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Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date September 1987

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 28
  • Foreword

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 302
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • TLM Modeling of Solder Joints in Semiconductor Devices

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 440 - 445
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Transmission-line matrix (TLM) is an elegant technique for modeling heat flow in semiconductor devices. Unlike some other numerical methods a sense of the physical nature of the problem is retained and irregular boundaries, inhomogeneities, and temperature dependent thermal parameters can be easily incorporated. The inclusion of a layer of solder between a device and its PaCkage has a substantial influence on the temperature distribution. This theoretical paper investigates the effects of solder joint perfection and indicates the extent to which topographical methods such as infrared thermal imaging can give useful experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Performance of High-Speed Interconnect Systems

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 303 - 309
    Cited by:  Papers (17)  |  Patents (1)
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    Advancing semiconductor technology is increasing both device densities and speeds. As signal risetimes become faster than Ins and interconnect densities on a single chip carrier approach 500 leads or more, extremely careful electrical modeling of the packaging environment becomes critical. Designers are confronted with the practical problems imposed by the interconnect system which may degrade (or limit) the electrical performance of the device/system. To analyze or design a highspeed, high-density interconnect system, a battery of software modules needs to be developed. Several of these software modules are described. View full abstract»

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  • The IEEE Compliant Lead Task Force

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 463 - 469
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
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    The leads of leadless chip carrier packages need to be yielding or compliant so that stresses on the solder Joints are minimal. These stresses are caused both by differences in the thermal expansions of the package and the material but also by board flexing. A special task force of the IEEE has determined that there are major differences between packages from different vendors, and that the differences are relevant. Guidelines are furnished to enable the systems engineer to estimate probable useful life for board assemblies of surface-mounted "J" leaded packages. View full abstract»

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  • Controlled Electromigration for Field Failure Acceleration

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 370 - 373
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    The advent of SMT has caused a new concern for the electromigration failure mechanism. The new smaller electronic assemblies with higher density interconnections now are prime candidates for catastrophic field failures. Since the failure mechanism is so well-known and documented, it is possible to take advantage of these known responses to environmental, chemical, and physical properties and develop a procedure for testing components, boards, and entire assemblies. In order for electromigration to occur three things are necessary: ions, moisture, and an electric potential. Since removal of any one of these three necessary items will inhibit the process and prevent electromigration, a carefully controlled experiment Can be established to determine threshold values for each parameter. Once these threshold values are quantified, they can be used to predict the outcome of a device under test. A simple test for stressing specific areas of an assembly has been developed. This test can then be applied to a functional system or component and a life expectancy can be predicted. In this manner, incompatible components can be eliminated from the system or their surfaces prepared in such a manner as to prevent its premature demise. Some of the areas to which this type of testing is well-suited are printed circuit board platings, component platings, and final assembly cleaning. With this information the best possible process can be determined for coating the exposed metal surfaces so that maximum reliability is achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Association of Bonding-Wire Displacement With Gas Bubbles in Plastic-Encapsulated Integrated Circuits

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 327 - 331
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Evidence for the unexpected association of displaced wires with gas bubbles in plastic-encapsulated integrated circuits is presented. It is also shown that bubbles can be caused by entrainment of air in the compound as it flows through the molding tool. A mechanism which accounts for the frequent association of displaced bonding wires with the gas bubbles is suggested. View full abstract»

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  • Advanced Copper/Polyimide Hybrid Technology

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 425 - 432
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    In the past, a unique hybrid IC processing approach which combines wet-metallized copper, air-fired (ruthenium-based) RuO2paste, and photoactive polyimide, was presented by the authors [1], Now, a further improved and advanced new copper/polyimide hybrid technology Mitsubishi Copper Polyimide Hybrid (MCPH) has been developed. The new MCPH was processed using a large (106 x 106 mm) Al2O3substrate, full copper system (all layers) with 50-µm fine lines. For the first layer, the full-additive process was adopted, while for the other layers, a semiadditive process was employed. The photoactlve polyimide interlayer insulation is screen printed, and after the exposure and development steps, is cured using a conveyor belt furnace. This new process has many excellent features, such as uniform coating thickness, better mass-production capability, etc. The MCPH fundamental processes were evaluated and established using an MCPH Test Element Group (TEG). This TEG has fine lines, small diameter vias and/or pads, matrix lines, etc. To compare characteristics, the same circuit as a conventional hybrid IC was fabricated by applying the MCPH technology. As a result, this functional MCPH (MCPH ES) is a compact size (less than 1/2 the circuit area), has excellent electrical parameters, and high reliability. This MCPH ES uses a flip-chip IC (2.9 mmx 3.4 mm) with 30 small solder bumps (100 µm, min. 170-µm pitch). Important MCPH process factors and/or reliability factors were fully evaluated by using the TEG and functional ES. Through various tests (thermal cycle, voltage loaded, humidity, pressure cooker, break-down or leak, etc.), the MCPH shows excellent reliability characteristics. Consequently, a unique MCPH has been developed using a simple, reliable, cost-effective and excellent massproduction multilayer-hybrid process. View full abstract»

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  • Stress and Deflection Analysis of Partially Routed Panels for Depanelization

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 411 - 419
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
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    Deflection and stress in partially routed panels have been studied by the finite element method. Emphasis is placed on the effects of partial routing on the assembly processes for surface mount printed circuit boards. To test the validity of the finite element results, the overall deflection profile of a partially routed panel was measured. The calculated deflection profile agreed with the experimental results. Two different tab configurations have been designed and for each design four connecting tab widths have been analyzed. View full abstract»

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  • Automation of Solder Joint Inspection Procedures Utilizing Laser Induced Infrared

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 374 - 378
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    In the rush to automate assembly flow in the fabrication and assembly of electronic equipment, great strides have been made in all areas with the exception of solder joint inspection and rework. This paper focuses on an attempt to automate, at least in part, the inspection of printed wiring assembly (PWA) solder joints. The use of laser and/or X-ray equipment is causing quite a stir in the industry due to the fact that there finally appears to be a technique that may allow for automation of one of the most labor intensive, inexact, and costly tasks in any PWA assembly operation--the visual inspection of solder joint quality. As the complexity of PWA's increase, the number and density of solder joints are increasing. This trend is resulting in decreased efficiency in the inspection process due to the shear number of joints to be inspected, operator fatigue, and the subjectivity of the entire inspection process. In areas where absolute quality is critical, such as military products, this declining inspection effectiveness is being compensated for by the incorporation of multiple inspection-rework loops. These techniques statistically should result in the identification of all defects on a given assembly. However, the impact of this multiple inspection process is one of total disruption to the assembly flow in an automated shop. Laser induced infrared (IR) inspection has been under investigation by Texas Instruments' Defense Systems and Electronics Group for the past several years. Our thrust has been aimed at the incorporation of this technique into the inspection of PWA's that are fabricated for military customers. Extensive efforts have been expended in the determination of the strengths and weaknesses of the technique in an attempt to augment the human element in the inspection process. View full abstract»

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  • Optimizing the Wire-Bonding Process for Copper Ball Bonding, Using classic Experimental Designs

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 321 - 326
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    Two classic experimental designs were used to develop the copper ball bonding process. A two-level factorial design was used to screen five process variables simultaneously and determine whether any of them had a significant effect on the process. A four-factor central composite design was used to optimize and map the bonding process window. The efficiency of using designed experiments allowed the development of the process and the achievement of a major milestone in only 15 experiments. The experimental designs which were used have wide application for process development and optimization. The concepts can be easily taught so that the experiments can become a standard for process technicians to follow. The use and analysis of these experimental designs are described. View full abstract»

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  • Degradation Mechanisms in Tin- and Gold-Plated Connector Contacts

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 456 - 462
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Degradation mechanisms in tin-plated contacts (Sn contacts) and gold-plated contacts (Au contacts) are clarified. Contact resistance and corrosion characteristics for both types of contacts are investigated and compared. Contact resistance is more stable for Sn contacts than for Au contacts in a SO2+ NO2+ C12atmosphere. This is because relatively few corrosion products are formed on Sn contacts. Also, the surface films formed on Sn contacts shatters more easily upon plastic deformation. Corrosion experiments in atmospheres containing different combinations of SO2, NO2, and Cl2demonstrate that two types of corrosion processes take place in plated contacts. One is surface corrosion which occurs when the surface finish is severely attacked by a corrosive atmosphere. The other is pore corrosion which occurs when the underplating materials are attacked to a greater extent than surface corrosion. Both processes occur in Sn contacts and the former is dominant in atmospheres containing Ci2. On the other hand, only pore corrosion occurs in Au contacts. Furthermore, galvanic corrosion either enhances or inhibits the formation of outcroppings in the pore corrosion process, depending on the electrode potential of the surface finish and underplating materials. View full abstract»

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  • A New LSI Interconnection Method for IC Cards

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 310 - 313
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
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    A new LSI interconnection method, the printed wiring connection (PWC) method, has already been developed. This method involves a planar interconnection, formed by screen printing, utilizing a polymeric conductor. Using this new method, an IC card was made, and the feasibility of applying this method to IC card packaging was investigated. The IC card developed has passed most reliability tests based on the ISO standard and several environmental tests to prove its application feasibility. View full abstract»

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  • Elastoplastic Analysis of Surface-Mount Solder Joints

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 346 - 357
    Cited by:  Papers (30)
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    Thermal strain in surface-mount chip resistor assemblies is studied by the finite element method using two- and three-dimensional models. Emphasis is placed on the effects of interconnection geometry on solder joint fatigue. Nine different solder joint geometries are considered. View full abstract»

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  • New Process for Automated IC Assembly Manufacturing

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 391 - 396
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    A novel assembly process, designed for automation, has been developed and implemented. This paper describes both the equipmerit and processes employed by this technology. The key features of the design are the Use of the whole top surface of the chip for assembly, large bonding pads to reduce the required mechanical accuracies, and elimination of wire bonding and chip attach by bonding the chip directly to the leadframe. All bonds are being made simultaneously to a Strip of leadframe. Other features such as the thermal and electrical characteristics, corrosion resistance, and environmental stress results are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Further Studies of a Low-Melting Point Alloy Used in a Liquid Metal Current Collector

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 452 - 455
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
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    Low-melting point bismuth-based alloys are potential replacements for NaK78as liquid metal slip ring material because of their lower reactivity and potentially greater hydrodynamic stability. This paper describes experiments of one such alloy in a model of a 300-kW superconducting homopolar motor using close clearance braid-type collectors. Slip ring tip velocities varied from 5 to 20 m/s and currents ranging from 500 to 2500 A. Viscous power losses tend to follow a simple turbulent model. In all, the data supports the use of low-melting point alloys (LMPA) us an alternative to NaK78. View full abstract»

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  • A Comparison of Rapid Solidification Cast Versus Conventional Die Attach Soft Solders

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 341 - 345
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    Die attach soft solders manufactured by rapid solidification casting and by conventional methods were tested for several attributes and compared. Solders tested were Sn + 25%Ag + 10%Sb, Sn + 3.5%Ag, and Pb + 5%In + 2.5%Ag. Rapid solidification solders showed a much more refined structure than conventional solders, as well as exhibiting improved performance in wetting and mechanical strength tests. The results of our investigations showed that solder wettability was improved by about 15 percent for Sn + 3.5%Ag, to over 100-percent improvement for Sn + 25% Ag + 10%Sb and Pb + 5%In + 2.5%Ag. Solder joint shear strength was also improved by 75 percent or more for the solders tested. These results led to the conclusion that rapidly solidified Solders will yield improved performance. View full abstract»

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  • Ta-Si-C High Resistivity Thin Films for Thermal Printing Heads

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 446 - 451
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
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    Ta-Si-C thin films have been developed for thermal printing heads, and the effect of composition on the film properties was studied. The results of these investigations show that (1) when Ta-Si-C thin films are formed, the composition of the film does not agree with the target composition, (2) addition of carbon to Ta/SiC mixtures suppresses recrystallization during high temperature treatment, (3) excellent characteristies are achieved with thermal printing heads using Ta-Si-C thin films formed using a target with more than 20-percent carbon in a SiC/C mixture, and (4) irreversible resistance changes are very small in thermal printing heads containing more than 20-percent carbon when external heat is applied. These results show that Ta-Si-C is an excellent material for use in thermal printing heads. View full abstract»

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  • High Frequency Behavior of Ceramic Multilayer Capacitors

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 437 - 439
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    The impedance of ceramic capacitors, made from different dielectric materials, was measured as a function of frequency from 1 MHz to 1 GHz. Most of the capacitors were of 0805 size and either end terminated or side terminated. The capacitance values ranged from a minimum of 50 pF to 100 nF. The high-frequency impedance measurements demonstrate that the inductance is a factor of two larger in end-terminated than in side-terminated ceramic muitilayer capacitors of size 0805. The inductance measured by two independent methods is 0.7 nH for the side-terminated 0805 capacitors. The inductance is only dependent on the geometry of the capacitor and independent of the dielectric material used. The capacitance and, in turn, the dielectric constant, remains constant for Z5U and X7R materials up to 100 MHz. For NPO materials the dielectric constant remains constant up to 1 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Advantages of a Floating Annular Ring in Three-Layer Tab Assembly

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 332 - 334
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (4)
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    A mechanically formed unsupported annular ring in three-layer tape automated bonding (TAB) material offers a number of advantages to the user. Leads are stabilized in x, y, and z axes so as to be in precise alignment for inner lead bonding to integrated circuits. Narrower leads may be designed, increasing packaging density, because they do not have to be self-supporting. Longer cantilever lengths can be used than when a supporting ring is absent. The adhesive holding the leads to the support ring acts as a secondary dielectric, providing high moisture resistance and excellent electrical properties. The adhesive is chemically resistant to processing solutions and, as a thermoset, resists any reflow during soldering or thermode bonding. The floating annular ring is suitable for inclusion in the final package. The unsupported ring has two specific advantages over corner-supported rings heretofore available. Outer lead excise tooling needs only pierce copper, and may be of simple square design. In addition, the entire periphery of the floating annulus may be used for lead layout, whereas supported rings require certain areas (usually corners) to be free of leads. View full abstract»

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  • Contact Resistance of Oxidized Metals: Dependence on the Mating Material

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 420 - 424
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    The contact resistances of several oxidized metals were determined with smooth spherical probes that were made of various noble and base metals. It was found that contact resistance decreased sharply as the hardness of the probe was increased. Oxidized hard metal probes sometimes gave contact resistances which were less than those from probes made of soft noble metals. The reason is postulated to be that the plastic deformation, hence contact area, of a hard probe under mechanical load is less than that of one which is soft. Contact pressure at a fixed force is, therefore, greater, and the fracture or displacement of oxide on the surface is thereby enhanced. It may not be possible to apply sufficiently high pressures to displace films on hard base metals like nickel when the probe is plated with an easily deformed metal, such as tin-lead solder, and even tin-lead mated to itself may not give low values of contact resistance when the surface films are more than a few hundred angstroms thick at the forces ordinarily used in probing. Finally, a probe made of solid pure gold is a more sensitive indicator of contamination on a hard contact surface than is a hard probe, like electrodeposited gold on nickel underplate. View full abstract»

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  • Stiffness and Yielding in the PLCC "J" Lead

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 379 - 390
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
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    The stiffness of the "J" lead in plastic leaded chip carrier (PLCC) packages is calculated using simple beam bending theory. These results are compared with experimentally determined values and used to estimate shear stress amplitudes in the solder joint. Yielding loads in "J" leads of varying geometries are also determined. View full abstract»

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  • A New Laser Hermetic Sealing Technique for Aluminum Package

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 433 - 436
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (2)
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    A new laser hermetic sealing technique which combines nickel plating with laser welding has been developed for aluminum packages. Laser welding has proved to be the most promising hermetic sealing technique for the aluminum packages. However, laser welding of the package has been difficult because of aluminum's tendency to suffer centerline cracks in the weld zone. Nickel was added in the weld zone by laser welding nickel-plated aluminum to strengthen the weld metal and prevent centerline cracks. With this aim, the optimum plating method and plating thickness were investigated. Consequently, electroless Ni-1wt%B, 5 µm in thickness was found to be best suited to the new technique, because the laser weld zone of the package exhibits a high joint strength almost equal to the tensile strength of the parent metal, and a package leakage of less than 10-9atm · cm3/s. The reliability of the hermetically sealed package was tested in accordance with MIL-STD-202F. It was confirmed that the new technique is suitable for the aluminum package for use in space, in the stratosphere and in salt-laden air. View full abstract»

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  • New Film Carrier Assembly Technology: Transferred Bump TAB

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 335 - 340
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (10)
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    Conventional tape automated bonding (TAB) uses IC chips with gold bumps, where gold bumps are formed on the aluminum bonding pads of the IC chips by metal evaporation, photoetching, and gold plating. The bumps of metal multilayer have to be formed directly on the IC chips in the conventional TAB method, and this necessitates a number of complicated processes and equipments. With the newly developed film carrier assembly technology, the bumps are prepared separately on a substrate and are transferred and bonded on the finger lead ends beforehand, therefore the assembly of IC chips can be made very simple and the assembly cost reduced. View full abstract»

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  • Closely Packed Microstrip Lines as Very High Speed Chip-to-Chip Interconnects

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 314 - 320
    Cited by:  Papers (11)  |  Patents (5)
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    As the density, complexity, and speed of VLSI circuits continue to increase, it has become apparent that the chip-to-chip interconnections can limit overall performance of an integrated system. Here the analysis is discussed of interconnections as long transmission lines whose cross-sectional dimensions are the order of several micrometers. The relevant parameters are signal delay, loss, crosstalk, and spatial density. The time domain response of coupled microscopic transmission lines is also shown. Preliminary results indicate that conventional quasi-TEM analysis is inadequate but that modification can bring about substantial improvement. A proposed two-level structure appears to offer an attractive combination of high-speed (c/1.8), low crosstalk (less than ten percent over 10 cm), low loss (0.05 dB/mm at 1 GHz), and high density (35/µm period) and can operate at frequencies exceeding 1 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Fabrication of 16-bit DAC Using Infrared Fired Thick-Film Process

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 364 - 369
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    lnterest in infrared firing of thick films has increased recently because of its potential advantages, such as short process time cycles and low power consumption, over its conventional counterpart. The theory of infrared firing and some related experimental work have been reported previously. However, earlier experimental studies were concentrated on the study of individual components like resistors or capacitors. Studies related to the effects of infrared firing on the performance of a complete circuit are scarcely reported. The present work has been aimed to study the behavior of 16- and 14-bit digital-to-analog converter circuits with number of interconnected resistor-conductor networks and fabricated using infrared fired thick-film process. The study demonstrates the viability of infrared firing for the processing of high-quality thick-film microcircuits, provided optimization of firing profile is carried out. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transaction ceased production in 1993. The current publication is titled IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology.

Full Aims & Scope