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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 10 • Date Oct 1998

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • Incremental length diffraction coefficients for the shadow boundary of a convex cylinder

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1458 - 1466
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB)  

    Incremental length diffraction coefficients (ILDCs) are obtained for the shadow boundaries of perfectly electrically conducting (PEC) convex cylinders of general cross section. A two-step procedure is used. First, the nonuniform (NU) current in the vicinity of the shadow boundary is approximated using Fock (1965) functions. The product of the approximated current and the free-space Green's function is then integrated on a differential strip of the cylinder surface transverse to the shadow boundary to obtain the ILDCs. This integration is performed in closed form by employing quadratic polynomial approximations for the amplitude and unwrapped phase of the integrand. Examples are given of both the current approximations and the integration procedure. Finally, as an example, the scattered far field of a PEC sphere is obtained by adding the integral of the NU ILDCs of a circular cylinder along the shadow boundary of the sphere to the physical optics (PO) far field of the sphere. This correction to the PO field is shown to significantly improve upon the accuracy of the PO far-field approximation to the total scattered field of the sphere View full abstract»

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  • The concurrent complementary operators method for FDTD mesh truncation

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1475 - 1482
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (308 KB)  

    The complementary operators were developed for the purpose of truncating the computational domain of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) open-region simulations. In the original implementation of the complementary operators method, two independent simulations were performed. The solutions from these two simulations were then averaged to obtain a solution devoid of first-order reflections. The complementary operators are implemented in a concurrent fashion. This new implementation, referred to as the concurrent complementary operators method (C-COM), requires only one simulation, thus reducing the operation count by approximately one half. The implementation for two-dimensional (2-D) space is outlined first with emphasis on reducing reflections from corner regions; then the extension to three dimensions is developed. Numerical results are provided in addition to an analysis of the source of error that arises from this new implementation View full abstract»

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  • Efficient calculation of the Green's function for multilayered planar periodic structures

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1582 - 1583
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (76 KB)  

    An efficient calculation scheme is presented for the periodic Green's function in planar multilayered structures. The proposed method is based on the static complex image conversion, and the Ewald sum technique and it converts the slowly convergent Green's function into the sum of two rapidly convergent series View full abstract»

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  • A back-to-back rectangular-patch antenna fed by a CPW

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1527 - 1530
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (144 KB)  

    The configuration of a back-to-back rectangular-patch antenna fed by a coplanar waveguide (CPW) is proposed. The characteristics of the proposed antenna element were clarified by experiments. The radiation patterns and input impedances were measured as parameters of the widths of the rectangular patch and the substrate. Experimental results for an array antenna using the proposed back-to-back rectangular-patch antenna element are described. Good omnidirectional radiation patterns and input impedance characteristics were obtained. The proposed array antenna is suitable for microcellular, wireless LAN, and indoor radio systems View full abstract»

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  • Direct singular integral equation methods in scattering and propagation in strip- or slot-loaded structures

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1560 - 1570
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (708 KB)  

    Problems of three-dimensional (3-D) scattering/hybrid-wave propagation for strip- or slot-loaded structures are often formulated in terms of systems of singular integral-integrodifferential equations (SIE-SIDE) of the first kind. Proper handling of the singular part of the kernels constitutes a major difficulty in carrying out method of moments (MoM). Three powerful techniques explored in the present paper provide efficient solutions by direct recourse to the theory of singular integral equations. In contrast to low-frequency methods wherein similar concepts are utilized for electrically narrow strips/slots, the proposed procedures are applicable uniformly to the whole range of widths from very narrow to very wide scatterers with remarkable accuracy. Numerical results are presented to validate and compare to one another the various numerical codes View full abstract»

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  • Coupling mechanism of two dipoles within a conductor-backed thin dielectric slab above the earth

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1586 - 1587
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (92 KB)  

    A coupling mechanism between two dipoles within a conductor-backed thin dielectric layer above the earth, suggested as subsurface interface CW radar transmitting and receiving antennas, is calculated by a saddle-point method. When the dielectric layer is thin enough to support a cutoff mode, the electric field at the point of receiving dipole due to a transmitting point dipole may be approximated by sum of contributions of branch points of TE mode and poles of TM mode. The branch points and poles contributions are interpreted as evanescent lateral-waves and leaky-waves, respectively. Comparison of numerical results and asymptotic results shows excellent agreement View full abstract»

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  • Integrated modified rectangular loop slot antenna on substrate lenses for millimeter- and submillimeter-wave frequencies mixer applications

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1489 - 1497
    Cited by:  Papers (32)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (236 KB)  

    A coplanar waveguide (CPW)-fed rectangular-loop slot antenna with built-in tuning and DC-return capabilities on extended hemispherical lenses is examined. The proposed configuration is scalable up to the submillimeter-wave frequencies. For designing and analyzing the impedance characteristics of the proposed antenna, a multilayer method of moments (MoM) solver has been developed based on the mixed potential integral equation (MPIE) formulation. The corresponding patterns through the lens are obtained using geometrical optics and the surface equivalence principle. Three models have been simulated and one of them has been built and tested at 65 GHz. The integrated antenna exhibits tuning capability, rotationally symmetric patterns, high directivity, good Gaussian coupling efficiency, and a reasonable bandwidth. In addition, computed results agree well with measurements and are used to characterize the input impedance and pattern behavior of the antenna View full abstract»

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  • Extracting scintillations from satellite beacon propagation data

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1580 - 1581
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (72 KB)  

    Beacon measurements on a moderate elevation satellite link at 20 and 30 GHz during concurrent scintillation and rain attenuation are analyzed. The spectra of the two beacon signals are compared and scintillation amplitudes are extracted from the raw beacon data using a high-pass filter set at 14 different cutoff frequencies fc ranging between 2-400 mHz. The effect on scintillation statistics of the choice of fc and the dependence of this choice on path elevation angle are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Microstripline-fed cylindrical slot antennas

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1587 - 1589
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (152 KB)  

    The characteristics of a microstripline-fed cylindrical slot antenna are presented. The integral equation, which involves spectral domain Green's functions and unknown slot electric field, is numerically solved using the method of moments. Computed results are compared with a slot antenna on a planar surface to demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the method. The effects of the size of the cylinder on the input impedance and far-field pattern are investigated View full abstract»

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  • Plane wave scattering and absorption by resistive-strip and dielectric-strip periodic gratings

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1498 - 1505
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (332 KB)  

    The problems of plane wave scattering by resistive- and dielectric-strip gratings are considered. The formulation involves a set of resistive-type boundary conditions that characterizes nonzero jumps in tangential field components. The method of solution is based on analytical inversion of the static part of the full-wave equations and results in a rapidly convergent numerical algorithm. The dependences of the transmitted, reflected, and absorbed power fractions on the electrical and material parameters are presented View full abstract»

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  • A fast full-wave analysis of scattering and radiation from large finite arrays of microstrip antennas

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1467 - 1474
    Cited by:  Papers (58)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB)  

    A fast full-wave analysis technique that can be used to analyze the scattering and radiation from large finite arrays of microstrip antennas is presented. The technique discretizes the mixed potential integral equation (MPIE) in the spatial domain by means of a full-wave discrete complex image method. The del operators on the Green's functions are transferred from the singular kernel to the expansion and testing functions. The resultant system of equations is solved using the biconjugate gradient (BCG) method in which the matrix-vector product is evaluated efficiently using the fast Fourier transform (FFT). This results in an efficient and accurate computation of the scattering and radiation from finite arrays of microstrip antennas. Several numerical results are presented, demonstrating the accuracy, efficiency, and capability of this technique View full abstract»

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  • The analysis of general axially symmetric antennas with a coaxial feed line by the method of lines

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1433 - 1443
    Cited by:  Papers (53)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (564 KB)  

    The use of the method of lines in the analysis of various circular antennas-circular patch antennas and various forms of monopoles is proposed and substantiated. The antennas considered are fed by coaxial lines. Impedance/admittance transfer procedures are developed, which allow to calculate the antenna input impedance by a successive transfer from the aperture through the different sections. The described relations are also useful for other applications View full abstract»

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  • Plane wave scattering by slots on a ground plane loaded with semicircular dielectric cylinders in case of oblique incidence and arbitrary polarization

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1571 - 1579
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB)  

    Plane wave scattering by single or double slots loaded with semicircular dielectric cylinders is investigated in the most general case of oblique incidence and arbitrary polarization. To this end, systems of singular integral-integrodifferential equations of the first kind are constructed and discretized on the basis of recently developed algorithms. Several internal tests and extensive comparisons with available results were made in order to validate the numerical codes. Plotted results both for the surface magnetic current densities and the radar cross sections reveal how the scattering properties may be controlled by changing several physical and geometrical parameters of the structure View full abstract»

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  • Model-based prediction of amplitude scintillation variance due to clear-air tropospheric turbulence on Earth-satellite microwave links

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1506 - 1518
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (100)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB)  

    A statistical method to predict tropospheric amplitude scintillation parameters along Earth-space microwave links from meteorological data is proposed. The evaluation of the mean value and the variance of the refractive-index structure constant and of the scintillation power (i.e. the variance of the log-amplitude fluctuations of the received electromagnetic field) is carried out from conventional radio-sounding measurements. A large radio-sounding data set, collected in Northern Italy over ten years is utilized to simulate clear-air amplitude scintillation variance at microwaves and millimeter-waves on slant paths. Scintillation statistics of interest for link-budget design are also derived from the radio-sounding data set for short and long-term applications. Scintillation prediction formulas, based on measurements of surface temperature and relative humidity, are also derived and regression coefficient tables are given on an hourly and a monthly basis. Comparisons of short-term and long-term prediction results with Olympus down-link measurements at 19.8 GHz are shown and discussed. A model investigation about the statistical correlation between scintillation power and brightness temperature is performed, deriving an extension of the estimation methods to include integrated water vapor measurements from ground-based microwave radiometers View full abstract»

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  • Resistive and conductive tube boundary condition models for material wire-shaped scatterers

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1548 - 1554
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (252 KB)  

    An equivalent boundary condition model is introduced for computing the scattering by material wire-shaped scatterers which are either dielectric or magnetic, but not both simultaneously. While the methodology for numerically computing the scattering by perfectly conducting thin-wire scatterers has been developed for decades, no simple model for material scatterers with large length-to-radius ratios (wire shapes) has been available. This new model can be easily integrated into existing thin-wire computer codes while adding virtually no computational burden. Validating results are shown using comparisons of the full-wave scattering from a number of thin wire-shaped dielectric and magnetic structures with this new equivalent boundary condition model. It is demonstrated that this model is, in essence, an extension of the internal impedance expression for a conducting wire (developed over 50 years ago) to simple-material wire-shaped scatterers possessing a very wide range of material parameters View full abstract»

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  • New equations for electromagnetic scattering by small perturbations of a perfectly conducting surface

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1427 - 1432
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (236 KB)  

    New equations are derived for the electromagnetic scattering produced by a small perturbation of a general perfectly conducting surface. These equations explicitly incorporate the magnetic field boundary condition on the general surface, which implies that the new Born term by itself leads to conventional backscatter formulas. The accuracy of the new equations is demonstrated by an example View full abstract»

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  • RF characterization of an inflatable parabolic torus reflector antenna for space-borne applications

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1449 - 1457
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1372 KB)  

    Space-borne satellite applications provide a vast array of services extending from global connectivity to Earth observation systems. The soil moisture radiation mission is a proposed space-borne passive microwave system complementary to the existing Earth observing system operating at low microwave frequencies and requiring an antenna with multibeam, high-beam efficiency, and dual polarization capabilities. To achieve both the large reflector size and the multibeam pattern at the operational frequencies an innovative multibeam reflector antenna design was needed. The advances in inflatable antenna technology has been proposed to overcome the launch vehicle size and weight restrictions. This paper describes a novel offset parabolic torus reflector antenna design that produces the desired multibeam pattern and is compatible with the inflatable antenna technology. Using the system requirements of this mission as an example, the design process for an inflatable parabolic torus reflector antenna is outlined, the development of suitable distortion models is given, and representative RF characteristics are presented. These RF characteristics include far-field patterns, beam contour patterns, beam efficiency, and other key performance parameters. The development of an advanced analytical modeling/numerical tool in support of the design effort is also detailed View full abstract»

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  • Generalized decomposition of electromagnetic fields in bi-anisotropic media

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1584 - 1585
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (72 KB)  

    TE/TM decomposition of electromagnetic fields, with respect to one special direction in space, is well known to be valid for fields in isotropic and uniaxially anisotropic media. The theory was recently generalized to bi-anisotropic media by defining the decomposition for linear combinations of electric and magnetic fields with respect to two vectors. In the present paper, the theory is further generalized by defining the decomposition with respect to four vectors (two six-vectors), which restrict the polarizations of the decomposed electromagnetic fields. It is shown that the class of bi-anisotropic media in which electromagnetic fields can be decomposed into two independent electromagnetic fields (a-field and b-field) is more general than in all previous decomposition theories. It is also shown that the decomposed a- and b-fields see the original bi-anisotropic medium as simpler equivalent ones (aand b-media) for which analytic Green dyadics were previously derived by these authors View full abstract»

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  • Scattering properties of circular cylinders with periodical corrugations in the azimuthal direction

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1589 - 1590
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (80 KB)  

    A multilayered mode-matching method incorporating reflection matrices is developed to study the scattering properties of conducting cylinders with periodical corrugations in the azimuthal direction. The effects of corrugation profile and filling permittivity on the radar cross section (RCS) are demonstrated View full abstract»

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  • Scattering and radiation from a slitted parallel-plate with rectangular grooves: TE-wave

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1444 - 1448
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (308 KB)  

    TE-wave scattering and radiation from a slitted parallel-plate waveguide with rectangular grooves is considered. The Fourier transform and the mode matching are used to represent the scattered field in terms of the continuous and discrete modes. The simultaneous equations for the discrete modal coefficients are obtained by matching the boundary conditions. The fast-converging series solutions are presented to evaluate the far-zone radiation, reflection, and transmission coefficients. The numerical computations illustrate the angular behavior of far-zone radiation in terms of the slit size, groove size, and operating frequency. The antenna radiation pattern of the slitted parallel-plate is measured and compared with theory View full abstract»

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  • A fictitious domain method for conformal modeling of the perfect electric conductors in the FDTD method

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1519 - 1526
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB)  

    We present a fictitious domain method to avoid the staircase approximation in the study of perfect electric conductors (PEC) in the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The idea is to extend the electromagnetic field inside the PEC and to introduce a new unknown, the surface electric current density to ensure the vanishing of the tangential components of the electric field on the boundary of the PEC. This requires the use of two independent meshes: a regular three-dimensional (3-D) cubic lattice for the electromagnetic field and a triangular surface-patching for the surface electric current density. The intersection of these two meshes gives a simple coupling law between the electric field and the surface electric current density. An interesting property of this method is that it provides the surface electric current density at each time step. Furthermore, this method looks like FDTD with a special model for the PEC. Numerical results for several objects are presented View full abstract»

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  • A complete electromagnetic simulation of the separated-aperture sensor for detecting buried land mines

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1419 - 1426
    Cited by:  Papers (44)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB)  

    The detection of buried land mines is a problem of military and humanitarian importance. Electromagnetic (EM) sensors (ground-penetrating radars) use signals at radio and microwave frequencies for this purpose. In the past, EM sensors for land-mine detection have been empirically developed and optimized. This has involved experimental tests that are complicated, time consuming, and expensive. An alternative is to carry out initial development and optimization using accurate numerical simulations. One objective of this paper is to show, for the first time, that such simulations can be done using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The separated-aperture sensor has been under investigation by the United States Army for land-mine detection for many years. It consists of two parallel dipole antennas housed in corner reflectors that are separated by a metallic septum. It is a continuous-wave sensor tuned to a particular frequency (typically 790 MHz). When the sensor is over empty ground, the coupling between the antennas is very small. As the sensor is moved over a buried mine, the coupling between the antennas increases indicating the presence of the mine. In this paper, the complete EM system composed of the separated-aperture sensor, air and soil, and buried land mine is modeled using the FDTD method. The finite computational volume is truncated with an absorbing boundary condition: the generalized perfectly matched layer. Detailed studies made with the simulation increase the understanding of this sensor. Results computed from the simulation are in good agreement with experimental measurements View full abstract»

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  • Extrapolation methods for Sommerfeld integral tails

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1405 - 1418
    Cited by:  Papers (108)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (404 KB)  

    A review is presented of the extrapolation methods for accelerating the convergence of Sommerfeld-type integrals (i.e. semi-infinite range integrals with Bessel function kernels), which arise in problems involving antennas or scatterers embedded in planar multilayered media. Attention is limited to partition-extrapolation procedures in which the Sommerfeld integral is evaluated as a sum of a series of partial integrals over finite subintervals and is accelerated by an extrapolation method applied over the real-axis tail segment (α,∞) of the integration path, where α>0 is selected to ensure that the integrand is well behaved. An analytical form of the asymptotic truncation error (or the remainder), which characterizes the convergence properties of the sequence of partial sums and serves as a basis for some of the most efficient extrapolation methods, is derived. Several extrapolation algorithms deemed to be the most suitable for the Sommerfeld integrals are described and their performance is compared. It is demonstrated that the performance of these methods is strongly affected by the horizontal displacement of the source and field points ρ and by the choice of the subinterval break points. Furthermore, it is found that some well-known extrapolation techniques may fail for a number of values of ρ and ways to remedy this are suggested. Finally, the most effective extrapolation methods for accelerating Sommerfeld integral tails are recommended View full abstract»

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  • Radiation characteristics of an infinite dielectric-coated axially slotted cylindrical antenna partly embedded in a ground plane

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1542 - 1547
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (260 KB)  

    The radiation characteristics of an axial slot on a dielectric-coated conducting circular cylinder embedded in a semi-circle in an infinite ground plane (GP) are examined. The boundary-value method is employed to obtain the solution with the aid of the partial orthogonality of the trigonometric functions. The resulting dual infinite series involved in the solution is then truncated to generate numerical results. The geometry considered here is important because it can be implemented on the body of any mobile communication system. Moreover the GP adds a new parameter to the slotted dielectric-coated conducting circular cylindrical antenna and can be used in beam shaping and to enhance the antenna performance View full abstract»

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  • Complex image model for ground-penetrating radar antennas

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1483 - 1488
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (136 KB)  

    A method of combining the complex image method with the constant Q assumption is derived, which enables the calculation of complex image parameters once for the whole frequency range in the general half-space case. The mixed potential method of moments is then used to model horizontal wire dipoles near a lossy half-space, using pulse-basis functions and point matching. The method is demonstrated by the modeling of two types of wire dipole. A conductive half-wave dipole shows excellent agreement with NEC-S. The current distribution of a 3.4 m resistively loaded dipole across the frequency range 0-512 MHz is also calculated and transformed to the time domain. The result agrees with published measurements. The time required on a workstation was reduced to 4/s per frequency point View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation includes theoretical and experimental advances in antennas.

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Editor-in-Chief                                                 Kwok W. Leung