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Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 12 • Date Dec 1980

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • Stability analysis of 2-D systems

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1210 - 1217
    Cited by:  Papers (71)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (792 KB)  

    A polynomial stability criterion for 2-D systems is taken as a starting point for introducing a frequency dependent Lyapunov equation. The Fourier analysis of its matrix solution leads to an infinite dimensional quadratic form which provides a Lyapunov function for the global state of the system. The Fourier coefficients are explicitly obtained as the sum of series involving the system matrices. The convergence of these series constitutes a necessary and sufficient stability condition, which generalizes the analogous condition for 1-D systems. View full abstract»

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  • High-Q inductance circuit using an integrator and its application

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1164 - 1169
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (712 KB)  

    In this paper we propose a high- Q inductance simulation circuit using an integrator and a voltage-current converter. This is followed by a description of an application of this circuit to realize a high- Q bandpass amplifier. The input voltage E_i , is integrated and the resulting output E_0 is converted to a current I_i whose magnitude and phase are proportional to those of E_0 . So the phase angle of I_0 lags E_i by almost 90 degs. The design of the integrator circuit which provides a phase lag of 90 degs is described; analysis of the effect of element tolerances and temperature variations, frequency range over which the effective inductance has nearly constant value, and the maximum value of Q attainable by adjusting the circuit parameters are presented. It is also shown that over a frequency range of about 1 Hz-500 kHz, maximum values of Q in the range of 500-1500 may be realized stably. Finally, a frequency selective amplifier using an inductance circuit with an unloaded Q of 830 is described to illustrate the stability of such high- Q circuits. View full abstract»

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  • Partitioned matrix derivatives using Kronecker products

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1268 - 1269
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB)  

    The derivative of a composite matrix with respect to any of its partitions, when these partitions do not have equal dimensions, is derived using Kronecker products. It was also possible to obtain the derivative of a partition in terms of the derivative of the original matrix. View full abstract»

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  • New active RC-networks for the generation and detection of single-sideband signals

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1140 - 1154
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1504 KB)  

    A class of polyphase active coupled networks for quadrature signal generation is presented. These networks employ resistors, lowprecision capacitors, and commercial integrated operational amplifiers. The sequence discrimination approach implemented in the analysis of these networks is very promising in single-sideband (SSB) generation and detection. It has the advantage of achieving both frequency translation and filtering in a single step. Consequently, the iteration problems associated with active filters at high frequencies are solved. It is shown that by applying feedback between the input and output terminals of these networks, both the gain and phase sensitivities to the component variations are improved. The performance of the proposed networks is analyzed and compared to that of the well-established all-pass realization. The superiority of the proposed networks, due to their relative insensitivity to the component variations, in comparison with the all-pass technique is also verified experimentally. View full abstract»

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  • An efficient design of large-scale communication networks with a decomposition technique

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1169 - 1175
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (776 KB)  

    This paper presents an efficient network design method that can be used for large-scale communication networks employing both satellite and terrestrial links. The basic design problem is outlined along with mathematical models. Then a Lagrangian multiplier is used to decompose the design problem of a large-scale multinode network into that of a "coupled" set of three-node networks. This decomposition technique greatly simplifies the network design and enhances the computational efficiency. A 30-node network example is shown for illustration. View full abstract»

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  • 2-D causal recursive digital filter modeling implementation

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1175 - 1184
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1112 KB)  

    A technique is proposed to find the causal recursive filter model that realizes a given impulse response support. This is shown to be an essential step in any design problem. Although, the local state space (LSS) is used throughout the paper to represent the filter model, all results apply as well to the transfer function representation. Several aspects of the implementation problem which are dependent on the choice of the filter model are also discussed. These are the recursion sequence, the implementation storage and the possible parallelism in calculating the output samples. View full abstract»

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  • A note on parameter value determination from node voltage measurements

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1269 - 1270
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (280 KB)  

    In a recent paper a method was presented for the calculation of element value changes from node voltage changes. The method was derived using Tellegen's conservation of power theorem. In this short note it is shown that an equivalent result can be obtained by applying Kirchhoff's current law to a cutset. View full abstract»

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  • Least-squares low-pass filters with nonmonotonic response

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1270 - 1272
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (328 KB)  

    A new class of all-pole low-pass filter functions, derived from the least-squares approximation technique, is introduced. The magnitude response is compared with those of some other all-pole filters, like the Butterworth, LSM, and Chebyshev ones. The three subclasses of the new class seem to be a suitable choice for the approximation function in filter synthesis. View full abstract»

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  • Optimum configurations for single-amplifier biquadratic filters

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1155 - 1163
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (928 KB)  

    Two new biquad circuits based on the Sallen-Key positive feedback structure are introduced and shown to be capable of realizing all possible second-order filter functions. The pole design equations and pole sensitivities are identical to those of the Deliyannis bandpass circuit which is the basis for the Friend biquad. The new circuits, however, display lower transmission zero sensitivities than the Friend notch realizations. Design details and experimental results are given. View full abstract»

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  • Characteristic function of least-mean-square passband filters with finite attenuation poles

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1225 - 1233
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (888 KB)  

    Characteristic function of low-pass filters with finite attenuation poles approximating a zero passband loss in terms of a weighted least-mean-square norm is derived in explicit form. The number and locations of attenuation poles are subject only to the realizability conditions and can be adjusted by a simple pole placer program to meet either equal-ripple or general stopband requirements. The shape of the passband magnitude response is controlled by a variable parameter which appears in the weight function used to define the error integral. Filters with either Chebyshev, or maximally flat passband magnitude response are shown to be the special cases of the explicit formula derived. View full abstract»

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  • A comparison of cascade and wave fixed-point digital-filter structures

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1184 - 1193
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1000 KB)  

    Three classes of digital-filter structures, namely two classes of cascade structures and one class of wave structures, are compared with regards to the number of arithmetic operations, the inherent speed capability, the output noise due to product quantization, and the sensitivity to multiplier-coefficient quantization. Four types of filters are considered, namely a Butterworth low-pass filter, a Chebyshev high-pass filter, an elliptic bandstop filter, and an elliptic band-pass filter. The arithmetic is assumed to be of the fixed-point type, numbers are assumed to be in two's complement representation, and number quantization is assumed to be by rounding. View full abstract»

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  • Q-enhancement and extension of the stability range of generalized immittance converters

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1272 - 1274
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (328 KB)  

    A compensation technique is proposed which will extend the useful bandwidth of Antoniou-type immittance converters for the realization of RC -active filters with high pole- Q towards higher frequencies. Using operational amplifiers with very high unity-gain-frequency, stability problems are likely to occur. A method for an essential improvement of the stability margin is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Eigenvalue-S matrix element relations for some common devices with two-fold symmetry using group theory

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1205 - 1210
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (640 KB)  

    Linear relations between the S matrix eigenvalues and S matrix entries of symmetrical multi-port networks have frequently been useful for understanding the properties of such networks. Generally, they have only been derived for networks possessing sufficient symmetry to allow the application of methods based on matrix algebra. Some common multi-port devices possess only two-fold symmetry, however. In this paper a technique based on group theory is developed for systematically deriving such relations in cases of limited symmetry as well. View full abstract»

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  • On the Periodic Steady-State Problem by the Newton Method

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1263 - 1268
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (592 KB)  

    The methods by which linear sensitivity circuits have been used to evaluate the sensitivity matrix, {\partial }x(T)/{\partial }x(0) , can be improved. The sensitivity matrix is used in the computation of the Jacobian of f(x(0))=x(0)-x(T)=0 , ( T being the period) in a periodic steady-state problem. It is shown here that the sensitivity matrix can be obtained from the solution of a linear homogeneous matrix equation which is simply derived by differentiating the state equations or a mixture of algebraicdifferential equations arising from any formulation. This simplification makes the method easier and more practical to implement in a general purpose CAD program. Examples are given. View full abstract»

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  • Design of actively compensated finite gain amplifiers for high-frequency applications

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1133 - 1139
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (752 KB)  

    In this paper new circuits for realizing actively compensated finite gain amplifiers (FGA's) using operational amplifiers (OA's) and resistors are given. In IC technology, as the characteristics of the OA's and the resistor ratios track closely with each other with temperature and other variations of ambient conditions, the compensation should hold under such varying conditions. An application is considered in active-RC filters. Experimental results confirm the theoretical predictions. These results show that one can expect a substantial improvement in the operating frequency range of the circuits that employ the new amplifiers over the conventional amplifiers or the existing ones using two OA's. View full abstract»

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  • Existence and uniqueness results for Liénard́s equation having a dead band

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1251 - 1254
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB)  

    In the first part of the present paper we consider general systems of first-order autonomous differential equations and generalize a uniqueness criterion by Dulac concerning periodic solutions to equations of the form \dot{x}=P(x,y), \dot{y}=Q(x,y) . In the second part we use this result to generalize a uniqueness theorem by de Figueiredo concerning periodic solutions to Liénard's equation \ddot{x} +f(x)dot{x} + g(x) = 0 . By our method we are able to avoid the hitherto usual condition xg(x) > 0, x {\neq} 0 , which excludes the possibility for the equation to have a dead band. Finally, we prove an existence theorem concerning periodic solutions to such equations. The use of the theorems is illustrated by a simple example in the last section. View full abstract»

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  • Multiple-pole-and-zero approximation of general attenuation specifications

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1218 - 1224
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (736 KB)  

    A new approximation method is proposed to realize transfer functions in which the multiplicity of each real pole (zero)- and complex pole (zero)-pair may be imposed by the designer. These functions may be evaluated to satisfy any assigned attenuation specification, and, hence, allow the design of filters by cascading low-order blocks with lower Q -factors, compared with the usual simple-pole solutions. This result is very practicable in the construction of highly selective RC -active filters. A complete algorithm is implemented to evaluate these functions. View full abstract»

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  • Active complementary networks

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1278 - 1280
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB)  

    Complementary networks are defined. A condition for a multi-port active network to yield complementary networks is derived. Some new filters are derived employing complementary network transformation. View full abstract»

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  • Asymptotic stability of linear shift-invariant two-dimensional digital filters

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1234 - 1240
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (872 KB)  

    A theory of asymptotic stability is developed for a large class of linear shift-invariant half-plane 2-D digital filters. The theory is based on a spatial-domain representation consisting of a 1-D difference equation with coefficients in an algebra of 1-D functions. Various necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for asymptotic stability. In particular, it Is shown that stability testing for both quarter- and half-plane 2-D filters reduces to determining the invertibility of a matrix whose entries are in an algebra of 1-D functions. These results are related to existing frequencydomain criteria for stability. View full abstract»

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  • Computer-aided characterization of TEM transmission lines

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1194 - 1205
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1280 KB)  

    A method of characterizing a multiconductor transmissionline system, which supports transverse-electromagnetic (TEM) waves traveling at different velocities, has been developed. The method combines equivalent circuit concept and optimization search technique. It is shown that the coupled transmission-line parameters can be computed from a set of wave velocities and transformer ratios that characterize the decoupled equivalent network of the multiconductor system. A combination of the steepest descent and Fibonacci-search algorithms for determining the wave-propagation velocities from frequency-domain measurements has been formulated, along with an alternative method of computing the inductance parameters from the measured characteristic admittances and static capacitances. For illustration, numerical examples and experimental results are given. View full abstract»

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  • On single-row routing

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1262 - 1263
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    A new lower limit on the street congestion in single-row routing is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Identification of weakly nonlinear systems using input and output measurements

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1255 - 1261
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (728 KB)  

    A new identification technique for a class of weakly nonlinear systems whose behavior is adequately characterized in terms of a finite Volterra functional series is presented. Application of the identification technique results in a complete specification of the nonlinear impulse responses which describe a weakly nonlinear system. The identification technique is a "black box" procedure in that only measurements at the system input and output terminals are required. A functional form for the second-order impulse response, h_2(t_1, t_2) , is derived for a nonlinear system with a finite number of power-law devices. The identification of h_2(t_1, t_2) is accomplished by exciting the system with a sum of exponentially decaying signals and appropriately processing the input and output signals using the pencil-of-functions system identification approach. This results in a complete set of linear equations involving all the parameters of h_2(t_1, t_2) . Solution of these equations uniquely determines h_2(t_l, t_2) . An example of the practical application of the technique to a common emitter amplifier is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Manufacture oriented design of high-performance mechanical filters

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1241 - 1250
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1208 KB)  

    With previous papers having dealt with the technology and various models of mechanical filters, the series is brought to a close with the description of the design methods. The design method is based on the Remez algorithm and allows manufacture oriented and systems oriented secondary conditions to be taken into account. The description of the fundamentals includes the determination of a converging initial circuit. As illustrated by a channel filter design, the procedure is justified and a number of suggestions are provided which guarantee satisfactory convergence even under difficult secondary conditions. It is shown that the described method avoids unwanted local minima and, therefore, theoretically provides the desired solution; it remains an open question whether another method might lead to the desired solution more quickly in special cases. View full abstract»

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  • MACTIS-A mask checking timing simulator

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1276 - 1278
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB)  

    A new timing simulator is described for mask design verification of MOS/LSI before fabrication. Each circuit node is treated as the output of a multi-input transmission gate. Applying a macromodel technique to this transmission gate, it is possible to perform cost-effective timing simulation of the LS1 having up to 10 000 transistors. View full abstract»

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  • A maximum modulus theorem for spectral radius and absolutely stable amplifiers

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1274 - 1276
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB)  

    Stability problems invariably impose constraints on eigenvalues and the spectral radius, Spr A , of a matrix A emerges as an important concept. Unfortunately, the spectral radius of a matrix does not qualify as a norm. Nevertheless, with the aid of the Lyapunov lemma we prove the following: let A(z) \equiv A(z_1, z_2, \cdots , z_k) denote a rational matrix in the k independent variables z_{i}, i \rightarrow k , which is analytic in the closed unit polydisc, \bar{D}^k(1) \equiv {z: |z_1| \leq 1,|z_2| \leq 1, \cdots ,|z_k| \leq 1} . Let \partial \bar{D}^k(1) \equiv {z:|z_1|=1,|z_2|=1,\cdots , |z_k|=1} denote the distinguished boundary of \bar{D}^{k}(1) . Then, Spr A(z)\leq 1 for all z\in|\bar{D}^k(1) if and only if Spr A(z) \leq 1 for all z \in \partial \bar{D}^k(1) . In addition to pointing out several obvious generalizations, we also employ the above theorem to give a rigorous proof of the long accepted conjecture that the absolute stability of a k -port amplifier can always be tested by closing its k -ports on k uncoupled pure reactances. Lastly, we present an entirely new justification of the well-known fact that a reciprocal k -port amplifier is absolutely stable if and only if it is strictly passive. View full abstract»

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