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Robotics and Automation, IEEE Journal of

Issue 3 • Date June 1987

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Displaying Results 1 - 11 of 11
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Guest editorial

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 169 - 171
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • How to move a chair through a door

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 172 - 181
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    The door width of a simple polygon (a chair) is defined and an O(n^{2}) algorithm for computing its door width is given. It is first shown that all passages of the chair through the door can be reduced to a sequence of certain elementary motions. The technique of constraint analysis in characterizing elementary motions is introduced. Our algorithm actually constructs a motion of the chair through a door, and thus is a "local expert" for planning motion through doors. Such algorithms have applications in more general motion-planning systems in robotics. View full abstract»

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  • Minimizing turns for discrete movement in the interior of a polygon

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 182 - 193
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The problem of movement in two-dimensional Euclidean space that is bounded by a (not necessarily convex) polygon is considered. Movement is restricted to be along straight line segments, and the objective is to minimize the number of bends or "turns" in a path. Most past work on this problem has addressed the movement between a source point and a destination point. An O(n ast log (n)) time algorithm is presented for computing a data structure that represents the minimal-turn paths from a source point to all other points in the polygon. An advantage of this algorithm is that it uses relatively simple data structures and is practical to implement. Another advantage is that it is easily generalized to accommodate the movement of a disk of radius r > 0. View full abstract»

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  • Simulation of physical systems from geometric models

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 194 - 206
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
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    The design of an extensible system is discussed in which the behavior of physical objects is simulated from their models. Complex objects can be defined in a multiplicity of domains, including their geometric shape, their dynamic response to applied forces, and their controlled behavior. In response to unforeseen changes, e.g., for unexpected collisions, the object models are modified automatically during the simulation. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of kinematics on motion planning for planar robot arms moving amidst unknown obstacles

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 207 - 223
    Cited by:  Papers (36)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1651 KB)  

    An approach of dynamic path planning (DPP) was introduced elsewhere, and nonheuristic algorithms were described for planning collision-free paths for a point automaton moving in an environment filled with unknown obstacles of arbitrary shape. The DPP approach was further extended to a planar robot arm with revolute joints; in this case, every point of the robot body is subject to collision. Under the accepted model, the robot, using information about its immediate surroundings provided by the sensory feedback, continuously (dynamically) generates its path. Various kinematic configurations of planar arms with revolute and sliding joints are analyzed in this paper from the standpoint of applying the same strategy. It is shown that, depending on the arm kinematics, specific modifications must be introduced in the path planning algorithm to preserve convergence. The approach presents an attractive method for robot motion planning in unstructured environments with uncertainty. View full abstract»

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  • A simple motion-planning algorithm for general robot manipulators

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 224 - 238
    Cited by:  Papers (227)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1414 KB)  

    A simple and efficient algorithm is presented, using configuration space, to plan collision-free motions for general manipulators. An implementation of the algorithm for manipulators made up of revolute joints is also presented. The configuration-space obstacles for an n degree-of-freedom manipulator are approximated by sets of n - 1- dimensional slices, recursively built up from one-dimensional slices. This obstacle representation leads to an efficient approximation of the free space outside of the configuration-space obstacles. View full abstract»

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  • Error modeling in stereo navigation

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 239 - 248
    Cited by:  Papers (133)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1274 KB)  

    In stereo navigation, a mobile robot estimates its position by tracking landmarks with on-board cameras. Previous systems for stereo navigation have suffered from poor accuracy, in part because they relied on scalar models of measurement error in triangulation. Using three-dimensional (3D) Gaussian distributions to model triangulation error is shown to lead to much better performance. How to compute the error model from image correspondences, estimate robot motion between frames, and update the global positions of the robot and the landmarks over time are discussed. Simulations show that, compared to scalar error models, the 3D Gaussian reduces the variance in robot position estimates and better distinguishes rotational from translational motion. A short indoor run with real images supported these conclusions and computed the final robot position to within two percent of distance and one degree of orientation. These results illustrate the importance of error modeling in stereo vision for this and other applications. View full abstract»

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  • Sonar-based real-world mapping and navigation

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 249 - 265
    Cited by:  Papers (367)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2265 KB)  

    A sonar-based mapping and navigation system developed for an autonomous mobile robot operating in unknown and unstructured environments is described. The system uses sonar range data to build a multileveled description of the robot's surroundings. Sonar readings are interpreted using probability profiles to determine empty and occupied areas. Range measurements from multiple points of view are integrated into a sensor-level sonar map, using a robust method that combines the sensor information in such a way as to cope with uncertainties and errors in the data. The resulting two-dimensional maps are used for path planning and navigation. From these sonar maps, multiple representations are developed for various kinds of problem-solving activities. Several dimensions of representation are defined: the abstraction axis, the geographical axis, and the resolution axis. The sonar mapping procedures have been implemented as part of an autonomous mobile robot navigation system called Dolphin. The major modules of this system are described and related to the various mapping representations used. Results from actual runs are presented, and further research is mentioned. The system is also situated within the wider context of developing an advanced software architecture for autonomous mobile robots. View full abstract»

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  • The ground surveillance robot (GSR): An autonomous vehicle designed to transit unknown terrain

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 266 - 279
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1838 KB)  

    The Ground Surveillance Robot (GSR) project has proceeded continuously since the Fall of 1980, and in that time an autonomous vehicle design and some degree of implementation has been achieved. The vehicle design has been partitioned into sensor, control, and planning subsystems. A distributed blackboard scheme has been developed which provides the mechanism by which these subsystems are coordinated. Vehicle position and orientation are supplied by vehicle attitude and navigation sensor subsystems. Obstacle avoidance capability has been implemented by fusing information from vision and acoustic ranging sensors into local goals and avoidance points. The influence of these points is combined through potential field techniques to accomplish obstacle avoidance control. Distant terrain characteristics are identified using information from a gray-level vision system, a color vision system, and a computer-controlled laser ranging sensor. These characteristics are used by a general planning engine to develop the desired path to a visible goal in the direction of the final goal. Progress to the final goal consists of a succession of movements from one distant but visible intermediate goal to another. The experience from implementing this autonomous vehicle has indicated the need for an integrated set of debugging tools which make the faults in subsystem hardware and software more distinguishable. View full abstract»

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  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): c4 - 0
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

This Journal ceased production in 1988. The current retitled publications are IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering and IEEE Transactions on Robotics.

Full Aims & Scope