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Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date March 2001

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 331
  • The 2000 Applied Superconductivity Conference

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): c3 - c29
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Low-voltage negative-resistance mixers of nano-meter SNS junctions

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 191 - 195
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (2)
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    The current carried by the bound quasi-particles in the N region of a mesoscopic SNS junction has dc and cosine components. The dc current component is carried by the pair charge (-2e) transferred by a couple of Andreev reflections at both of the NS interfaces. The pair-charge transfers decrease due to reduction of the allowed number, 2/spl Delta//V, of Andreev reflections when the voltage, V, increases. Therefore, the low-voltage negative-differential-resistance is observed on the I-V curves of mesoscopic SNS junction, when the junction is driven by the low impedance voltage-bias source. The supercurrent carried by the quasi-particle in the N-region is sensitive to the external high-frequency fields. In a mixer experiment using the nano-meter SNS junctions of NbN, prominent IF signal peaks are observed at low bias voltage. Each IF signal peak corresponds to the negative differential resistance region at low bias voltage. View full abstract»

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  • Properties of asymmetric high critical temperature dc SQUIDs

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 908 - 911
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Asymmetries between the two Josephson junctions of a dc-SQUID have always been considered undesirable spurious effects, responsible for the degradation of the device performance. However, it was recently demonstrated that a suitable choice of the asymmetric configuration can lead to magnetic flux noise values lower than symmetric ones. The numerical analysis was performed by using parameters typical of low-Tc SQUIDs, operating at the liquid helium temperature. In this paper, the analysis has been extended to high critical temperature dc SQUIDs, operating at the liquid nitrogen temperature. Also in this case, asymmetric SQUIDs show the best performance in terms of both flux to voltage transfer coefficient V/sub /spl Phi// and magnetic flux noise S/sub /spl Phi//. In order to optimize the device performance, the dependence of SQUID properties on damping resistance and normalized SQUID inductance has been computed for both symmetric and asymmetric configurations. View full abstract»

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  • Jim Zimmerman and the SQUID

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1026 - 1031
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    The career of Jim Zimmerman, beginning with a solid foundation in electronics and cryogenics, reached a turning point in 1965 when he became coinventor of the rf SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device), while working at the Scientific Laboratory of the Ford Motor Company in Dearborn, Michigan. Recognizing the exquisite sensitivity of the SQUID as an amplifier and magnetometer, Zimmerman devoted the remainder of his career, at Ford and later at the National Bureau of Standards, to the further development of the SQUID and its applications. In 1969, Zimmerman also helped found SHE Corporation, which marketed the first commercially successful SQUID. While at NBS, Zimmerman introduced two variations, the SQUID gradiometer and the fractional-turn SQUID, to enhance the sensitivity of SQUIDs in special situations. He also developed an improved understanding of SQUID dynamics by exploring the pendulum analog using carefully made models, work that has benefited a generation of students. Putting the SQUID to work, Zimmerman investigated applications in metrology, biomagnetism, and geophysics. Notably, he participated in collaborations that recorded the first magnetocardiogram made with a SQUID and the first magnetoencephalogram of an evoked auditory response. Later, Zimmerman explored closed-cycle refrigeration as a means of making SQUIDs more useful outside the laboratory environment, and in 1977 he demonstrated an operating SQUID cooled to 8.5 K by a Stirling-cycle refrigerator made largely of plastic. Zimmerman is remembered for his keen physical insight, the elegance and simplicity of his experiments, and his willingness to question conventional wisdom in all aspects of life. View full abstract»

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  • Conference author index

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1402 - 1419
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A new noise source in superconducting tunnel junction photon detectors

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 645 - 648
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
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    We report on the development of an “all-in-one” detector that provides spectroscopy, imaging, photon timing, and high quantum efficiency with single photon sensitivity: the optical/UV single-photon imaging spectrometer using superconducting tunnel junctions. Our devices utilize a lateral trapping geometry. Photons are absorbed in a Ta thin film, creating excess quasiparticles. Quasiparticles diffuse and are trapped by Al/AlOx/Al tunnel junctions located on the sides of the absorber. Imaging devices have tunnel junctions on two opposite sides of the absorber. Position information is obtained from the fraction of the total charge collected by each junction. We have measured the single photon response of our devices. For photon energies between 2 eV and 5 eV we measure an energy resolution between 0.47 eV and 0.40 eV respectively on a selected region of the absorber. We see evidence that thermodynamic fluctuations of the number of thermal quasiparticles in the junction electrodes leads to current noise that far exceeds the expected shot noise of the dc bias current. We believe that this may limit the resolution of our present generation of detectors at the operating temperature of 0.22 K View full abstract»

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  • Development of practical soft X-ray spectrometers

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 828 - 831
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Cryogenic soft X-ray imaging spectrometers are currently being developed for applications in the fields of astronomy and material sciences. In this paper we present experiments on optimized single devices, which show measured energy resolutions of 4.6 eV, 8.1 eV and 20.5 eV at 525 eV, 1.5 keV and 6 keV respectively. These energy resolutions combined with a quantum efficiency of more than 40% in the energy range from 0.5 to 2 keV together with a count rate capability of 15 kHz demonstrate the overall good performance of single Superconducting Tunnel junctions (STJs). Assembling these optimized single devices in a matrix read-out would provide the practical basis for a soft X-ray imaging spectrometer View full abstract»

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  • Enhanced microwave power from triangular arrays of small Josephson junctions

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 454 - 458
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    We report on high frequency measurements of underdamped Josephson junction arrays consisting of two rows of parallel biased cells. The rf voltage generated on the junctions transverse to the bias current (horizontal junctions) is detected by a room temperature receiver in the W-band. In order to enhance the emitted power, it has been proposed (S.P.Y.) that the single horizontal junction in each cell be replaced by two (or more) horizontal junctions. This geometry has been proven to have better high frequency performance. Here we present comparative measurements of the output power from two row arrays of different geometries. Among the studied configurations, larger power is obtained from an array with square cells and two horizontal Junctions. In this array, the measured output power is up to about 2 times larger than that in the array with only one horizontal junction, and up to 20 times larger with respect to the array with conventional triangular cells. Experimental data are in good qualitative agreement with numerical simulations View full abstract»

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  • Microwave responses of an insular intrinsic Josephson junction stack fabricated from Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O single crystal

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1199 - 1202
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    The conventional c-axis intrinsic Josephson junction (IJJ) stack is usually fabricated from a piece of single crystal in such a way that it looks like a small mesa sitting on a big pedestal. In some cases the effects of this pedestal should be taken into account in order to explain the experimental observations. To avoid this problem we have developed a novel technique by which we are able to remove a small sample from the single crystal and place it on a substrate with low microwave loss. This enable us to couple it to other microwave devices such as antenna etc. This small sample, or junction stack, measures a few micrometers by a few micrometers in the a-b plane and a few hundred angstroms along the c-axis and is plated with normal metal on both the top and the bottom. To distinguish the structure from the conventional one, we call it an insular intrinsic Josephson junction stack. We carefully study current-voltage characteristics, microwave responses, frequency mixing properties, and discuss the possible applications View full abstract»

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  • Fabrication and characterization of superconducting X-ray calorimeters with transition edge sensors

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 751 - 754
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    We have developed superconducting calorimeters using transition edge sensors (TESs) for industrial X-ray microanalysis. To obtain high count rate, high reliability, and high energy resolution, a large format array of the sensors and an integration of a TES calorimeter and a SQUID amplifier are required. A novel calorimeter fabrication process has been established, in which a micro-machining technology using a silicon-on-insulator wafer was applied. A 4-pixel Au/Ti TESs calorimeter was fabricated using this process. SQUID amplifiers suitable for the calorimeter have also been designed and fabricated. It is expected to achieve a count rate per pixel of 7.1 kcps. The expected energy resolution including the SQUID contribution was estimated at 17-21 eV. It has been confirmed that the SQUID contribution for the current noise of our calorimeter can almost be ignored. It has also been confirmed that an array of 14 or more pixel are required that to achieve an effective count rate of more than 100 kcps View full abstract»

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  • Electronic gradiometer using HTc SQUIDs with fast feedback electronics

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 876 - 879
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    An electronic gradiometer was built using a HTS SQUID magnetometer array. A SQUID magnetometer in the center of the array was used to pick up background noise, and the output signal fed back to other magnetometers to cancel background noise. Fast feedback electronics were built for the background channel with a slew rate about 107 Φ0/sec and 10 MHz small signal bandwidth. Two other magnetometers of the array were connected to pcSQUIDTM electronics with 5×104 Φ0/sec slew rate using the AC bias mode to decrease 1/f noise. The output signals from these two magnetometers were input to a summing amplifier resulting in a gradiometric output signal without background channel noise. Constructing the gradiometer with different magnetometers on the array enables us to vary the baseline from 0.75 mm to 7.5 mm with 2×10 -12 T/√Hz field resolution in an unshielded laboratory environment. This variable-baseline gradiometer can be used for NDE, biomagnetism and other applications View full abstract»

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  • Low noise HTS dc-SQUID flip-chip magnetometers and gradiometers

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1383 - 1386
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
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    We have fabricated HTS dc-SQUID flip-chip sensors with a large area multilayer flux transformers. Different layouts of the flux transformers provide a large variety of magnetometers and planar gradiometers. For the magnetometers a resolution ~6 fT/√Hz and the planar gradiometers a resolution of about ~30 fT/cm.√Hz were routinely obtained at 77 K. The noise was nearly white down to frequencies of few Hz. The sensors were vacuum-tight encapsulated together with a heater and a feedback coil. This makes the handling of the sensors more reproducible and convenient. Production of the magnetometers and gradiometers in small series was proven View full abstract»

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  • Micron and submicron Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb tunnel junctions with high critical current densities

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 365 - 368
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
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    To increase superconducting IC speed and density, it is necessary to reduce junction size and increase critical current density. We describe the fabrication and properties of high critical current density micron and submicron Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb tunnel junctions. Using a 10:1 reduction wafer stepper with I-line photoresist, we obtained a minimum linewidth of 0.6 μm and junctions as small as 0.3 μm2 . The critical current densities can be as high as 20 kA/cm2 still with low subgap currents. The measured critical current spreads are small. This is due to the use of low-temperature, low-stress ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance)-based PECVD (Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition) SiO2 insulation layers and light anodization around junction areas. The junctions have potential applications in very high-speed superconducting digital circuits and submillimeter microwave devices View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of low-velocity impact damage in reinforced carbon fiber composites by HTS-SQUID magnetometers

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1172 - 1175
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
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    Composite materials are susceptible to damage which can be induced by service loads and accidental impacts. The detection of any signature produced by damage is critical to maintaining the integrity of aircraft parts during routine maintenance. A high critical temperature SQUID magnetometer has been successfully employed in the evaluation of the behavior of multi-ply carbon fibers reinforced composite panels for aeronautical applications under low-velocity impacts. Measurements of the induced magnetic field have been carried out above specimen damaged with energy impact from 1 to 40 J. A quasi-linear behavior in two different regimes between the SQUID's response and the energy of the impact has been found. This suggests a correspondence to the detection of intrinsically different damage that occurs in the laminates at different energies View full abstract»

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  • Development of a high-Tc first-order gradiometer system

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1359 - 1362
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The high-Tc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) gradiometer system was developed for operation in unshielded environment. The system consists of the first-order gradiometer and the flux-locked loop electronics. YBa2Cu3O7 single-layer first-order SQUID gradiometers were fabricated on 15 mm×7.5 mm SrTiO3 bicrystal substrates with a baseline of 7 mm. The gradient sensitivities at 77 K and 100 Hz were 0.1 pT/(cm√Hz) in magnetic shielding and 1.4 pT/(cm√Hz) when operated unshielded in our laboratory. The high-Tc SQUID gradiometer system demonstrated successful measurement of small magnetic fields in a laboratory environment without any shields View full abstract»

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  • Fabrication of Mo/Au transition-edge sensors for X-ray spectrometry

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 755 - 758
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
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    We present fabrication details of our Mo/Au X-ray microcalorimeters, which are being developed as one of the candidate high resolution spectrometers for the Constellation-X mission. We have reproducibly fabricated Mo/Au transition-edge sensors with Tc's of ~100 mK on etched silicon nitride membranes and connected via superconducting Nb leads. Our single pixel devices have, so far, attained resolution of 3.7 eV at 3.3 keV. We also discuss our plans for fabrication and testing of fully functional multi-pixel array of X-ray microcalorimeters View full abstract»

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  • Spread spectrum data transfer from dewar to dewar at 2 gigachips per second

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 982 - 985
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    Spread spectrum data modulation, transmission, and demodulation has been demonstrated between SFQ chips in separate dewars. The baseband demonstration consisted of modulating (encoding) data with a spreading code, transmitting the coded data to a Receiver and demodulating (decoding) the data using an identical spreading code. The Transmitter code was produced by a 2 GHz, 4-bit SFQ pseudorandom sequence generator creating a 15-chip spreading code, which modulated a ~133 MHz data source. This data was output by a 10× superconducting latch providing ~8 mV of AC drive. This signal was fed through 50-Ω coaxial cable to a SFQ Receiver chip in a separate dewar. No amplification of the AC signal between the dewars was needed, however, a slight DC bias was added to the signal as a flux bias for the input SQUID on the Receiver. The Receiver chip consisted of an identical SFQ pseudorandom sequence generator and a data demodulation gate. Demodulating the received data with the code generator produced a replica of the data signal in RZ form. Both time forward and time reversed codes for the spreading/despreading sequence were created View full abstract»

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  • Retargeting RSFQ cells to a submicron fabrication process

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 369 - 372
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
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    There is a desire to move current state-of-the-art niobium Josephson IC fabrication processes (~3 μm) to smaller sub-micron linewidths in order to realize a decrease in gate size and increase in both speed and packing density. However, cost and time dictates that a way be found to reuse the existing RSFQ gate/cell development that has been done at the 3-μm level. Cell retargeting is the process of migrating existing designs to a new technology, with the effort focused on the maximum reuse of existing material. We have investigated a number of issues critical to this process, including both the physical and electrical aspects. Comments are made on methodologies for RSFQ cell retargeting with respect to existing reduced-linewidth JJ fabrication processes. Experimental demonstrations are shown for retargeted RSFQ static digital frequency dividers (toggle flip-flops) operating at 220 GHz, 240 GHz, and 395 GHz View full abstract»

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  • Study on fabrication conditions of the interface-treated trilayer junctions

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 788 - 790
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    We have investigated the effects of fabrication conditions on the properties of the interface-treated trilayer Josephson junctions. In the junctions, barriers are formed by ion milling, followed by annealing. We controlled the accelerating voltage for the milling process and the gas pressure for the annealing process. Josephson currents were observed in the junctions fabricated under various conditions. It was found that higher accelerating voltage contributes to the reduction of leakage paths in the barriers. However, clear dependence of the Josephson currents on the conditions was not observed in contrast to the results for the ramp-edge junctions View full abstract»

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  • Design of a fast digital double relaxation oscillation SQUID

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1235 - 1238
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    A fast digital Double Relaxation Oscillation SQUID (DROS) with a relaxation oscillation frequency of 100 MHz has been developed. The digital DROS incorporates a DROS and a superconducting up-down counter that supplies the feedback flux. The major advantage of a DROS is that the relaxation oscillations generate an on-chip clock signal and therefore, no external clock is required. In order to maximize the slew rate without compromising the sensitivity, the quantization unit of the feedback flux was adapted to the flux noise of the DROS. This resulted in a designed flux slew rate of 5·106 Φ0/s. We will discuss the design optimization, numerical simulations, the layout and some experimental results of the digital DROS View full abstract»

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  • Microwave emission from two-stacked arrays of long Josephson junctions

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1203 - 1206
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    We have recorded the radiation generated by magnetic flux quanta oscillations and by cavity mode oscillations in two-stacked arrays each consisting of five long Josephson junctions biased in parallel. The two arrays have in common the middle electrode, which is thinner than the London penetration depth, and can be biased independently. Basically, two kind of fluxon states can be generated, one consisting of a row of five fluxons oscillating in one of the arrays, the other consisting of a row of five fluxons in one array and five antifluxons in the other array, bound in a coherent state. It is found from the microwave emission that the latter configuration is less sensitive to low-frequency noise View full abstract»

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  • Encoders and decimation filters for superconductor oversampling ADCs

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 545 - 549
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
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    Modulators of superconductor ADCs can operate at very high sampling rates, ranging from 20 GHz (today's technologies) to 400 GHz (prospective sub-micron technologies). Such devices are too fast and therefore impractical without other superconductor devices capable of processing the data streams at such rates. We discuss various structures of such devices, in particular demultiplexers and decimation filters. We also analyze possible hybrid devices, in which only the front stages contain superconductor components. Encoders and decimation comb filters for single-comparator and time-interleaved modulators were designed, fabricated (at HYPRES, Inc.) and successfully tested. The most recent designs of the decimation filters have a unique modular structure, which allows an assembly of various comb filters handling clock frequencies of about 20 GHz (for a 1 kA/cm2 fabrication technology) View full abstract»

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  • Time jitter measurement in a circular Josephson transmission line

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 288 - 291
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
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    A Josephson transmission line closed to form a ring was used to measure the time jitter produced by a single shunted Josephson junction. A toggle flip-flop cell was connected to a sampling oscilloscope, and was used to detect the flux quantum arrival time. Time jitter was determined from the variation of this time. The jitter was measured as a function of the number of cycles the flux quantum made in the ring. The reduced jitter produced by a single junction of 0.2 ps√n (n-number of junctions passed by the quantum) was measured using Hypres 1 kA/cm 2 chip fabrication technology. It was found that jitter varies the distance between the quanta with the same rate of 0.2 ps√n View full abstract»

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  • A tipping pulse scheme for a rf-SQUID qubit

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1018 - 1021
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    We present a technique to control the quantum state of a rf-SQUID qubit. We propose to employ a stream of single flux quantum (SFQ) pulses magnetically coupled to the qubit junction to momentarily suppress its critical current. This effectively lowers the barrier in the double-well rf SQUID potential thereby increasing the tunneling oscillation frequency between the wells. By carefully choosing the time interval between SFQ pulses one may accelerate the interwell tunneling rate. Thus it is possible to place the qubit into a chosen superposition of flux states and then effectively to freeze the qubit state. We present both numerical simulations and analytical time-dependent perturbation theory calculations that demonstrate the technique. Using this strategy one may control the quantum state of the rf SQUID in a way analogous to the π pulses in other qubit schemes View full abstract»

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  • YBaCuO mid-infrared bolometers: Substrate influence on inter-pixel crosstalk

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 766 - 769
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (380 KB)  

    A theoretical modelling approach has been developed, allowing the prediction of the response of YBaCuO bolometers forming an elementary array and the thermal crosstalk between adjacent pixels. Two models are described, a 2D analytic model and a 3D numerical model. The latter takes into consideration the thermal boundary resistance between the substrate and the heat sink. The predicted responses are compared with those of a 2×2 YBaCuO bolometer array deposited on MgO substrate and tested at 10 μm wavelength View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity contains articles on the applications of superconductivity and other relevant technology.

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Editor-in-Chief
Britton L. T. Plourde
Syracuse University
bplourde@syr.edu
http://www.phy.syr.edu/~bplourde