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Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on

Issue 3 • Date March 2001

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Displaying Results 1 - 15 of 15
  • Guest editorial active and programmable networks

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 401 - 403
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Resource management in software-programmable router operating systems

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 488 - 500
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (159 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Future routers will not only forward data packets but also provide value-added services, such as security, accounting, caching, and resource management. These services ran be implemented as general programs, to be invoked by traversing packets embedding router program calls. Software-programmable routers pose new challenges in the design of router operating systems (OS). First, router programs will require access to diverse system resources. The resource demands of a large community of heterogeneous resource consumers must either be coordinated to enable cooperation or arbitrated to resolve competition. Second, it is beneficial to concurrently support multiple virtual machines, each with a guaranteed share of physical resources. This allows services to be customized and to seamlessly evolve. We present the design and implementation of a next generation router OS that can meet the above challenges. We define an orthogonal kernel abstraction of resource allocation, which can schedule various time-shared and space-shared resources with quality of service (QoS) differentiation and guarantees. A scalable and flexible packet classifier enables dynamic resource binding and per-flow processing of received packets. We have prototyped our system on a network of UltraSPARC and Pentium II computers. Currently, QoS-aware schedulers for CPU time, forwarding bandwidth, memory-store capacity, and capacity for secondary data stores have been integrated. We present experimental results on various aspects of resource management in our system. View full abstract»

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  • Support for resource-assured and dynamic virtual private networks

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 460 - 472
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (208 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes VServ, a prototype architecture for a virtual private network (VPN) service, which builds and manages VPNs on demand. It allows each VPN to have guaranteed resources and customized control, and supports a highly dynamic VPN service where creation and modification operations can take place on fast timescales. These features are contingent on the automated establishment and maintenance of VPNs. A design process is described that attempts to satisfy the goals of both customer and VPN service provider (VSP). A pruned topology graph and tailored search algorithm are derived from the characteristics of the desired VPN. Although the searching procedure is theoretically intractable, it is shown that the complexity can be mitigated by a multitude of factors, VServ is built over the Tempest, a network control framework that partitions network resources into VPNs. An IP implementation of the Tempest is presented. Resource revocation is a mechanism that the VSP can use to react to violations of service level agreements-a protocol is described to enable graceful adaptation in the control plane to resource revocation events View full abstract»

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  • An OS interface for active routers

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 473 - 487
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (188 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes an operating system (OS) interface for active routers. This interface allows code loaded into active routers to access the router's memory, communication, and computational resources on behalf of different packet flows. In addition to motivating and describing the interface, the paper also reports our experiences implementing the interface in three different OS environments: Scout, the OSKit, and the esokernel View full abstract»

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  • FIRE: flexible intra-AS routing environment

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 410 - 425
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (196 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Current routing protocols are monolithic, specifying the algorithm used to construct forwarding tables, the metric used by the algorithm (generally some form of hop count), and the protocol used to distribute these metrics as an integrated package. The flexible intra-AS routing environment (FIRE) is a link-state, intradomain routing protocol that decouples these components. FIRE supports run-time-programmable algorithms and metrics over a secure link-state distribution protocol. By allowing the network operator to dynamically reprogram both the properties being advertised and the routing algorithms used to construct forwarding tables, FIRE enables the development and deployment of novel routing algorithms without the need for a new protocol to distribute state. FIRE supports multiple concurrent routing algorithms and metrics, each constructing separate forwarding tables. By using operator-specified packet filters, separate classes of traffic may be routed using completely different routing algorithms, all supported by a single routing protocol. This paper presents an overview of FIRE, focusing particularly on FIRE's novel aspects with respect to traditional routing protocols. We consider deploying several current unicast and multicast routing algorithms in FIRE, and describe our Java-based implementation View full abstract»

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  • Carrier-scale programmable networks: wholesaler platform and resource optimization

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 566 - 573
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (208 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper explores the potential benefits of programmable networks for telecommunication carriers. It particularly focuses on using a programmable network to offer a new type of wholesale product by adding value to the wholesale of pure carriage. By augmenting the wholesale of carriage with the wholesale of network-based computation, the need for server overlay deployment to support retail service providers is reduced or eliminated. The paper develops an efficient algorithm for allocation and management of computation and transport resources within the network infrastructure. This algorithm is designed to optimize a large network supporting many retail service providers and can be used by the wholesaler for the optimal management of scarce computational and transport resources. The algorithm is based on the Lagrangian relaxation method and provides error bounds so that the accuracy of the solution can be ascertained. Numerical results are presented and the benefit of the optimization for a simple multi-service scenario is assessed View full abstract»

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  • Active resource allocation in active networks

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 452 - 459
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (120 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A central premise of active networking is that small amounts of user-specific computation inserted at key locations within the network can significantly improve network-based application performance. Hence, a critical issue for active networking is the amount of resources required to achieve performance gains since excessive demands on scarce node resources can have detrimental effects on the entire network. We explore the trade-space between active resource utilization and performance, and attempt to provide insights into where limited active resources should be located within a given network topology in order to optimize performance. Simulation experiments based on performance assessments of the active error recovery/nominee-based congestion algorithm (AER/NCA) protocol-an active networks-based reliable multicast protocol-reveal that a high percentage of the achievable performance gains can be attained with only a small number of optimally selected network nodes providing active services. Further experiments show that an early algorithm for dynamically activating-deactivating active services within the network can achieve a significant portion of the gains afforded by an optimal, static configuration. The implication here is that this or similar algorithms hold significant promise as a means for active networks to dynamically self-optimize active resource allocation View full abstract»

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  • The JOURNEY active network model

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 527 - 537
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (192 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Faster processors are quickly enabling a new class of computationally intensive applications that actively transform information flows. Performing such computation at the terminal end is contrary to current trends toward low-power terminal devices. Moreover, scalability and efficiency concerns are also encouraging service providers to outsource computation when operating under loaded conditions. To address the problem of deploying such applications, we introduce the JOURNEY network model, which provides computation as an integrated network service. Contrary to other distributed computing models, JOURNEY does not attempt to guarantee that a given computational job will indeed be completed. Instead, the JOURNEY model trades off such hard guarantees in favor of architectural simplicity, and hence scalability. In order for the JOURNEY model to be applicable to real-time multimedia flows, we introduce the notion of soft quality-of-service (QoS) that provides a probabilistic bound on the unprocessed packet rate (UPR). Based on this notion, we describe a packet-processing admission control algorithm that additionally takes into consideration a flow's real-time constraints. We also propose a computing router architecture that is based on cluster technology. This architecture can track technology advances in both routing and computing independently. We further present a motivating multimedia application that employs a semantically driven video transcoding service within the JOURNEY framework we implemented, and describe our experience along with performance measurements View full abstract»

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  • Concast: design and implementation of an active network service

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 426 - 437
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (168 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Concast is a network layer service that provides many-to-one channels: multiple sources send messages toward one destination, and the network delivers a single “merged” copy to that destination. As we have defined it, the service is generic but the relationship between the sent and received messages can be customized for particular applications. We describe the concast service and show how it can be implemented in a back ward-compatible manner in the Internet. We describe its use to solve a problem that has eluded scalable end-system-only solutions: collecting feedback in multicast applications. Our preliminary analysis of concasting effectiveness shows that it provides significant benefits, even with partial deployment. We argue that concast has the characteristics needed for a programmable service to be widely accepted and deployed in the Internet View full abstract»

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  • The Genesis Kernel: a programming system for spawning network architectures

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 511 - 526
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (232 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Currently, the design, deployment, and refinement of new network architectures is a manual, ad hoc, and time-consuming process. We present the design, implementation, and evaluation of the Genesis Kernel, a programming system that automates the life cycle process for the creation, deployment, management, and architecting of network architectures. We discuss our experiences in building a spawning network that is capable of creating distinct virtual network architectures on-demand. The Genesis Kernel is based on a methodology that allows a child virtual network to operate on top of a subset of its parent's network resources and in isolation from other spawned virtual networks. We show through experimentation how a number of diverse network architectures can be spawned and architecturally refined. These spawned network architectures include a parent network that supports IP forwarding, and interior and exterior routing. We discuss how two child networks based on Cellular IP and Mobiware architectures can be spawned on the parent network to support wireless access to data and continuous media services, respectively View full abstract»

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  • Extensible signaling for temporal resource sharing

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 438 - 451
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    The Internet is rapidly evolving from a network that provides basic best-effort communication service to an infrastructure capable of supporting complex value-added services. These services typically have multiple fluffs with interdependent resource requirements. These dependencies provide opportunities to share the same set of resources among related flows over time leading to significant resource gains. We call this type of sharing temporal resource sharing. Exploiting temporal sharing requires support in the signaling protocol that performs resource allocation for the related flows. We examine the problem of supporting temporal sharing in a signaling protocol. This paper makes the case that temporal sharing support must be designed to be extensible, so that service providers can define and implement new sharing behaviors without having to modify the signaling protocol. We motivate the need for an extensible design by showing that the range of possible temporal sharing behaviors is large and supporting the most general forms of temporal sharing is computationally expensive. We then present a design for extensible signaling support for temporal sharing. We have implemented the temporal sharing design presented in this paper in the Beagle signaling protocol. We present an evaluation of the Beagle design and contrast it with other signaling protocols like RSVP and Tenet-2 View full abstract»

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  • The NetScript active network system

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 538 - 551
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (200 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    NetScript is a language system for dynamically programming and deploying protocol software in an active network. NetScript programs are packet flow processors composed out of dataflow components. They can be dynamically dispatched to remote nodes, composed with installed software, and executed to enhance node functions. NetScript has proven useful for implementing a variety of practical network systems including Internet protocol (IP) routers, firewalls, protocol analyzers, traffic shapers, load balancers, various queuing disciplines, intrusion detection systems, Web transport protocols, and IP telephony systems. The paper illustrates the principal concepts of NetScript with an example application, an active IP router that is dynamically extended to provide firewall protection View full abstract»

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  • Design issues for high-performance active routers

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 404 - 409
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (204 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Modern networks require the flexibility to support new protocols and network services without changes in the underlying hardware. Routers with general-purpose processors can perform data path packet processing using software that is dynamically distributed. However, custom processing of packets at link speeds requires immense computational power. This paper proposes a design of a scalable, high-performance active router. Multiple network processors with cache and memory on a single application specific integrated circuit are used to overcome the limitations of traditional single processor systems. The proposed design is used as a vehicle for studying the key issues that must be resolved to allow active networking to become a mainstream technology. Benchmark measurements are used to put the design in relation to actual application demands View full abstract»

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  • Janos: a Java-oriented OS for active network nodes

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 501 - 510
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (140 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Janos is an operating system (OS) for active network nodes whose primary focus is strong resource management and control of untrusted active applications written in Java. Janos includes the three major components of a Java-based active network operating system: the low-level NodeOS, a resource-aware Java virtual machine, and an active network protocol execution environment. Each of these components is separately usable. This article lays out the Janos design and its rationale View full abstract»

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  • Active routing

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 552 - 565
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (152 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Active routing permits individual customers, network managers, or network owners to control the paths that their data takes through the network. The objective is to allow routing mechanisms that provide quality of service (QoS), mobility, etc., to be quickly deployed, without waiting for standards, and to allow different routing mechanisms, that provide similar services, to compete. The current work on label switching (MPLS) can also be used to give high level customers, such as virtual private networks (VPNs), more control over their paths. We show how active routing can extend the capabilities of MPLS. We address several implementation issues, including pricing and distributed sandboxes. Pricing or policing must be used to limit the resources that customers acquire, in order to encourage them to use network resources economically. Sandboxes must be used to limit the resources that the participants acquire, in order to limit the harm that they can inflict on other participants. Active routing creates a free market system where network providers compete to sell their resources and implementers compete to sell their active routing programs. We establish a framework to quantitatively compare networks and service providers. As an example, we route Internet protocol (IP) telephony over combinations of circuit and packet networks View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications focuses on all telecommunications, including telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television, by electromagnetic propagation.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Muriel Médard
MIT