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Parts, Hybrids, and Packaging, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date December 1975

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Displaying Results 1 - 12 of 12
  • Who's Who in G-PHP

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 246
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  • Foreword: Design of materials for electronic applications

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 247
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A Review of the Limitations of Aluminum Thin Films on Semiconductor Devices

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 281 - 290
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
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    This paper reviews several time dependent reliability limitations of aluminum thin film metallization used on semiconductor devices., For each of the degradation modes, the present level of understanding as well as engineerlng data are presented. First, interactions of aluminum with the underlying silicon substrate, with silicon dioxide, and with gold are discussed. Then the time dependent degradation phenomena of electromigration, surface reconstruction, and corrosion are reviewed. A good understanding of all these limitations is important in the construction of reliable devices using this metallization. View full abstract»

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  • An Approach for Evaluating Epoxy Adhesives for Use in Hybrid Microelectronic Assembly

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 305 - 311
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    An evaluation program is described for selecting epoxy adhesives for use in hybrid microelectronics assemblies. A simple, effective screening method has been devised which allows the selection of a minimum set of epoxy adhesives that provides all the essential adhesives functions. The final selection of the adhesives is verified by physical testing of the adhesives in selected typical applications. The importance of initially determining the explicit adhesive requirements of the user's hybrid assembly is stressed as a tool for selection of epoxies to be screened. Experimental details of the screening process are described. The selection of epoxies for evaluation is derived by a process of elimination from the experimental results View full abstract»

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  • A Versatile Ta2N-W-Au/SiO2/Al/SiO2Thin Film Hybrid Microcircuit Metallization System

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 263 - 272
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    A versatile thin film metallization technique in which both gold and aluminum can be incorporated on sapphire or fine grained alumina substrates in a two level metallization system with thin film resistors is described. Tungsten is used as a lateral transition metal permitting electrical contact between the gold and aluminum without the two metals coming in physical contact. Silicon dioxide serves as an insulator between the tungsten and aluminum for crossover purposes and vias through the silicon dioxide permit interconnections where desired. Tantalum nitride is deposited first and serves as the resistor film. Sheet resistance of the film is typically 100 ohms per square. Tungsten-gold is the first level conductor except at crossovers where tungsten only is used. Aluminum is the second level conductor. Sheet resistances of the two conductor levels can be as Iow as 0.01 ohm/square. I inewidths and spaces as small as 0.025 mm can be attained. A second layer of silicon dioxide is deposited over the metallization and opened for all gold and aluminum bonding areas. The metallization system permits effective interconnection of a mixture of devices having both gold and aluminum terminations without creating undesirable gold-aluminum interfaces. Devices can be attached by epoxy or silicone directly on the circuitry. Processing temperatures up to 400°C can be tolerated for short times without effect on bondability, resistor, conductor, and insulator characteristics, thus permitting silicon-gold eutectic die attachment, component soldering, and higher temperatures during gold lead bonding. Tests conducted on special test pattern circuits indicate good stability over the temperature range--55°C to +150°C. Aging studies showed no degradation in characteristics in tests of 500 hours duration at 150°C. View full abstract»

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  • Flip-Chip Header for IR Detector Arrays Operating at Cryogenic Temperatures

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 312 - 315
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
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    The recent development of photovoltaic IR detectors made from thin films of IV-VI semiconductors, such as PbTe on BaF2substrates has necessitated the development of a new type of header. The most significant requirements were for face down mounting to permit illumination through the BaF2substrate and for Compatibility with the unusually large thermal expansion of the devices \alpha \approx 2 X 105°K-l)when the devices are cycled in the' range of 300 to 77°K. The thermal expansion was successfully matched using a 4 structure that was predominately copper. The face down i mounting was obtained by flip-chip bonding to solder bumps i dammed by chromium on copper pads that were delineated ., from the foil component of a copper/copper sealing glass/ copper foil sandwich, View full abstract»

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  • High Power Density Thin Film Resistors

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 273 - 281
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Stability characteristics of nickel-chromium thin film resistors have been measured for power densities ranging up to 4500 W/in2Resistance change was found to depend on resistor temperature, sheet resistance and substrate Wpe. For 220 \Omega /sq films the time for a one percentresistance change, t1 \approx 3.8 X 10-14exp(16820/T), where t1is in h and T is mean resistor temperature in °K. Resistors with 4 X 10-5in2area, deposited on glazed alumina, increase 0.04°C for each W/in2power density. Consequently, for room temperature ambient t1 \approx ,1.7X 105h (20 years)at 2000 W/in2(0.08W). Resistors on as-fired alumina run cooler (0.01°C/W/in2) and therefore have higher values of t1Top-hat trimmed resistors developed hot spots which caused failures at ~1000 W/in2. Modified trim configurations were tested and shown to avoid these failures. View full abstract»

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  • Material Characterization of Ti-Cu-Ni-Au(TCNA)-A New Low Cost Thin Film Conductor System

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 253 - 262
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (4)
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    The continued increase in the cost of precious metals such as palladium and gold has stimulated increased interest in the development of lower cost, but equally reliable, substitutes for noble metal thin film conductor systems such as Ti-Pd-Au. This paper discusses a Ti-Cu-Ni-Au (TCNA) substitute which eliminates the use of Pd and reduces the thickness of gold necessary for a .005 ohms per square sheet resistance from 5µm to \leq 2µm. The reduction in gold thickness can result in considerable cost savings. The TCNA films were deposited by plating, i.e., electron gun evaporation of Ti and Cu followed by the plating of Cu-Ni-Au. The results of TCNA film aging and resistor aging with TCNA at 150°C and 250°C, bondability, adherence, corrosion resistance in air + dry and wet (5% RH) HCl, SO2, and NO2environments, solderability, and humidity testing (85°C, 85% RH) under bias for encapsulated and unencapsulated TCNA conductors have been found to be comparable to the Ti-Pd-Au system. Nickel in the range of 1 µm if non-porous is a barrier to the diffusion of copper to the gold surface at the temperatures (150-350°C) and times of interest in bilevel Hybrid Integrated Circuit (H lC) fabrication. In addition to its role as a diffusion barrier, nickel also acts as a corrosion inhibitor like Pd in the Ti-Pd-Au system. View full abstract»

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  • The Influence of Several Design and Material Variables on the Propensity for Solder Joint Cracking

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 296 - 304
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Encapsulated printed wiring board assemblies which are subjected to thermal cycling may be prone to the problem of solder joint cracking. In order to quantitatively assess the susceptibility and resulting reliability of these electronic packages, a series of tests were conducted. Several test units were designed to evaluate various material and design variables. Thermal cycling (-40°F to + 160°F) of these test Units with periodic visual and/or electrical examination of each solder joint resulted in a systematic comparison of several variables with regard to influence On solder joint cracking. Within the limitations of the test conditions, several recommendations can be made to advise designers of the design and production practices to minimize damage to solder joints View full abstract»

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  • An Aluminum Solid Electrolytic Capacitor with an Organic Semiconductor Electrolyte

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 315 - 321
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    This paper describes the development and characteristics of a new aluminum solid electrolytic capacitor in which organic semiconductors are substituted for manganese dioxide. The highly conductive ion-radical salts based on 7, 7, 8, 8-tetracyanoquinodimethan were chosen because of their prominent effect on capacitor self-healing. The solid electrolyte layer of a thin uniform coating was deposited from a solution of the semiconductor and polymers. A basic approach to obtaining a uniform and adherent film suitable for an etched aluminum foil is given, along with limitations on the use of the organic semiconductor. Emphasis is placed on the effect of the polymers on the growth and adsorption of the organic-semiconductor crystals during electro formation. Much improvement was realized in capacitor performance, viz. the Iow leakage current, the extended ratio of breakdown-to-formation voltage, and stable frequency characteristics. It may be concluded from the laboratory experiments that production of high-performance organic semiconductor solid capacitors will probably be feasible in the near future View full abstract»

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  • Chemical Analyses of Thick-Film Gold Conductor Inks

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 248 - 253
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    The inorganic constituents of seventeen commerical gold-based conductor inks have been chemically analyzed in detail. A variety of techniques were employed including a precursor bake of ink samples in oxygen, which burned off the organic vehicles, followed by wet chemical analysis to determine the proportion of gold in the inorganic solids of the inks. Solids mass spectrometry and optical emission spectrometry were used to define the relative amounts of other elements present. Atomic absorption spectrometry was then employed, where applicable, to more precisely define the proportions of important binder constituents in the inks. The paper briefly describes each of the analytical methods used and refers to more detailed descriptions of each method. Descriptions are given of innovative laboratory techniques used to perform the study and with the other material given and referenced should enable the reader to duplicate the analyses. The detailed results of the analyses are presented in tabular form. The data are normalized into weight proportions of the noble metals and of the binders in oxide form. The results of the ink analyses are discussed in terms of a set of criteria, which makes the analyses somewhat easier to understand. View full abstract»

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  • The High Temperature Deformation Properties of Gold and Thermocompression Bonding

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 290 - 296
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (13)
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    The flow stress of a high purity gold has been determined so that the contribution of plastic flow to the gold<jold thermocompression bonding process can be evaluated. These compression tests at 25°C, 158°C, 311°C, and 458°C indicate that for deformations over 15% the flow stress and the work hardening coefficient decrease rapidly with increasing temperature. Correlation of the compression test results and beam lead bonding experience indicates that high purity golds having a hardness of about 30 DPH would be expected to reach a steady state uniaxial flow stress of 70-90 MPa (10,000-13,000 psi) when deformed during bonding at 300°C. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transaction ceased production in 1977. The current publication is titled IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology.

Full Aims & Scope