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Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date Apr 2000

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 34
  • Multiple-model adaptive estimation using a residual correlation Kalman filter bank

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 393 - 406
    Cited by:  Papers (37)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1112 KB)  

    We propose a modified multiple model adaptive estimation (MMAE) algorithm that uses the time correlation of the Kalman filter residuals, in place of their scaled magnitude, to assign conditional probabilities for each of the modeled hypotheses. This modified algorithm, denoted the residual correlation Kalman filter bank (RCKFB), uses the magnitude of an estimate of the correlation of the residual with a slightly modified version of the usual MMAE hypothesis testing algorithm to assign the conditional probabilities to the various hypotheses that are modeled in the Kalman filter bank within the MMAE. This concept is used to detect flight control actuator failures, where the existence of a single frequency sinusoid (which is highly time correlated) in the residual of an elemental filter within an MMAE is indicative of that filter having the wrong actuator failure status hypothesis. This technique results in a delay in detecting the flight control actuator failure because several samples of the residual must be collected before the residual correlation can be estimated. However, it allows a significant reduction of the amplitude of the required system inputs for exciting the various system modes to enhance identifiability, to the point where they may possibly be subliminal, so as not to be objectionable to the pilot and passengers View full abstract»

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  • Improved algorithm for estimating pulse repetition intervals

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 407 - 421
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (944 KB)  

    This paper presents an improved algorithm for estimating pulse repetition intervals (PRIs) of an interleaved pulse train which consists of several independent radar signals with different PRIs. The original version of this algorithm is a complex-valued autocorrelation-like integral, which leads to a kind of PRI spectrum wherein the locations of the spectral peaks indicate the PRI values. The original algorithm, however, has a serious drawback in that it is vulnerable to timing jitter (PRI jitter). We analyze the cause of this vulnerability and propose an improved algorithm using overlapped PRI bins which have shifting time origins. The improved algorithm has proven to be quite effective in obtaining the PRI spectrum for jittered pulse trains, which enables detection of mean PRIs by thresholding View full abstract»

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  • Distribution of the sum of clutter and thermal noise

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 709 - 713
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (364 KB)  

    The results of an approximate method for calculating the probability density function of the amplitude of the sum of Weibull-distributed radar clutter and thermal noise are compared with the exact distributions and found to be inaccurate except in one special case. It is shown how the assumption that the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) components of clutter have a joint circular-symmetric density function can be used to compute the density functions of the I- and Q-components themselves from the hypothesized distribution of the amplitude View full abstract»

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  • Circular array STAP

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 510 - 517
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (612 KB)  

    Traditionally, space-time adaptive processing (STAP) for airborne early warning (AEW) radar has been applied to uniform linear arrays (ULAs). However, when considering the overall radar system, electronically scanned circular arrays have advantages: a better combination of even and continual angular and temporal coverage, and mechanical simplicity because it does not need to rotate. This paper answers the question “How well does STAP perform when applied to a circular array?” This paper shows that for the AEW mission, circular arrays are indeed STAP compatible. However, when conventional STAP algorithms are used there may be a small loss in performance when compared with a ULA. With some care in the choice and implementation of the STAP algorithm, the majority of the degradation is at close ranges, where the target returns are relatively strong. At long ranges performance is barely affected. A STAP algorithm which compensates for the circular array environment and provides better performance than existing algorithms is presented View full abstract»

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  • Optimal guidance laws with uncertain time-of-flight

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 721 - 725
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB)  

    The existing optimal guidance laws assume that the time-to-go is known exactly. The time-to-go is usually estimated and thus is a random variable. The issue of optimal guidance with uncertain time-to-go is dealt with here. A problem of the control of linear discrete systems with unknown time-to-go is formulated and solved. The solution is applied to derive guidance laws. The solution depends on the probability density function of the time-of-flight. This guidance law has the structure of a rendezvous guidance law where the guidance gains are time-dependent and depend on the distribution of the time-to-go. Examples that demonstrate these dependencies are presented View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive control for feedback-linearized missiles with uncertainties

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 467 - 481
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1004 KB)  

    A robust adaptive control scheme is proposed that can be applied to a practical autopilot design for feedback-linearized skid-to-turn (STT) missiles with aerodynamic uncertainties. The approach is to add a robust adaptive controller to a feedback-linearizing controller in order to reduce the influence of the aerodynamic uncertainties. The proposed robust adaptive control scheme is based on a sliding mode control technique with an adaptive law for estimating the unknown upper bounds of uncertain parameters. A feature of the proposed scheme is that missile systems with aerodynamic uncertainties can be controlled effectively over a wide operating range of flight conditions. It is shown, using Lyapunov stability theory, that the proposed scheme can give sufficient tracking capability and stability for a feedback-linearized STT missile with aerodynamic uncertainties. The six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear simulation results also show that good performance for several uncertainty models and engagement scenarios can be achieved by the proposed scheme in practical night conditions View full abstract»

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  • Reduced-rank STAP performance analysis

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 664 - 676
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1100 KB)  

    The space-time radar problem is well suited to the application of techniques that take advantage of the low-rank property of the space-time covariance matrix. It is shown that reduced-rank (RR) methods outperform full-rank space-time adaptive processing (STAP) when the space-time covariance matrix is estimated from a data set with limited support. The utility of RR methods is demonstrated by theoretical analysis, simulations and analysis of real data. It is shown that RR processing has two opposite effects on the performance: increased statistical stability which tends to improve performance, and introduction of a bias which lowers the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A method for evaluating the theoretical conditioned SNR for fixed RR transforms is also presented. It Is shown that while best performance is obtained using data-dependent transforms, the loss incurred by the application of fixed transforms (such as the discrete cosine transform) may be relatively small. The main advantage of fixed transforms is the availability of efficient computational procedures for their implementation. These findings suggest that RR methods could facilitate the development of practical, real-time STAP technology View full abstract»

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  • Comparison between monostatic and bistatic antenna configurations for STAP

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 596 - 608
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1096 KB)  

    The unique characteristics of bistatic radar operation on the performance of airborne/spaceborne moving target indicator (MTI) radars that use space-time adaptive processing (STAP) are discussed. It has been shown that monostatic STAP radar has the following properties. 1) For a horizontal flight path and a planar Earth the curves of constant clutter Doppler (isodops) are hyperbolas. 2) For a sidelooking antenna geometry the clutter Doppler is range independent. 3) Clutter trajectories in the cosφ-F plane (F=normalized Doppler) are in general ellipses (or straight lines for a sidelooking array). We demonstrate that these well-known properties are distorted by the displacement between transmitter and receiver in a bistatic configuration. It is shown that even for the sidelooking array geometry the clutter Doppler is range-dependent which requires adaptation of the STAP processor for each individual range gate. Conclusions for the design of STAP processors are drawn View full abstract»

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  • Generalized approach for μ synthesis of robust switching regulators

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 422 - 431
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (780 KB)  

    A general method using μ synthesis to design controllers applicable to pulsewidth modulated (PWM) converters is described. System uncertainties from component tolerances are included in the synthesis procedure, adding a quantifiable measure of robustness. Furthermore, these uncertainties have been implemented in a structured format which maximizes available system performance. A boost converter example is presented demonstrating the controller synthesis procedure and advantages of this method View full abstract»

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  • Optimal and adaptive reduced-rank STAP

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 647 - 663
    Cited by:  Papers (56)  |  Patents (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1612 KB)  

    This paper is concerned with issues and techniques associated with the development of both optimal and adaptive (data dependent) reduced-rank signal processing architectures. Adaptive algorithms for 1D beamforming, 2D space-time adaptive processing (STAP), and 3D STAP for joint hot and cold clutter mitigation are surveyed. The following concepts are then introduced for the first time (other than workshop and conference records) and evaluated in a signal-dependent versus signal independent context: (1) the adaptive processing “region-of-convergence” as a function of sample support and rank, (2) a new variant of the cross-spectral metric (CSM) that retains dominant mode estimation in the direct-form processor (DFP) structure, and (3) the robustness of the proposed methods to the subspace “leakage” problem arising in many real-world applications. A comprehensive performance comparison is conducted both analytically and via Monte Carlo simulation which clearly demonstrates the superior theoretical compression performance of signal-dependent rank-reduction, its broader region-of-convergence, and its inherent robustness to subspace leakage View full abstract»

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  • Correcting the Pspice large-signal model for PWM converters operating in DCM

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 718 - 721
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (284 KB)  

    It is shown that an incorrect parameter limit in the existing Pspice pulsewidth modulated (PWM) switch model has been detected. The main objective of this work is to alert users of such models to a potential source of simulation error under certain parameter specifications as shown here. Simulation of the boost converter operating in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) based on the incorrect model results in either convergence problems or wrong results. Correction of the model is provided and its validity is verified using a specific converter example. The results illustrate how the old and corrected models produce different results when the boost converter is subjected to some transients under sudden load variations View full abstract»

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  • Direction of arrival tracking below the ambiguity threshold

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 354 - 363
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (664 KB)  

    We present an algorithm for direction-of-arrival (DOA) tracking that allows operation below the ambiguity threshold of the direction-finding (DF) system. Using multiple target tracking techniques, the algorithm turns the most likely DOAs of each measurement into multiple potential tracks and then selects the true track as that with the maximum cumulative likelihood. The improvement offered by the algorithm, namely the extension of the ambiguity-free signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) domain, is demonstrated in several simulated experiments using several array structures, including a sparse array and a uniform linear array View full abstract»

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  • Passive localization of moving emitters using out-of-plane multipath

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 584 - 595
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1092 KB)  

    The purpose of this work is to establish how a moving emitter, such as a jammer, can be localized by a passive receiver through the use of out-of-plane multipath signals reflected by the terrain. This is a novel localization technique that assumes no a priori knowledge of the localization of the multipath sources. The emitter parameters of range, heading, velocity, and altitude are estimated by exploiting the correlation between the direct-path signal and the delayed and Doppler modulated signals. Two basis assumptions about the scattering properties of the terrain lead to different maximum likelihood estimators (MLEs). The Cramer-Rao lower bounds (CRLB) are used to study estimator performance versus emitter velocity for each case. The proposed estimators are successfully demonstrated using field data collected at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) during the DARPA/Navy Mountaintop program View full abstract»

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  • Modified receding horizon guidance law with information on small accurate time-to-go

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 725 - 729
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (348 KB)  

    A modified receding horizon guidance law (MRHG), which is useful when the accurate time-to-go is available only for a short time before the final time, is proposed. The proposed MRHG is based on the receding horizon strategy and optimal control theory. In the presence of arbitrary target maneuvers and an initial lateral miss distance (MD) rate between a target and a missile, it is shown that the proposed MRHG guarantees not only to keep the lateral MD less than a given value, within which the warhead of the missile is detonated, from the appropriately selected time to the intercept time, but also to render the terminal MD zero. Through simulations when the time-to-go is accurate only for a short time, the performance of MRHG is compared with the optimal guidance law (OGL) and the receding horizon guidance law (RHG) in terms of the terminal MD, the lateral MD, and the missile acceleration View full abstract»

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  • Implementation of nondeterministic pulsewidth modulation for inverter drives

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 482 - 490
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (652 KB)  

    A single-phase power factor preregulator to improve the power quality in the input side of an ac/dc/ac converter and a random pulsewidth modulation (PWM) to reduce the emitted noise energy and the mechanical vibration for an induction motor drive is proposed. The hysteresis current control (HCC) technique for a voltage source switching mode rectifier (SMR) is adopted. A control scheme is presented such that the line current is driven to follow the reference current which is derived from the dc bus voltage regulator and the output power estimator. A random pulse position technique for a three-phase voltage source inverter system to reduce the noise energy and resonant vibration from ac machine drive is described. By randomly varying the instantaneous pulse position in each switching frequency, the frequency distribution of harmonics is spread in a wide frequency range which results in reduction of torque pulsations in the ac motor drive systems. To investigate the proposed control scheme, experimental tests based on a laboratory prototype were implemented to show the nearly unity power factor at the SMR and reduce the noise energy concentrated at the specific tones View full abstract»

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  • Parametric adaptive matched filter for airborne radar applications

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 677 - 692
    Cited by:  Papers (72)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1456 KB)  

    The parametric adaptive matched filter (PAMF) for space-time adaptive processing (STAP) is introduced via the matched filter (MF), multichannel linear prediction, and the multichannel LDU decomposition. Two alternative algorithmic implementations of the PAMF are discussed. Issues considered include sample training data size and constant false alarm rate (CFAR). Detection test statistics are estimated for airborne phased array radar measurements, and probability of detection is estimated using simulated phased array radar data for airborne surveillance radar scenarios. For large sample sizes, the PAMF performs close to the MF; performance degrades slightly for small sample sizes. In both sample size ranges, the PAMF is tolerant to targets present in the training set View full abstract»

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  • Effects of mutual coupling on the performance of STAP antenna arrays

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 518 - 527
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (960 KB)  

    The effect of mutual coupling on the performance of space-time adaptive processing (STAP) antenna arrays is investigated. A signal model that includes the effects of mutual coupling is derived and used to compute the optimum solution for the fully adaptive and a variety of partially adaptive algorithms. The simulations indicate that if the mutual coupling is not properly accounted for there is significant degradation of the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR). In addition, the clutter notch is widened resulting in a larger minimum detectable velocity (MDV) of the target. When the mutual coupling is properly accounted for, the performance can be restored to the ideal level. However, STAP algorithms, in general, are very sensitive to errors in the mutual coupling matrix, requiring a very complete knowledge of this matrix for good performance. Of all the algorithms considered here, beam space algorithms appear to be the most robust with respect to uncertainties in the mutual coupling matrix View full abstract»

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  • Space-time adaptive radar performance in heterogeneous clutter

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 621 - 633
    Cited by:  Papers (86)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1124 KB)  

    Traditional analysis of space-time adaptive radar generally assumes the ideal condition of statistically independent and identically distributed (IID) secondary data. To the contrary, measured data suggests realistic clutter environments appear heterogeneous and so the secondary data is no longer IID. Heterogeneity leads to mismatch between actual and estimated covariance matrices, thereby magnifying the loss between the adaptive implementation and optimum condition. Concerns regarding the impact of clutter heterogeneity on space-time adaptive processing (STAP) warrant further study. To this end, we propose space-time models of amplitude and spectral clutter heterogeneity, with operational airborne radar in mind, and then characterize expected STAP performance loss under such heterogeneous scenarios. Simulation results reveal loss in signal-to-interference plus noise ratio (SINR) ranging between a few tenths of a decibel to greater than 16 dB for specific cases View full abstract»

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  • STAP with medium PRF mode for non-side-looking airborne radar

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 609 - 620
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1032 KB)  

    Space-time adaptive processing (STAP) has been widely discussed for airborne radar systems to improve the system performance of detecting targets. This is especially true for airborne early warning (AEW) radar, which should find long-range and small radar cross section (RCS) targets such as the stealth aircraft and missiles. However, in existing airborne radar literature, STAP is mainly considered for clutter and jamming rejection in side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) applications. There have been fewer discussions on airborne radar with non-side-ways looking array radar (non-SLAR). The STAP of non-SLAR such as forward looking array radar is also very important and can not be avoided for airborne radar to detect targets in all directions. The STAP of the non-SLAR is studied here. A scheme has been proposed, which is processed by the way of STAP combined with multiple staggered medium pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs). We further study the selection of PRFs in order to make the scheme more available for non-SLAR radar. We analyze two typical non-SLAR cases, i.e., inclined-sideways looking array and forward looking array. We examine this scheme by comparing the performances of three processing systems under the criteria of range-velocity blind zone minimization. Computer simulation results show the multiple-PRFs STAP scheme is feasible for non-SLAR and can be applied to phased-array AEW radar systems View full abstract»

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  • Bayesian and Dempster-Shafer target identification for radar surveillance

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 432 - 447
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (848 KB)  

    This paper considers the problem of target track identification in a radar surveillance system. To build a target identifier alongside a tracker, four features which are available for real-time processing in an air surveillance system are used here: target identity (TID) from a friend-and-foe identification (IFF) system, elevation measurement from the radar, target speed, and acceleration estimated by a tracker. These four features are combined to classify air targets into five different air target categories: friendly commercial, friendly military, hostile commercial (or unknown airline), hostile military, and false targets (clutter). Two popular statistic-based techniques, namely, the Bayesian and Dempster-Shafer methods, are applied to develop radar target identification algorithms for our application. Real-life as well as simulated air surveillance radar data are used to evaluate the practicality and effectiveness of this track identification approach in a radar surveillance system View full abstract»

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  • Steady-state tracking with LFM waveforms

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 701 - 709
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB)  

    The steady-state gains and error covariance are derived for a two-state Kalman filter (i.e., an α, β filter) for tracking with linear frequency modulated (LFM) waveforms. A procedure is given for calculating the α, β gains from the tracking index Γ, the sample period T, and the range-Doppler coupling coefficient Δt. The steady-state error covariance is found to be a simple function of α, β, Δt, T and the measurement noise variance σv2. The expressions for the steady-state gains and error covariance were confirmed numerically with the Kalman filtering equations. A gain scheduling technique for α and β during initialization is also given View full abstract»

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  • Wideband cancellation of interference in a GPS receive array

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 549 - 564
    Cited by:  Papers (46)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1240 KB)  

    We have demonstrated that by using an adaptive space-time array the interference from multiple, strong interferers plus multipath can be canceled down close to the noise floor without producing serious loss or distortion of a GPS signal. Design criteria are presented and limitations are examined. We also compare space-time processing with suboptimum space-frequency processing, and demonstrate by simulation that for equal computational complexity space-time processing slightly outperforms suboptimum space-frequency processing View full abstract»

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  • Identification of nonlinear flight dynamics: theory and practice

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 383 - 392
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (772 KB)  

    This article presents an innovative time-domain nonlinear mapping-based identification method. The method reported is applied to identify the unknown parameters of multivariable dynamic systems which are mapped by nonlinear differential equations. A systematic identification method is introduced, and a novel algorithm is developed using nonlinear error maps. An analysis of parameter convergence is provided and the regions of convergence can be found using the second method of Lyapunov. Innovative nonquadratic Lyapunov functions are designed and used. Analytical and numerical studies are performed to illustrate and validate the identification concept. The unsteady flight of a high-alpha aircraft in the longitudinal axis is chosen as a nonlinear case study. The unknown parameters are identified. Simulation results show that the model dynamics match the experimental data. The reported example demonstrates that the time-domain nonlinear mapping-based identification method ensures robustness and reduces major shortcomings in stability, convergence, and computational efficiency compared with other algorithms available View full abstract»

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  • Space-time adaptive processing and adaptive arrays: special collection of papers

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 508 - 509
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (196 KB)  

    Space-time adaptive processing (STAP) and related adaptive array techniques hold tremendous potential for improving sensor performance by exploiting signal diversity. Such methods have important application in radar, sonar, and communication systems. Recent advances in digital signal processing technology now provide the computational means to field STAP-based systems. The objective of this special collection of papers is to examine the current state-of-the art in STAP technology and explore the remaining obstacles, practical issues and novel techniques required to implement STAP-based radar, sonar or communication systems View full abstract»

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  • Clutter and jammer multipath cancellation in airborne adaptive radar

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 565 - 583
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1656 KB)  

    Airborne surveillance radars must detect and localize targets in diverse interference environments consisting of ground clutter, conventional jamming, and terrain scattered jammer multipath. Multidimensional adaptive filtering techniques have been proposed to adaptively cancel this interference. However, a detailed analysis that includes the effects of multipath nonstationarity has been elusive. This work addresses the nonstationary nature of the jammer multipath and its impact on clutter cancellation and target localization. It is shown that the weight updating needed to track this interference will also modulate sidelobe signals. At the very least, this complicates the localization of targets. At the worst, it also greatly complicates the rejection of clutter. Several techniques for improving cancellation of jammer multipath and clutter are proposed, including 1) weight vector interpolation, extrapolation, and updating; 2) filter architecture, constraint, and beamspace selection; 3) prefilters; 4) 3-D STAP architectures; and 5) multidimensional sidelobe target editing View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems focuses on the equipment, procedures, and techniques applicable to the organization, installation, and operation of functional systems designed to meet the high performance requirements of earth and space systems.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Lance Kaplan
Army Research Laboratory