaminated) atmospheres and in central office atmospheres have been examined and analyzed by various techniques including Auger, thermal, and scanning electron microscopy analyses. Carbonaceous particles were obtained on Au, Pd, Ag, Pd-Ag, Pd-S, Pd-Pb, Cu, Ni, AI, and C electrodes. In addition to these carbonace... View full abstract»

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  • Wear, Fretting and the Role of Lubricants in Edge Card Connectors

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):40 - 44
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (728 KB)

    We describe the wear process which occurs when a P.C. card with copper/nickel/solder metallization is inserted into an edge card connector that has a contacting pin with a spherical gold alloy dot and a normal force of about 300 gms. The presence of a lubricant delayed the successive wear processes and reduced the amount of solder displaced during a single pass by minimizing the cold welding of so... View full abstract»

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  • Influence of Potassium on the Arcing Voltage of Reed Contacts

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):4 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB)

    Sealed reed contacts used in switching matrices are subjected to cable discharges which generate short arcs on make. This type of arc burns at a characteristic arc voltage. When the contact material is changed from pure gold to cobalt hardened gold, a large decrease, approximately 4 to 5 V, in the mean arcing voltage is observed. This decrease in arc voltage is associated with an increase in the p... View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transaction ceased production in 1977. The current publication is titled IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology.

Full Aims & Scope