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Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date Sept. 1998

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Displaying Results 1 - 15 of 15
  • Guest Editorial

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 521 - 524
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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  • Simplified modal analysis and search for reliable shape retrieval

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 656 - 666
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (308 KB)  

    We present the application of a simplified shape analysis technique based on a modal representation of the object shape, and which is useful for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of shape-driven searches in image databases. The proposed method computes the representation of an object by means of modes very similar to the deformation modes of a mechanical system, but in a numerically more stable way than the usual finite-element method approach. Moreover, to make the technique for the visual search more effective, many different definitions of similarity indexes are introduced and discussed. The problems related to the comparison between objects represented by a very different number of feature points are also discussed. Finally, to prove the effectiveness of the approach, the indexes are studied in a simple case study (a small database of character shapes). However, their performance on a larger image database is also addressed, as well as the ability of the method to efficiently assess the problem of retrieving images similar to a user-defined sketch View full abstract»

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  • Video segmentation based on multiple features for interactive multimedia applications

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 562 - 571
    Cited by:  Papers (48)  |  Patents (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (220 KB)  

    We present a scheme for interactive video segmentation. A key feature of the system is the distinction between two levels of segmentation, namely, regions and object segmentation. Regions are homogeneous areas of the images, which are extracted automatically by the computer. Semantically meaningful objects are obtained through user interaction by grouping of regions according to the specific application. This splitting relieves the computer of ill-posed semantic problems, and allows a higher level of flexibility of the method. The extraction of regions is based on the multidimensional analysis of several image features by a spatially constrained fuzzy C-means algorithm. The local level of reliability of the different features is taken into account in order to adaptively weight the contribution of each feature to the segmentation process. Results on the extraction of regions as well as on the tracking of spatiotemporal objects are presented View full abstract»

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  • Unsupervised video segmentation based on watersheds and temporal tracking

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 539 - 546
    Cited by:  Papers (113)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1504 KB)  

    This paper presents a technique for unsupervised video segmentation. This technique consists of two phases: initial segmentation and temporal tracking, similar to a number of existing techniques. However, new algorithms for spatial segmentation, marker extraction, and modified watershed transformation are proposed for the present technique. The new algorithms make this technique differ from existing techniques by the following features: (1) it can effectively track fast moving objects, (2) it can detect the appearance of new objects as well as the disappearance of existing objects, and (3) it is computationally efficient because of the use of watershed transformations and a fast motion estimation algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed technique can efficiently segment video sequences with fast moving, newly appearing, or disappearing objects in the scene View full abstract»

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  • Trifocal motion modeling for object-based video compression and manipulation

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 667 - 685
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (3)
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    Following an overview of two-dimensional (2-D) parametric motion models commonly used in video manipulation and compression, we introduce trifocal transfer, which is an image-based scene representation used in computer vision, as a motion compensation method that uses three frames at a time to implicitly capture camera/scene motion and scene depth. Trifocal transfer requires a trifocal tensor that is computed by matching image features across three views and a dense correspondence between two of the three views. We propose approximating the dense correspondence between two of the three views by a parametric model in order to apply the trifocal transfer for object-based video compression and background mosaic generation. Backward, forward, and bidirectional motion compensation methods based on trifocal transfer are presented. The performance of the proposed motion compensation approaches using the trifocal model has been compared with various other compensation methods, such as dense motion, block motion, and global affine transform on several video sequences. Finally, video compression and mosaic synthesis based on the trifocal motion model are implemented within the MPEG-4 Video Verification Model (VM), and the results are compared with those of the standard MPEG-4 video VM. Experimental results show that the trifocal motion model is superior to block and affine models when there is depth variation and camera translation View full abstract»

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  • Relevance feedback: a power tool for interactive content-based image retrieval

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 644 - 655
    Cited by:  Papers (496)  |  Patents (24)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB)  

    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) has become one of the most active research areas in the past few years. Many visual feature representations have been explored and many systems built. While these research efforts establish the basis of CBIR, the usefulness of the proposed approaches is limited. Specifically, these efforts have relatively ignored two distinct characteristics of CBIR systems: (1) the gap between high-level concepts and low-level features, and (2) the subjectivity of human perception of visual content. This paper proposes a relevance feedback based interactive retrieval approach, which effectively takes into account the above two characteristics in CBIR. During the retrieval process, the user's high-level query and perception subjectivity are captured by dynamically updated weights based on the user's feedback. The experimental results over more than 70000 images show that the proposed approach greatly reduces the user's effort of composing a query, and captures the user's information need more precisely View full abstract»

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  • Semiautomatic segmentation and tracking of semantic video objects

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 572 - 584
    Cited by:  Papers (93)  |  Patents (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (376 KB)  

    This paper introduces a novel semantic video object extraction system using mathematical morphology and a perspective motion model. Inspired by the results from the study of the human visual system, we intend to solve the semantic video object extraction problem in two separate steps: supervised I-frame segmentation, and unsupervised P-frame tracking. First, the precise semantic video object boundary can be found using a combination of human assistance and a morphological segmentation tool. Second, the semantic video objects in the remaining frames are obtained using global perspective motion estimation and compensation of the previous semantic video object plus boundary refinement as used for I frames View full abstract»

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  • Summarization of videotaped presentations: automatic analysis of motion and gesture

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 686 - 696
    Cited by:  Papers (31)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB)  

    This paper presents an automatic system for analyzing and annotating video sequences of technical talks. Our method uses a robust motion estimation technique to detect key frames and segment the video sequence into subsequences containing a single overhead slide. The subsequences are stabilized to remove motion that occurs when the speaker adjusts their slides. Any changes remaining between frames in the stabilized sequences may be due to speaker gestures such as pointing or writing, and we use active contours to automatically track these potential gestures. Given the constrained domain, we define a simple set of actions that can be recognized based on the active contour shape and motion. The recognized actions provide an annotation of the sequence that can be used to access a condensed version of the talk from a Web page View full abstract»

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  • Automatic segmentation of moving objects for video object plane generation

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 525 - 538
    Cited by:  Papers (106)  |  Patents (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB)  

    The new video coding standard MPEG-4 is enabling content-based functionalities. It takes advantage of a prior decomposition of sequences into video object planes (VOPs) so that each VOP represents one moving object. A comprehensive review summarizes some of the most important motion segmentation and VOP generation techniques that have been proposed. Then, a new automatic video sequence segmentation algorithm that extracts moving objects is presented. The core of this algorithm is an object tracker that matches a two-dimensional (2-D) binary model of the object against subsequent frames using the Hausdorff distance. The best match found indicates the translation the object has undergone, and the model is updated every frame to accommodate for rotation and changes in shape. The initial model is derived automatically, and a new model update method based on the concept of moving connected components allows for comparatively large changes in shape. The proposed algorithm is improved by a filtering technique that removes stationary background. Finally, the binary model sequence guides the extraction objects of the VOPs from the sequence. Experimental results demonstrate the performance of our algorithm View full abstract»

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  • NeTra-V: toward an object-based video representation

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 616 - 627
    Cited by:  Papers (39)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB)  

    We present a prototype video analysis and retrieval system, called NeTra-V, that is being developed to build an object-based video representation for functionalities such as search and retrieval of video objects. A region-based content description scheme using low-level visual descriptors is proposed. In order to obtain regions for local feature extraction, a new spatio-temporal segmentation and region-tracking scheme is employed. The segmentation algorithm uses all three visual features: color, texture, and motion in the video data. A group processing scheme similar to the one in the MPEG-2 standard is used to ensure the robustness of the segmentation. The proposed approach can handle complex scenes with large motion. After segmentation, regions are tracked through the video sequence using extracted local features. The results of tracking are sequences of coherent regions, called “subobjects”. Subobjects are the fundamental elements in our low-level content description scheme, which can be used to obtain meaningful physical objects in a high-level content description scheme. Experimental results illustrating segmentation and retrieval are provided View full abstract»

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  • A fully automated content-based video search engine supporting spatiotemporal queries

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 602 - 615
    Cited by:  Papers (143)  |  Patents (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (468 KB)  

    The rapidity with which digital information, particularly video, is being generated has necessitated the development of tools for efficient search of these media. Content-based visual queries have been primarily focused on still image retrieval. In this paper, we propose a novel, interactive system on the Web, based on the visual paradigm, with spatiotemporal attributes playing a key role in video retrieval. We have developed innovative algorithms for automated video object segmentation and tracking, and use real-time video editing techniques while responding to user queries. The resulting system, called VideoQ , is the first on-line video search engine supporting automatic object-based indexing and spatiotemporal queries. The system performs well, with the user being able to retrieve complex video clips such as those of skiers and baseball players with ease View full abstract»

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  • Tracking multiple nonrigid objects in video sequences

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 585 - 591
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (832 KB)  

    This paper presents a method to track multiple nonrigid objects in video sequences. First, we present related works on tracking methods. Second, we describe our proposed approach. We use the notion of target to represent the perception of object motion. To handle the particularities of nonrigid objects we define a target as an individually tracked moving region or as a group of moving regions globally tracked. Then we explain how to compute the trajectory of a target and how to compute the correspondences between known targets and moving regions newly detected. In the case of an ambiguous correspondence we define a compound target to freeze the associations between targets and moving regions until a more accurate information is available. Finally we provide an example to illustrate the way we have implemented the proposed tracking method for video-surveillance applications View full abstract»

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  • A new approach to image retrieval with hierarchical color clustering

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 628 - 643
    Cited by:  Papers (29)  |  Patents (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB)  

    After performing a thorough comparison of different quantization schemes in the RGB, HSV, YUV, and CIEL*u*v* color spaces, we propose to use color features obtained by hierarchical color clustering based on a pruned octree data structure to achieve efficient and robust image retrieval. With the proposed method, multiple color features, including the dominant color, the number of distinctive colors, and the color histogram, can be naturally integrated into one framework. A selective filtering strategy is also described to speed up the retrieval process. Retrieval examples are given to illustrate the performance of the proposed approach View full abstract»

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  • 3-D model-based segmentation of videoconference image sequences

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 547 - 561
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (548 KB)  

    This paper describes a three-dimensional (3-D) model-based unsupervised procedure for the segmentation of multiview image sequences using multiple sources of information. The 3-D model is initialized by accurate adaptation of a two-dimensional wireframe model to the foreground object of one of the views. The articulation procedure is based on the homogeneity of parameters, such as rigid 3-D motion, color, and depth, estimated for each subobject, which consists of a number of interconnected triangles of the 3-D model. The rigid 3-D motion of each subobject for subsequent frames is estimated using a Kalman filtering algorithm, taking into account the temporal correlation between consecutive frames. Information from all cameras is combined during the formation of the equations for the rigid 3-D motion parameters. The threshold used in the object segmentation procedure is updated at each iteration using the histogram of the subobject parameters. The parameter estimation for each subobject and the 3-D model segmentation procedures are interleaved and repeated iteratively until a satisfactory object segmentation emerges. The performance of the resulting segmentation method is evaluated experimentally View full abstract»

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  • A block-based MAP segmentation for image compressions

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 592 - 601
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (284 KB)  

    A novel block-based image segmentation algorithm using the maximum a posteriori (MAP) criterion is proposed. The conditional probability in the MAP criterion, which is formulated by the Bayesian framework, is in charge of classifying image blocks into edge, monotone, and textured blocks. On the other hand, the a priori probability is responsible for edge connectivity and homogeneous region continuity. After a few iterations to achieve a deterministic MAP optimization, we can obtain a block-based segmented image in terms of edge, monotone, or textured blocks. Then, using a connected block-labeling algorithm, we can assign a number to all connected homogeneous blocks to define an interior of a region. Finally, uncertainty blocks, which are not given any region number yet, are assigned to one of the neighboring homogeneous regions by a block-based region-growing method. During this process, we can also check the balance between the accuracy and the cost of the contour coding by adjusting the size of the uncertainty blocks. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm yields larger homogeneous regions which are suitable for the object-based image compression View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The emphasis is focused on, but not limited to:
1. Video A/D and D/ A
2. Video Compression Techniques and Signal Processing
3. Multi-Dimensional Filters and Transforms
4. High Speed Real-Tune Circuits
5. Multi-Processors Systems—Hardware and Software
6. VLSI Architecture and Implementation for Video Technology 

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dan Schonfeld
Multimedia Communications Laboratory
ECE Dept. (M/C 154)
University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC)
Chicago, IL 60607-7053
tcsvt-eic@tcad.polito.it

Managing Editor
Jaqueline Zelkowitz
tcsvt@tcad.polito.it