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Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 11 • Date Nov 1983

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Displaying Results 1 - 12 of 12
  • Elementary limit cycles with application to the testing of digital circuits

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 809 - 814
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (624 KB)  

    Limit cycles in recursive digital filters are normally regarded as undesirable parasitic effects that one tries to minimize. However, one can also regard limit cycles as readily observable (and predictable) patterns of behavior that can be used to verify if a digital circuit is functioning properly. In this letter patterns of simple limit cycles that occur in first-order systems subject to some form of truncation or rounding, that are excited by a constant input, are investigated and classified in accordance with elementary number theory. The simplest of these result in input-output patterns that enable rapid verification of the correct functioning of simple combinations of adders and multipliers. As such they provide a useful method for testing this type of circuit in addition to conventional methods. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the following situations are derived: (i) a unique constant solution; (ii) a limit cycle of period 2 samples and of magnitude equal to m (integer), with m = 1 the most useful case; (iii) multiple constant solutions occurring in simple clusters; (iv) multiple limit cycles of type (ii) encircling a constant solution. Of these, type (ii) provides the most useful results for testing purposes. It is shown how the occurrence or nonoccurrence of limit cycles is related to increments in the value of u. It is also shown that limit cycles of period greater than 2 samples do not exist. View full abstract»

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  • Capacitor- spread evaluation of stray-insensitive SC biquads

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 847
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (120 KB)  

    The optimal dynamic range designs of E and F type strayinsensitive biquads due to Fleischer-Laker/Martin-Sedra are evaluated with regard to the capacitor spread required to realize given specifications. View full abstract»

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  • Stability, dynamic range, and roundoff noise in a new second-order recursive digital filter

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 815 - 821
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (688 KB)  

    The limit cycle and roundoff noise behavior of a new second-order digital filter are examined. This digital filter is shown to be free from all constant input limit cycles if magnitude truncation and two's complement arithmetic are used. Low-pass, high-pass, and bandpass transfer functions can be readily obtained by using only two multipliers, two delay elements, and five adders. A closed-form expression of the normalized unit noise gain is derived and compared with the noise gains of other well-known second-order structures. View full abstract»

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  • 2-D state-space realizations with fewer multipliers and invariant norms

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 804 - 808
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB)  

    A similarity transformation that introduces zero coefficients in the A matrix of a local state-space (LSS) realization is presented. The transformation is orthogonal and thus preserves \parallel A \parallel . This guarantees that the number of multipliers is reduced without sacrificing zero input stability to nonlinearities satisfying |Q(x_{i})| \leq |x_{i}| . It is shown that the transformation does not affect the sensitivity. The results are extended to the generalized asymmetric half-plane state-space model. An example of a general 1 - Q second-order filter is given. View full abstract»

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  • Two-amplifier active-RC biquads with minimized dependence on op-amp parameters

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 797 - 803
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (800 KB)  

    It is generally recognized that the best two-amplifier active- RC biquads show a better performance with lower sensitivities than single-amplifier biquads (SAB's), and that the performance of an SAB can be improved by use of a composite amplifier. In this paper it is demonstrated that by matching the characteristics of a composite amplifier to the specific filter's requirements a "composite single-amplifier biquad" (CAB) can be obtained with significantly better performance than that of the best two-amplifier biquads reported to date. The resulting circuits are shown by theory and experiment to belong to the best available active- RC filters. View full abstract»

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  • Design of digital filters using interactive optimization

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 821 - 824
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB)  

    It is shown how modem optimization techniques, coupled with efficient use of interaction and graphics, can substantially help the digital filter designer. The high flexibility of this methodology makes tractable a large class of specifications for meeting the needs of the designer, including constraints on both the magnitude and phase responses, or, say, special stability requirements for improving transient behavior. As an example, the design of a low-pass filter, performed on the Berkeley DELIGHT system, is presented. View full abstract»

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  • The relationships between different measures of nonlinear distortion in single-amplifier active filters

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 842 - 846
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB)  

    The different nonlinear distortion measures in single-amplifier active filters are discussed and the relationships between these measures given. The analysis presented is based on the Volterra-Wiener series approach used in many articles to model nonlinear circuits and systems with mild nonlinearities. Examples of active RC filters illustrate the relationships developed. View full abstract»

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  • Macromodeling of nonlinear systems with piecewise-constant inputs

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 777 - 796
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2400 KB)  

    A representation theorem for ground stable nonlinear systems with piecewise-constant inputs is presented. It is a three-dimensional system of differential equations augmented by an algebraic output equation. The representation is characterized by N + 6 parameters, where N is the number of harmonics used to represent transients. Five of the parameters are positive constants, and the remaining N + 1 parameters are functions of either 1 or 2 variables. Applications involving the macromodeling of higher dimensional linear and nonlinear systems are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear resistive maximum power theorem, with solar cell application

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 824 - 828
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (664 KB)  

    This paper reports a multiport maximum power theorem for nonlinear resistive networks. The optimal nonlinear load characteristic is specified as a closed-form expression involving the constitutive relation of the source. An application to the optimal load-matching problem for a solar cell is given. View full abstract»

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  • An Improved Method for Reducing Multiplications in the Gain Expression of Acyclic Signal Flow Graph

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 838 - 841
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB)  

    An improved method of minimizing the number of multiplications required to evaluate the gain expression for an acyclic signal flow graph (SFG) is presented. For a class of signal flow graphs, called separable SFG's a decomposition method for simplifying computation is proposed. Two examples are given. View full abstract»

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  • Further studies on injection synchronized oscillator

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 832 - 838
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (648 KB)  

    Injection-locking properties of a practical oscillator have been re-examined with particular emphasis on the flow of current into the input port of the active device. This approach has made it possible to understand various types of asymmetric locking characteristics observed in practice. Detailed theoretical analyses have been carried out to take care of the effect of second- and third-harmonic distortion components through the active device. Also presented are experimental results in support of the theoretical conclusion. View full abstract»

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  • Identification and decomposition of fast handwriting system

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 828 - 832
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB)  

    Systems for carrying out automatic handwriting recognition or writer verification based on real-time handwriting signals have as their basic function the separation and characterization of a muscular force function and a hand system impulse response. The problem is how to deconvolve the handwriting signal into two functions mentioned above. The problem assumes that the only datum available is the convolution itself; the handwriting signal. Limiting our discussions exclusively to the "fast" handwriting case, an approach to this class of blind deconvolution -is described based on the interaction of theory and experiments. View full abstract»

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