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Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date November 1974

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Displaying Results 1 - 24 of 24
  • Comment on "Modeling of Three Terminal Devices: A Black-Box Approach

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 807 - 809
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (293 KB)  

    In this letter, models for x -controlled concave and convex resistors are presented. These models are valid for all prescribed piecewise-linear conductance and resistance functions as defined in [1]. In conjunction with the results in [1], three-terminal resistors, characterized by two families of piecewise-linear V-1 curves, are shown to be realizable by ideal diodes, linear resistors, independent sources, linear-controlled sources, and square-law devices. View full abstract»

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  • Comment on "Roundoff Noise and Attenation Sensitivity Digital Filters with Fixed-Point Arithmetic

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 809 - 810
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (249 KB)  

    The relation between roundoff noise and attenuation sensitivity in digital filters with fixed-point arithmetic given in a letter by Fettweis (A Fettseis, IEEE Trans. Citcuit Theory, Vol. CT-20, pp. 174-175, March 1973) is found to be overly simplified. Some examples where the preceding relation does not hold are given along with a tentative explanation. View full abstract»

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  • Reply to F. Bonzanigo's Comment on 'Roundoff Noise and Attenation Sensitivity Digital Filters with Fixed-Point Arithmetic'

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 810 - 811
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (208 KB)  

    First Page of the Article
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  • Corrections to 'Synthesis of a Low-sensitivity Multiloop Feedback active RC Filter'

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 811
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (70 KB)  

    First Page of the Article
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  • A Bessel rational filter

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 797 - 799
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB)  

    An extension of the Bessel filter is given for which the transfer function is a rational function with finite zeros. A special case is shown to combine the constant magnitude response of the all-pass filter with the linear phase response of the Bessel filter. A design example for a second-order all-pass constant time delay filter is given; there is good agreement with theory. View full abstract»

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  • New results on multivariable bounded rational functions

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 789 - 790
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB)  

    It is proved that the bounded rational property of multivariable functions remains invariant under simultaneous partial differentiation of numerator and denominator polynomials. The proof is simple, and all known related results follow as special cases. Other consequences are mentioned. View full abstract»

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  • Chemical reaction networks

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 709 - 721
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1304 KB)  

    A set of chemical species "interconnected" by reaction pathways is commonly referred to as a chemical network. We show that chemical networks are mathematically equivalent to a class of multiport networks. Hence, abstract circuit theory can be applied to study chemical systems. Both linear-graph and bond-graph representations of reaction networks are presented. We also indicate how network methods can be employed to treat coupled transport and chemical reaction processes. View full abstract»

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  • Analytic signals and product theorems for Hilbert transforms

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 790 - 792
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB)  

    Analytic signals are introduced as certain eigenfunctions of the Hilbert transform operator; that is, z(\cdot) is termed "analytic" if and only if \hat{z}(t) = -jz(t) for all t , where \hat{z}(\cdot) is the Hilbert transform of z(\cdot) . Similarly, "dual-analytic" signals are defined as solutions of the homogeneous equation \hat{u} = ju . Using this characterization of analytic signals (shown to be equivalent to the usual definition due to Ville [1]), simple proofs are obtained for all known product theorems of the form \hat{f}g = f\hat{g} , which are useful in the representation and analysis of modulated waveforms. In addition, parallel theorems for the class of dual-analytic and frequency-translated dual-analytic signals are proven. View full abstract»

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  • Quasi-power algebraic invariants of linear networks

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 722 - 728
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (776 KB)  

    A method is presented for deriving quasi-power invariants of linear or linearized networks in linear or linearized embedding in matrix and scalar form. These complement the adimensional "cross ratio" invariants discussed in an earlier paper. Connections and differences are illustrated by means of three practical examples: the Q-factor of a resonator, a generalized form of Hines' switching theorem, and a "figure of merit" for materials in an electromagnetic cavity. The wellknown noise matrix of Haus and Adler is recovered as a particular case of a more general form. A few new invariants are presented. The relationship with Tellegen's theorem (for the scalar case) is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A comparison of active, multiple-loop feedback techniques for realizing high order bandpass filters

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 774 - 783
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1128 KB)  

    This paper reviews and compares the four multiple-loop feedback techniques used to realize high-order narrow-band filters; namely: follow-the-leader feedback (FLF), primary resonator block (PRB), leapfrog (LF), and modified leapfrog (MLF) techniques. The comparison is based upon the following criteria: design ease and flexibility, sensitivity performance, insensitivity to design errors due to nonideal operational amplifiers, and tunability. In all comparisons the simple but highly sensitive cascade technique is used as a reference. Several examples are cited which indicate comparative trends in sensitivity performance. Finally the computer program used to realize minimum sensitivity FLF networks is described. View full abstract»

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  • Recursive algorithm for spectral factorization

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 742 - 750
    Cited by:  Papers (40)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1048 KB)  

    This paper describes a recursive computational algorithm for computing spectral factors of continuous-time and discrete-time power spectrum matrices. The matrices need not be positive definite. Convergence rates of the recursive equation are studied. View full abstract»

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  • Properties of ultraspherical rational filters

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 796 - 797
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (224 KB)  

    Filters based on ultraspherical rational functions are considered for various values of the function parameters. It is shown that by varying these parameters one may obtain, in addition to the elliptic low-pass filter, a variety of low-pass, high-pass, and bandpass filters as special cases. View full abstract»

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  • Alternative method for transient analysis of linear distributed RC networks

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 805 - 807
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB)  

    The partial differential equation in position x and time t , which characterizes the voltage V(x,t) along a linear distributed RC network, can be reduced to an ordinary differential equation (ODE) by using the similarity variable. For the semi-infinite line, the reduced ODE will be solved directly without using the iterated error function. View full abstract»

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  • Bilinear transformation of polynomials

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 792 - 794
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB)  

    An algorithm for computing the coefficients of a polynomial equation resulting from a bilinear transformation of its variable is described, which compares favorably with the matrix method proposed by Power and improved by Jury and Chan, and which is simpler and easier to program. View full abstract»

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  • Computer evaluation of differential amplifier performance

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 735 - 741
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (688 KB)  

    A computational technique for determination of the important figures of merit of differential amplifiers is proposed. The method evolves from a reformulation of the transfer characteristics of differential amplifiers to clearly define the dc and ac performance of the amplifier. With this reformulation, ideal differential amplifier performance can be precisely defined, and expressions for the important transfer gains, common-mode rejection ratio, and dc offset voltages can be derived in terms of the differential-mode and common-mode gains and component mismatches. These expressions are easily implemented in a computer simulation package. The usefulness of the technique is illustrated by example. View full abstract»

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  • Ripple-pass function

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 763 - 773
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1000 KB)  

    The well-known relation for an all-pass function is generalized by the introduction of two parameters k_{a} and k_{b} making F(s)=frac{EvP(s)-k_{a}OdP(s)}{EvP(s)+k_{b}OdP(s)} where P(s) is a Hurwitz polynomial, while EvP(s) and OdP(s) are its even and odd parts, respectively. It is shown that the amplitude, phase, and group delay of such a generalized all-pass function ripple, and that the ripples are dependent on the two introduced parameters and their ratio K = k_{a}/k_{b} . Thus the name "ripple-pass function." Some interesting and important features of the discussed function have been considered here. The ripple-pass function is suitable for practical applications such as amplitude, phase, and/or delay equalization, or for design of narrow-bandpass or bandstop (notch) filters. The ripple-pass function can be easily realized by using simple passive and active networks. View full abstract»

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  • Reduction of the dimension of the gradient vector in network synthesis

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 794 - 796
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB)  

    In network synthesis, most of the gradient components of the error functional have to be calculated through integration. If antimetrical networks are introduced, the gradient components with respect to evey dual pair of circuit parameters are linearly dependent on each other. Thus only half the number of integrators for gradient calculation have to be introduced, which leads to a substantial reduction in computation time. View full abstract»

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  • The values of the parameters of some multilayer distributed RC null networks

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 804 - 805
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (208 KB)  

    In this correspondence, the values of the parameters of some multilayer distributed RC notch networks are determined, and the usually accepted values are shown to be in error. The magnitude of the error is illustrated by graphs of the frequency response of the networks. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency-variation method for system identification

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 754 - 763
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (744 KB)  

    A frequency-variation method is established for identifying a linear system transfer function from a single set of frequency response data. The method generally applies three different Cauer continued fraction forms. Based on the real and imaginary parts of the frequency response data, a corresponding transfer function can be identified. The identification processes can be carried out with a digital computer. View full abstract»

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  • On a relationship between terminal capacity and impedance matrices

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 732 - 734
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    It is shown that the terminal capacity matrix of a nonoriented communication net and the open-circuit impedance matrix of an n -port resistor network without internal loops and with a star port configuration have identical properties. A new set of necessary and sufficient conditions characterizing such matrices is presented. View full abstract»

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  • An approach to the continuous decomposition of second-order polynomials

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 751 - 753
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB)  

    A salient feature of proposed method is the incorporation, as a design parameter, of a new variable m in the decomposition of the second-order polynomials. It has been shown that the performance criteria such as Q sensitivity and \omega _{p} sensitivity are accordingly expressed as functions of m thereby leading to possible optimizations. The continuous change of the variable encompasses not only existing optimum decompositions but also a variety of other decompositions which may be regarded as optimum with respect to diverse performance criteria. Two types of decomposition corresponding to RC : gyrator synthesis and RC :NIC synthesis are used to demonstrate the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • On the synthesis of RC active networks with prescribed root sensitivity

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 799 - 803
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB)  

    The paper presents an optimization procedure whereby the root sensitivity can be optimized to a prescribed value, whose modulus and argument can be controlled independently. The method of optimizing Q and W_{n} . sensitivity is described. It is shown that Q and W_{n} , sensitivity can be reduced to zero by adjusting the argument or the magnitude of the pole sensitivity. Two types of networks are considered for the present synthesis. Details of passive sensitivity analysis are given. It is shown that the passive sensitivities are very low and comparable to those of passive RLC filters. The present method is compared with that of Cheung's. To illustrate the method, a bandpass filter having Q = 10 is designed, and the theoretical considerations are confirmed by the experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Realization of ideal gyrators

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 729 - 732
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (440 KB)  

    A proof is given that it is impossible to realize an ideal gyrator by connecting a controlled source across one of the ports of any well-defined constant passive reciprocal three-port network (composed of positive resistors and ideal transformers) with the controlling variable being some voltage or current appearing inside the three-port network. View full abstract»

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  • Parallel resonator with a resistance and a frequency dependent negative resistance realized with a single operational amplifier

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 783 - 788
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB)  

    Bandpass RC active filters can be realized, according to Bruton's transformation method, with resistively coupled parallel resonators which are formed by parallel connecting of a resistance and a frequency-dependent netative resistance. This paper describes a single operational amplifier resonator which has an inherent finite quality factor. Bandpass RC active filters can be thus implemented when the passband is relatively narrow, with performance characteristics comparable to that of currently used LC filters, up to frequencies of a few kilohertz. View full abstract»

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