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Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 7 • Date July 1979

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Displaying Results 1 - 23 of 23
  • Editorial

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 409 - 410
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Design of a suboptimal Kalman filter of very high reliability and speed, with internal reconfiguration and failure localization

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 565 - 574
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A suboptimal analog or hybrid Kalman filter implementation is described, stressing reliability, robustness, and speed requirements. The filter is assumed to have mismatched dynamics, noise, and drift, but also computational errors. The state estimation error propagation is studied, and time-dependent bounds established to determine the reinitialization rate. Three alternate filter architectures are studied, and their reliability computed; the device itself applies triple-modular filter redundancy, with failure detection and localization logics. View full abstract»

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  • A search algorithm for the solution of the multifrequency fault diagnosis equations

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 589 - 594
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
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    A search algorithm for the solution of the fault diagnosis equations arising in linear time invariant analog circuits and systems is presented. By exploitation of Householder's formula an efficient algorithm whose computational complexity is a function of the number of system failures rather than the number of system components is obtained. View full abstract»

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  • On-line fault diagnosis of switching networks

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 575 - 583
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
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    A mathematical model of the switching network is described. Three fault-diagnostic methods, based on the use of on-line data, are presented along with associated theoretical statistics. The results are given of simulations substantiating the validity of the model and the theoretical statistics. View full abstract»

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  • A theory and an algorithm for analog circuit fault diagnosis

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 440 - 457
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
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    A theory for the study of the analog circuit fault diagnosis problem is developed. Sufficient conditions are presented such that the value of each of the network elements is uniquely determinable from the network's behavior as seen from its external terminals. It is shown how one can determine-considering only the circuit's topology-whether or not it is possible to compute the element values of a resistive network from the test-terminal measurements, before going through the process of actually attempting to solve for element values. The implications of the results are discussed when applied to networks containing solid-state devices such as diodes and transistors. Finally, an algorithm for the actual computation of the element values is proposed and its global convergence is proved. Furthermore, several examples are included to illustrate the applications of the theory developed in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic test generation techniques for analog circuits and systems: A review

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 411 - 440
    Cited by:  Papers (49)  |  Patents (2)
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    The purpose of this paper is both a review and an assessment of techniques presently available for automatic test generation for analog systems. After recalling the general problems of automatic testing (definitions, faults in analog systems, different types of tests, main operations, and diagnosis procedures), characterization and description modes of analog systems, and the main software ingredients of automatic test equipment, a categorization of known techniques along several criteria can be proposed. Then, several techniques, respectively, proceeding from approaches based on deterministic and probabilistic estimation, taxonomical and topological analyses can be detailed. Techniques specific to linear systems (several of them belonging to the above three categories) are dealt with in a separate section. The main features of the techniques that are described are summed up in five synoptic tables. As a conclusion, several research areas that need further investigation in view of a possible industrial implementation of automatic analog test generation techniques are identified. Two appendixes deal briefly with fault tolerance and fault simulation in analog systems. An extensive bibliography ( \sim 500 entries) is provided. View full abstract»

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  • Diagnosability of linear active networks

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 485 - 489
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    The problem of diagnosis studied here is to determine the currents and/or voltages of desired elements from the measured currents and/or voltages of certain other elements. A necessary and sufficient condition for diagnosablity is given in connection with the structure of 2-graphs. The relationship between the structure and the electrical connectivity is presented to show the diagnosability depends on the connectivity of the network. In diagnosis of a large network it may often happen that only a part of the currents and voltages in the whole network need be solved. Some condition for this partial solvability is given. View full abstract»

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  • Sequentially linear fault diagnosis: Part II-The design of diagnosable systems

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 558 - 564
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    Based on the results developed in Part I a strategy of test point location by which the parameters of an LSDS are made diagnosable in a generic sense, is developed. By appropriate test point placement, an LSDS is reduced to a canonical LSDS. Next, an algorithm for the synthesis of the test points required to make the parameters of the canonical LSDS sequentially linearly diagnosable in a generic sense, is given. View full abstract»

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  • A pragmatic approach to automatic test generation and failure isolation of analog systems

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 584 - 585
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Digital automatic test generation has been successful due to simplified modeling at the logic gate or higher level, rather than the component level, and to logic simulation performed for the stuck-at failure mode only. Analog automatic test generation generally requires modeling and simulation at the component level and continuous failure modes over a certain range of parameter values. As a result, most analog automatic test generation and fault isolation techniques demand a large computational capability on the ATE or off-line computers. Any practical analog automatic test generation solution must eventually address this problem. All analog automatic test generation techniques presently under investigation assume the availability of all or certain designated nodes as test points for stimulus injection and/or response measurement. This assumption suggests the possibility of GO-NO-GO tests to fault isolate to a "primitive," which may contain several circuit components. The "complementary signal" design suggested by Schrelher, appears well suited for providing an effective GO-NO-GO test; the signal and its response are determined by the poles and zeros of the circuit. View full abstract»

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  • Fault diagnosis for linear systems via multifrequency measurements

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 457 - 465
    Cited by:  Papers (59)
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    The fault diagnosis problem for a linear system whose transfer function matrix is measured at a discrete set of frequencies is formalized. A measure of solvability for the resultant equations and a measure of testability for the unit under test is developed. These, in turn, are used as the basis of algorithms for choosing test points and test frequencies. View full abstract»

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  • Systematic fault simulation in an analog circuit simulator

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 549 - 554
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    With the recent increase in both fault isolation and fault tolerant design, automated and systematic methods of analyzing fault situations and their impact on the operation of solid-state circuitry are becoming increasingly important. In this paper we will explore the philosophy and techniques behind the design of a system for simulating various catastrophic failures in integrated circuits which is being implemented in a commercially available nodal circuit simulator ISPICE. We address the issues of how certain failure conditions can be identified and simulated, how certain sets of such conditions can be identified and used to reduce the cost of such a simulation without impacting the results, and how well structured reports can reduce large volumes of data to easily interpreted results. Finally, we also explore some of the more elaborate analysis and reporting techniques we expect to include in future implementations of automated fault diagnosis software. View full abstract»

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  • Generation of software for computer controlled test equipment for testing analog circuits

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 537 - 548
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    The NOPAL system automatically generates programs in the ATLAS test programming language to test and diagnose malfunctions in analog electronic circuit boards. The system consists of two parts: a top part which analyzes the circuit diagram and determines the necessary tests, and a bottom part which analyzes the required tests and produces a program in the RCA EQUATE ATLAS test language for use with the RCA AN/USM-410 automatic test equipment. The top part, the NOPAL language, and the bottom part are described in respective sections of the article. The operation and advantages of NOPAL are also illustrated with an example of a voltage regulator circuit board. The article concludes with a discussion of features of NOPAL for generating programs in other test programming languages and for other automatic test equipment. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient fault analysis in linear analog circuits

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 475 - 484
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
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    Fault analysis in analog networks is a form of network parameter identification. The problem of finding network parameters from measurements at the accessible terminals can be expressed as the solution of a system of nonlinear equations. Such a system of equations is usually solved by a multidimensional search. Every step of the search requires solving for the network responses in terms of the parameters, comparing the solution to the measured responses, and then adjusting the parameters in such a way as to produce a response closer to the measured response. The computation time required for this analysis is often excessive in practical applications, and poses a major impediment to fault analysis in analog circuits. The representation of short and open circuits poses additional problems, depending upon how the network equations are formulated. We have used nodal analysis representing short circuits by a change in the network graph, and open circuits by a zero branch admittance. A formula of Householder and sparse matrix techniques are used to efficiently compute the response of an electrical circuit with either a short circuit or other large parameter change. The number of complex multiplications and divisions to find the network response at the accessible terminals when the network has a single short circuit involving at least one inaccessible terminal is reduced by about a factor of 15 compared with direct methods. View full abstract»

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  • Fault isolation algorithm for analog electronic systems using the fuzzy concept

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 518 - 522
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
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    We are mainly concerned with enhancing ATPG for analog nonlinear circuits. For simplicity we are dealing only with the isolation of single fault cases. Due to the imprecision and indeterminacy of the complex structure of faulty networks, it is usually difficult to obtain exact solutions. Furthermore, for fault isolation it is often unnecessary to seek the exact solutions. In fact we find it useful to treat such faulty networks as fuzzy systems. The algorithm presented herein makes use of the available measured data on port responses to isolate the faulty components based on fuzzy set concepts. An illustrative example using the NAP2 network analysis program is included. These results aie compared with previous results based on other criteria. View full abstract»

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  • A dc approach for analog fault dictionary determination

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 523 - 529
    Cited by:  Papers (44)
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    Efficient solution of dc node voltages for nonlinear analog electronic circuits has been demonstrated by computer-aided circuit analysis programs such as SYSCAP II [1] (System of Circuit Analysis programs) for the nominal case and for inserted faults. In addition dc node voltage postprocessing techniques [2] have been developed to determine required input stimuli and the minimum number of test points that will achieve detection of predetermined faults to a prescribed level, and isolation to a prescribed number of devices [3]. Thewe techniques offer a systematic approach for pretest generation of analog fault dictionaries. The effectiveness of this approach depends upon inclusion of a sufficiently high percentage of potential field failures in the fault dictionary, and upon implementation of the inherent testability design features of the dc approach, i.e, to have specified adequate test stimuli and to have indicated the appropriate nodes/test points for accessibility. In this paper we examine actual field failure statistics and identify which of these field failures could realistically have been predetermined and modeled by the dc approach. Finally an estimate is made of the percent of actual field failures that can be detected and isolated by the dc approach. View full abstract»

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  • Calculation of parameter values from node voltage measurements

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 466 - 474
    Cited by:  Papers (28)  |  Patents (7)
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    In this paper a theorem is given for the necessary and sufficient test conditions required to determine the value of a circuit component from node voltage measurements at a single test frequency. Several techniques are then presented for the calculation of circuit component values from voltage measurements, including a new technique based on the adjoint circuit concept. In addition, some results are presented on the measurement of component values using different test frequencies. View full abstract»

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  • The application of statistical simulation to automated analog test development

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 513 - 517
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The CAPITOL circuit simulation program provides algorithms for selecting tests and formulating test limits for linear and nonlinear analog circuits subject to random deviations from nominal component values. These analog test development algorithms are implemented as part of the Monte Carlo statistical simulation capability of the program. The algorithms are based on fundamental principles of statistics such as Bayes' theorem. They operate independently from the function performed by the circuit, its fabrication technology, and the nature of the component statistics. Consequently these algorithms; have had application to a wide range of problems in analog circuit testing and fault diagnosis. This paper describes the algorithms and presents examples of their use. The examples highlight applications in predicting and diagnosing failure modes due to random variation of component values. View full abstract»

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  • Simplified ATPG and analog fault location via a clustering and separability technique

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 496 - 505
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (6)
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    Automatic test program generation (ATPG) for analog system fault location is considered and a procedure for generating a set of tests for a linear network using gain and phase measurements from input-output measurements only is presented. The best subset of features for fault diagnosis is selected via a discriminatory index. Each feature subset selected during the optimization procedure is tested for enhanced separability of observation space for faults and the efficiency of the subset for diagnosis is indexed using a confidence level. The fault matrix formed using the selected feature subset is analized for cluster formation, the separability measure introduced is used to group the fault cases and a reduction of the cases to be considered on-line is obtained. In fault location, a fault is identified to a specific group which then is further located to the individual component and is carried out for varying production tolerances. View full abstract»

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  • Fault location in a noisy multiple-nonlinearity servosystem

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 586 - 589
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    In certain applications it is desirable to isolate faults in a nonlinear system using dynamic measurements at a limited number of access points. This can be achieved by stimulating the system with a serial mode sinusoidal signal and using the fundamental and higher harmonic responses at the access points to form the system "signature." The fault signature is then compared with a restricted number of stored signatures of known faults via the nearest neighbor rule. View full abstract»

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  • On the use of procedural models for generation of test programs

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 555 - 557
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    An approach based on artificial intelligence concepts is developed for automatic generation of test programs for analog circuits. The programs will, with the help of automatic test equipment (ATE), make appropriate measurements and deduce the location of potential faults in analog circuit boards. View full abstract»

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  • Sequentially linear fault diagnosis: Part I-Theory

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 490 - 496
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
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    A good solution to the tradeoff problem between the cost of the computation and the cost of test points is the sequentially linearly diagnosable systems. Conditions under which a system is sequentially linearly diagnosable are developed in Part I. A design procedure for the test points to fulfill these conditions is given in Part II. View full abstract»

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  • Optimum fault isolation by statistical inference

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 505 - 512
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    Fault Isolation is always based on a statistical model of fault occurrence and measurement error. Usually the statistical assumptions are impilcit and unstated. Making them explicit and systematically exploring their consequences proves to be an extremely powerful method of developing optimum fault isolation techniques. A criterion is developed here for optimum isolation of catastrophic faults. The technique evolved serves, in fact, to determine the actual probability of each fault based on the observed values of the measured quantities. These probabilities provide ambiguity statistics for the degree of isolation attained. A method is also developed for optimally employing the measurements to detect and isolate noncatastrophic faults when catastrophic faults are absent. Information theoretic criteria are derived for the optimum selection and sequencing of candidate tests. These can be applied at test time in a refined version of branched "go-no go" logic, and also at test-development time to screen a large set of candidate tests down to a small efficient subset. View full abstract»

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  • Fault dictionary based upon stimulus design

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 529 - 537
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
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    A method of fault signature generation is presented that is based upon state space analysis of linear circults. An input control sequence is designed to reduce a nontrivial initial state of the circuit under test to the zero state in finite time. The realization of this stimulus as a piecewise constant waveform has step amplitudes that are exponential functions of the poles of the circuit under test. Perturbations of these amplitudes, engendered by element drift failure, constitute a fault signature. Single element value perturbations engender fault signature trajectories in signal space, and the fault dictionary is constructed by defining disjoint decision regions (hypervolumes) around each fault signature trajectory in the signal space. Circuit zeros of transmission allow the dimension of the signal space to be augmented with perturbation of such response waveform parameters as zero crossings. The theory of stimulus design for fault isolation in linear networks and a generalized matrix inverse method for computing the stimulus amplitudes from the pulse response of strictly proper circuits are presented. Examples of response waveforms and fault signature trajectories are given for several circuits. View full abstract»

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