By Topic

Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 12 • Date December 1977

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 19 of 19
  • The early days - 1952 to 1957

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 666 - 667
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (220 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Reminiscences

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 667 - 669
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The past and present of circuit theory and the CAS Transactions

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 671 - 672
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (250 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • An efficient heuristic cluster algorithm for tearing large-scale networks

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 709 - 717
    Cited by:  Papers (69)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (968 KB)  

    An efficient heuristic algorithm for solving a cluster problem associated with the tearing of an undirected graph is presented via the concept of a contour tableau. The required computation time is shown to be bounded by \theta (nb) , where n and b are the number of nodes and branches of the input graph, respectively. Experimental results show that our algorithm is highly efficient and yields near optimal solutions. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Some thoughts on the history of circuit theory

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 665 - 666
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (224 KB)  

    First Page of the Article
    View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Active realization of nth-order low-pass transfer functions

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 745 - 746
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (160 KB)  

    A new active RC circuit realizing the general n th-order low-pass voltage transfer functions using n Norton (current differencing) amplifiers is presented. In this realization minimum number of capacitors and n active elements are used, the element values being given in terms of the transfer function coefficients. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Digital filter structures described by distributed arithmetic

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 674 - 680
    Cited by:  Papers (46)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (816 KB)  

    This paper presents a new formulation of digital filters that combines the description of signal-processing and arithmetic operations. This is done by noting that multiplication is a form of convolution and therefore normal one-dimensional scalar convolution is in fact two-dimensional binary convolution. This is generalized to multidimensions and can be applied with table-look-up and transform techniques. The result is a unified description that describes a digital filter structure down to the bit level. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Sensitivity considerations in a multiple-feedback universal active filter

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 695 - 703
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (936 KB)  

    A multiple-feedback universal active filter is presented and evaluated on the basis of its sensitivity performance. This canonic realization provides, simultaneously, second-order low-pass, bandpass, and highpass outputs that may be combined to implement generalized biquadratic transfer functions. Additionally, it features the capability of local positive feedback to allow Q -enhancement with the ensuing advantages of sensitivity minimization and reduction in RC -element spread. A new analysis technique is developed for the evaluation of \omega _0 and Q sensitivities to operational-amplifier (OA) dc gain and gain-bandwidth product. This technique is extended to modify the figure of merit, introduced for sensitivity minimization purposes by Fleischer, and thus leads to easily obtainable expressions for optimum Q -enhancement factor and the corresponding value of Q in the absence of positive feedback. Making use of this sensitivity analysis technique, the new design is compared to two other high- Q filter configurations widely known for their excellent sensitivity characteristics. It is concluded that the new filter exhibits comparable performance especially in higher tolerance applications using wide-bandwidth OA's. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • From empirical to analytical

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 673
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (112 KB)  

    First Page of the Article
    View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Idealized operation of the class E tuned power amplifier

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 725 - 735
    Cited by:  Papers (409)  |  Patents (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1048 KB)  

    The class E tuned power amplifier consists of a load network and a single transistor that is operated as a switch at the carrier frequency of the output signal. The most simple type of load network consists of a capacitor shunting the transistor and a series-tuned output circuit, which may have a residual reactance. Circuit operation is determined by the transistor when it is on, and by the transient response of the load network when the transistor is off. The basic equations governing amplifier operation are derived using Fourier series techniques and a high- Q assumption. These equations are then used to determine component values for optimum operation at an efficiency of 100 percent. Other combinations of component values and duty cycles which result in 100-percent efficiency are also determined. The harmonic structure of the collector voltage waveform is analyzed and related amplifier configurations are discussed. While this analysis is directed toward the design of high-efficiency power amplifiers, it also provides insight into the operation of modern solid-state VHF-UHF tuned power amplifiers. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Twenty-Five Years

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 665
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (120 KB)  

    First Page of the Article
    View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • An Active Biquadratic Building Block Without External Capacitors

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 689 - 694
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB)  

    A new configuration requiring no external capacitors in the realization of the biquadratic voltage transfer function is developed. The proposed network contains resistors and two operational amplifiers represented by the one-pole roll-off model. It has very low sensitivities with respect to all passive and active parameters, and is suitable for medium- Q high-frequency applications. Laboratory experiments confirm the validity of the theory and demonstrate the versatility of the circuit as the biquadratic building block. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Graduate circuit theory education

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 672 - 673
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB)  

    First Page of the Article
    View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Minimum phase transfer functions providing a compromise between phase and amplitude approximation

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 718 - 724
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (848 KB)  

    Transfer functions of low-pass filters with no finite transmission zeros are introduced satisfying a number of phase flatness conditions at the origin and providing more stopband rejection than the corresponding Butterworth filters. If only one of the available degrees of freedom is used to shape the passband magnitude response, while all remaining are assigned to phase linearity, the largest fractional banwidth of phase linearity is obtained but the maximum passband loss cannot be specified beforehand and increases with increasing the order of the network. It is shown, however, that assigning two parameters to magnitude requirements in the resulting transfer function almost any prescribed maximum passband loss can be met while still retaining excellent phase linearity over a large part of the passband. In addition, a class of transitional filter functions is obtained the frequency and time domain characteristics of which can be adjusted over a wide range of filter specifications by varying one parameter only. It is shown that the time domain characteristics of these filters compare favorably with those for the well-known transitional Butterworth-Thomson filters. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Quantization error analysis of the distributed arithmetic

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 681 - 689
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (816 KB)  

    This paper gives a detailed description of coefficient quantization errors of the distributed arithmetic, which means a recently introduced technique for the realization of the inner product of two vectors where conventional multipliers and adders are replaced by a memory and an accumulator. For systems excited by uniformly distributed white noise, an expression for the total power of the output error is derived. It may be compared with an earlier error analysis which, as will be shown, is too pessimistic for small vector lengths. In that case the total round-off error is partly correlated with the input signals while for large vector lengths usual errors due to the quantization of individual coefficients vanish and thus the total error can be described by an independent noise source at the output. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • High-precision inductorless variable equalizers with wide variable range

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 704 - 708
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB)  

    High-precision inductorless variable equalizers with wide variable range are developed. These are attained by an extension of the Bode-type variable transfer function to higher order functions. Inductorless realization problems for these variable equalizers may have many solutions. Two simple solutions are investigated. A practical example demonstrates an inductorless variable equalizers with a \pm 20-dB variable range, in which approximation errors in decibels are reduced by a factor of more than 20 as compared with conventional variable equalizers. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Reflections

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 669
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (120 KB)  

    First Page of the Article
    View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • What is circuits and systems?

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 670 - 671
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (280 KB)  

    First Page of the Article
    View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Market Networks: An Electrical Analog

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 736 - 744
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1160 KB)  

    An analogy can be drawn between electrical networks and certain systems of spatially separated markets for a given commodity. This allows the application of electrical network theory to the dynamic analysis of those marketing systems. Linear equivalent circuits model the behavior of the producers, consumers, and shippers. The resulting market network allows one to compute the incremental variations of the prices and commodity flows around their static equilibrium values resulting from disturbances in supply or demand or changes in value-added taxes, sales taxes, or tariffs. Also, qualitative conclusions can be drawn from the facts that market networks are often passive and have a grounded topology. This leads to a variety of bounds on the transient responses, some of which are established in this paper. Finally, electrical analogs can be devised for systems of spatially separated markets devoted to trade in many different commodities. This is accomplished by using budget conditions and leads to ideal transformers that couple the individual market networks for the different commodities. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.