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Robotics and Automation, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Aug 1998

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Displaying Results 1 - 16 of 16
  • An evidential approach to map-building for autonomous vehicles

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 623 - 629
    Cited by:  Papers (52)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (588 KB)  

    We examine the problem of constructing and maintaining a map of an autonomous vehicle's environment for the purpose of navigation, using evidential reasoning. The inherent uncertainty in the origin of measurements of sensors demands a probabilistic approach to processing, or fusing, the new sensory information to build an accurate map. In the paper, the map is based on a two-dimensional (2-D) occupancy grid. The sensor readings are fused into the map using the Dempster-Shafer inference rule. This evidential approach with its multivalued hypotheses allows quantitative analysis of the quality of the data. The map building system is experimentally evaluated using sonar data from real environments View full abstract»

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  • Fault tolerance for kinematically redundant manipulators: anticipating free-swinging joint failures

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 566 - 575
    Cited by:  Papers (29)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB)  

    Fault tolerance is an important design criterion for robotic systems operating in hazardous or remote environments. This article addresses the issue of tolerating a free-swinging joint failure by focusing on how to best configure a slow-moving manipulator before a failure. Three scalar measures of fault susceptibility are defined using joint torques/forces, accelerations, and swing angles. Minimizing these measures is an approach to achieving fault tolerance, and for this, algorithms to calculate their gradients are also given. The formulas are valid for general n-link manipulators View full abstract»

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  • Sliding and hopping gaits for the underactuated Acrobot

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 629 - 634
    Cited by:  Papers (32)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB)  

    An example of a planar hopping robot is considered, which has only one actuated joint. Simulations demonstrate that the robot can perform both sliding and hopping gaits, despite the fact that almost all other hopping robots have at least two actuated joints View full abstract»

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  • Force reflecting telemanipulators with time-delay: stability analysis and control design

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 635 - 640
    Cited by:  Papers (43)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (252 KB)  

    Two results concerning the control of force-reflecting teleoperation systems with time-delays are presented. The first result consists of a general framework for stability analysis of such systems. This analysis is performed on the basis of methods developed for linear time-delay systems, here extended and applied to the case of teleoperation schemes. The analysis shows whether the overall system is asymptotically stable independently of time-delay, or determines the maximum time-delay which guarantees asymptotic stability. The second issue discussed in the paper is the design of a control law able, under proper conditions, to stabilize the time-delay teleoperator. Examples of application of the stability criteria are discussed and experimental results of the control law are given View full abstract»

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  • Desingularization of nonredundant serial manipulator trajectories using Puiseux series

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 590 - 600
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB)  

    It is shown that smooth spatial paths for nonredundant serial robots can always be smoothly reparametrized in the vicinity of kinematic singularities with finite root multiplicity using a Puiseux series. This reparametrization, based on the algebraic structure of the manipulator kinematics, is formed using the νth root of the path parameter distance to the singularity, where ν is some integer not exceeding the root multiplicity of the singularity. By contrast, self-motion singularities, which have infinite root multiplicity, do not possess such a reparametrization. However, smooth motions directly through such singularities are generally possible because approaching path solutions are unaffected by them. These results help quantify how joint derivatives blow up at singularities, and can readily be used to generate singularity-robust motions along any path, with no spatial error. This is illustrated with an example involving the PUMA manipulator View full abstract»

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  • Visually guided object grasping

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 525 - 532
    Cited by:  Papers (51)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (204 KB)  

    We present a visual serving approach to the problem of object grasping and more generally, to the problem of aligning an end-effector with an object. First, we extend the method proposed by Espiau et al. (1992) to the case of a camera which is not mounted onto the robot being controlled, and we stress the importance of the real-time estimation of the image Jacobian. Next, we show how to represent a grasp or more generally, an alignment between two solids in 3D projective space using an uncalibrated stereo rig. Such a 3D projective representation is view-invariant in the sense that it can be easily mapped into an image set-point without any knowledge about the camera parameters. Finally, we perform an analysis of the performances of the visual servoing algorithm and of the grasping precision that can be expected from this type of approach View full abstract»

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  • On the symmetric location problem

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 533 - 540
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (268 KB)  

    Accurate and efficient localization of symmetric features plays an important role in dimensional inspection of machined parts and machining of partially finished workpieces. We present a geometric theory for efficient and accurate localization of symmetric features. First, we show that the configuration space of a symmetric feature can be naturally identified with the homogeneous space SE(3/)Go of the Euclidean group SE(3/), where Gsub o/ is the symmetry group of the feature. Then, we explore the geometric structure of the homogeneous space and present a simple and unifying algorithm for symmetric localization. Finally, we give simulation results illustrating several unique features of the algorithm: 1) implementational simplicity; 2) robustness with respect to initial conditions; 3) high accuracy in computed results; and 4) computational efficiency View full abstract»

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  • Hand/eye calibration for electronic assembly robots

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 612 - 616
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (148 KB)  

    This paper investigates a special case of the hand/eye calibration problem, in which the sensor is mounted on an electronic assembly robot, such as a SCARA arm. We restrict our discussion to the case that the end-effector of the robot has three degrees of freedom in translation and one degree of freedom in rotation. A new linear solution method for the problem of hand/eye calibration is given in the paper. An iterative method is also proposed to improve the accuracy of calibration. Both approaches allow the calibration data to be measured while the robot moves arbitrarily in its workspace. Simulation and experimental studies confirm the effectiveness of the methods View full abstract»

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  • Simultaneous robot-world and hand-eye calibration

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 617 - 622
    Cited by:  Papers (45)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (212 KB)  

    Zhuang et al. (1994) proposed a method that allows simultaneous computation of the rigid transformations from world frame to robot base frame and from hand frame to camera frame. Their method attempts to solve a homogeneous matrix equation of the for, AX=ZB. They use quaternions to derive explicit linear solution for X and Z. In this paper, we present two new solutions that attempt to solve the homogeneous matrix equation mentioned above: 1) a closed-form method which uses quaternion algebra and a positive quadratic error function associated with this representation; 2) a method based on nonlinear constrained minimization and which simultaneously solves for rotations and translations. These results may be useful to other problems that can be formulated in the same mathematical form. We perform a sensitivity analysis for both our two methods and the linear method developed by Zhuang et al. This analysis allows the comparison of the three methods. In the light of this comparison, the nonlinear optimization method, which solves for rotations and translations simultaneously, seems to be the most stable one with respect to noise and to measurement errors View full abstract»

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  • Design and experimental validation of an odometric and goniometric localization system for outdoor robot vehicles

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 541 - 548
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (196 KB)  

    A 2D mobile robot localization system which uses odometry and the azimuth angles of known landmarks is presented. Observability analysis helps to determine situations where such a system may undergo difficulties, and gives information on its behavior when one of the beacons is hidden. Experimental results are presented View full abstract»

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  • Practical pushing planning for rearrangement tasks

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 549 - 565
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB)  

    We address the problem of practical manipulation planning for rearrangement tasks of many movable objects. We study a special case of the rearrangement task, where the only allowed manipulation is pushing. We search for algorithms that can provide practical planning time for most common scenarios. We present a hierarchical classification of manipulation problems into several classes, each characterized by properties of the plans that can solve it. Such a classification allows one to consider each class individually, to analyze and exploit properties of each class, and to suggest individual planning methods accordingly. Following this classification, we suggest algorithms for two of the defined classes. Both items have been tested in a simulated environment, with up to 32 movable objects and 66 combined DOF. We present the simulations results as well as some experimental results using a real platform View full abstract»

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  • Redesign of hybrid adaptive/robust motion control of rigid-link electrically-driven robot manipulators

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 651 - 655
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (196 KB)  

    In Su and Stepanenko (1995), a hybrid adaptive controller for rigid-link electrically-driven robot manipulators was proposed. Semi-global asymptotic stability of the controller was established in the Lyapunov sense. However, there are two limitations in it. One is that the controller requires the joint velocity measurements, that with the required accuracy can be difficult to realize in practical applications. The other one assumes the boundedness of estimated inertia parameters of the manipulator in order to reduce the computation complexity. In this paper, we propose a modification of the hybrid adaptive controller, which eliminate the above-mentioned limitations. Hence the range of applicability of the method in the above article can be greatly broadened. The capabilities of the proposed control strategies are illustrated through computer simulation View full abstract»

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  • Unified formulation of robotic systems with holonomic and nonholonomic constraints

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 640 - 650
    Cited by:  Papers (40)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB)  

    Many robotic systems are subject to nonholonomic as well as holonomic constraints. Rolling contact between two rigid bodies is a typical example of such a system. In the study, a unified state space formulation of robotic systems subject to both holonomic and nonholonomic constraints is presented. The position-level holonomic constraints are first replaced by a set of velocity-level constraint equations that asymptotically converge to the original holonomic constraints. Having represented both holonomic and nonholonomic constraints in a common form, a state space representation of the constrained systems is then developed. A numerical algorithm for implementing the state space representation is also described. The proposed formulation eliminates the need to solve holonomic constraints either analytically or numerically, and ensures that holonomic constraints are always satisfied, particularly in computer simulations. The formulation makes it possible to treat systems with holonomic constraints, with nonholonomic constraints, or with both holonomic and nonholonomic constraints in a unified framework. Two examples are presented to illustrate the application of the unified formulation View full abstract»

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  • On the generation of smooth three-dimensional rigid body motions

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 576 - 589
    Cited by:  Papers (34)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB)  

    This paper addresses the problem of generating smooth trajectories between an initial and a final position and orientation in space. The main idea is to define a functional depending on velocity or its derivatives that measures smoothness of trajectories and find a trajectory that minimizes this functional. In order to ensure that the computed trajectories are independent of the parametrization of positions and orientations, we use the notions of Riemannian metric and covariant derivative from differential geometry and formulate the problem as a variational problem on the Lie group of spatial rigid body displacements. We show that by choosing an appropriate measure of smoothness, the trajectories can be made to satisfy boundary conditions on the velocities or higher order derivatives. Dynamically smooth trajectories can be obtained by incorporating the inertia of the system into the definition of the Riemannian metric. We state the necessary conditions for the shortest distance, minimum acceleration and minimum jerk trajectories View full abstract»

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  • Manufacturing flexibility measurement: a fuzzy logic framework

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 513 - 524
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB)  

    Flexibility is recognized as an important feature in manufacturing. This paper suggests a knowledge-based methodology for the measurement of manufacturing flexibility. We claim that flexibility is an inherently vague notion and an essential requirement in its measurement is the involvement of human perception and belief. Nine different flexibility types are measured, while the overall flexibility is given as the combined effect of these types. Knowledge is represented via IF (fuzzy antecedents) THEN (fuzzy consequent) rules, which are used to model the functional dependencies between operational characteristics, such as setup time and cost, versatility, part variety, transfer speed, etc. The proposed scheme is illustrated through an example View full abstract»

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  • An analytical and experimental investigation of a jet pipe controlled electropneumatic actuator

    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 601 - 611
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB)  

    In analytical and experimental investigation of a jet pipe controlled electropneumatic servoactuator designed for use in the Utah/MIT dextrous hand has been performed. An accurate dynamic model has been developed and verified which includes detailed representation of the jet pipe element, orifice areas and fluid flows. The effects and modeling of hysteresis in the jet pipe are discussed. Actuator saturation is shown to be an obstacle in achieving high bandwidth. Theoretical and experimental results are presented for frequency response and time-domain force tracking View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased production in 2004. The current retitled publications areIEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering and IEEE Transactions on Robotics.

Full Aims & Scope