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IEEE Spectrum

Volume 27 Issue 8 • Aug. 1990

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Displaying Results 1 - 10 of 10
  • Electromagnetic fields: the jury's still out. 1. Biological effects

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):23 - 27
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (901 KB)

    Concerns that electromagnetic (EM) fields may cause cancer and endocrine and nervous system disorders are discussed. The focus is on 60 Hz fields, where the mechanism of interaction probably involves the cell membrane, is nonlinear, and may act by causing some cooperative phenomena among the components of the cell membrane. Two basic epidemiological study designs have been used in work on cancer c... View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic fields: the jury's still out. 2. Societal reverberations

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):27 - 32
    Cited by:  Papers (16)  |  Patents (4)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1050 KB)

    The debate over setting standards for exposure to power-frequency electromagnetic fields when science has not yet determined what levels, if any, are dangerous is examined. Regulatory agencies, standards bodies and utilities are struggling to make policy in the face of two opposing views: one camp believes the evidence of health effects is enough to warrant precautionary action to limit exposure, ... View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic fields: the jury's still out. 3. Managing the risks

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):32 - 35
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (474 KB)

    The debate over the effects of power-frequency electric and magnetic fields on biological systems is examined from the viewpoint of what, if anything, should be done to minimize the risk to individuals. It is argued that as the social and economic costs of this uncertain state of affairs are growing, additional research is urgently needed yet the urgency is not being met by the modest or on-again,... View full abstract»

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  • An instrument that isn't really (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench)

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):36 - 39
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (9)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (618 KB)

    The concept and development of LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench), a virtual instrument (VI) that provides a simple, graphical way to set up and run numerous instruments on a Mackintosh PC, are described. The first concept basic to LabVIEW had its roots in a large test system comprised of programmable signal sources compatible with IEEE-488 interface specifications, and ... View full abstract»

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  • Spread spectrum goes commercial

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):40 - 41
    Cited by:  Papers (38)  |  Patents (22)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (479 KB)

    The use of spread-spectrum techniques to achieve more efficient utilization of available frequency spectra is examined. The two main spread-spectrum techniques, direct sequence and frequency hopping, are explained. In frequency hopping, the transmitter repeatedly changes (hops) the carrier frequency from one frequency to another. Direct-sequence transmission spreads the spectrum not by periodicall... View full abstract»

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  • From kana to kanji: word processing in Japan

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):46 - 48
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (400 KB)

    The development of word processing in Japan and the special problems involved in dealing with Japanese characters are described. These included the need to compile word lists as well as statistical surveys of newspapers, business documents, and secondary school textbooks to determine the frequency of word use, working with unlimited numbers of words and characters possible, and the large memory re... View full abstract»

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  • Communications satellites: orbiting into the 90s

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):49 - 52
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (12)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB)

    Engineering advances in satellite communications are discussed. These include sophisticated switchboards, narrow beams, source coding for higher capacity, larger networks, and the use of higher and lower frequency bands and lower orbits. One of the most popular new 14/11-14/12 GHz commercial services has been time-division multiplexing of multiple carriers operating at low to medium bit rates. Mul... View full abstract»

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  • When East meets West (management problems)

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):53 - 55
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (386 KB)

    The problems that arise when US engineers work for Japanese companies are examined. The problems stem from the need to reconcile two radically different styles of communication and decision-making. Many communication problems are due to the vagueness of the Japanese languages, but some are the result of cultural differences; for example, a Japanese manager will expect many things to be tacitly und... View full abstract»

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  • Light that acts like 'natural bits' (solitons)

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):56 - 57
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (227 KB)

    Solitons, ultrastable light pulses that could revolutionize long-haul, fiber-optic communications and perhaps even optical switching, are discussed. Two classes of solitons are described. Temporal solitons, pulses of light that resist a medium's chromatic dispersion, or tendency to broaden them in time, have been known for a while. They offer the possibility of all-optical communication systems tr... View full abstract»

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  • A continent bound by wire (telegraph system)

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):58 - 59
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (237 KB)

    The development of the transcontinental telegraph system is recounted. The Pony Express helped to establish routes for the system, leading to its own demise. In 1860, Western Union received a government subsidy to build an uninterrupted telegraph line from east to west. The logistics of this venture are described. On the eve of the Civil War, telegraph lines stretched through 53000 km, and by 1870... View full abstract»

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