Proceedings 38th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science

20-22 Oct. 1997

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  • Proceedings 38th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science

    Publication Year: 1997
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Author index

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):605 - 606
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Finding an even hole in a graph

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):480 - 485
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (492 KB)

    A hole in a graph is a chordless cycle of length greater than three. In this paper we present a decomposition theorem for graphs that contain no even hole. This theorem yields a polytime algorithm to recognize whether a graph contains an even hole View full abstract»

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  • An improved worst-case to average-case connection for lattice problems

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):468 - 477
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (852 KB)

    We improve a connection of the worst-case complexity and the average-case complexity of some well-known lattice problems. This fascinating connection was first discovered by Ajtai (1995). We improve the exponent of this connection from 8 to 3.5+ε View full abstract»

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  • Number-theoretic constructions of efficient pseudo-random functions

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):458 - 467
    Cited by:  Papers (37)  |  Patents (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (908 KB)

    We describe efficient constructions for various cryptographic primitives (both in private-key and in public-key cryptography). We show these constructions to be at least as secure as the decisional version of the Diffie-Hellman assumption or as the assumption that factoring is hard. Our major result is a new construction of pseudo-random functions such that computing their value at any given point... View full abstract»

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  • Parallelizing elimination orders with linear fill

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):274 - 283
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1080 KB)

    This paper presents an algorithm for finding parallel elimination orders for Gaussian elimination. Viewing a system of equations as a graph, the algorithm can be applied directly to interval graphs and chordal graphs. For general graphs, the algorithm can be used to parallelize the order produced by some other heuristic such as minimum degree. In this case, the algorithm is applied to the chordal ... View full abstract»

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  • A complete promise problem for statistical zero-knowledge

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):448 - 457
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (916 KB)

    We present a complete promise problem for SZK, the class of languages possessing statistical zero-knowledge proofs (against an honest verifier). The problem is to decide whether two efficiently samplable distributions are either statistically close or far apart. This characterizes SZK with no reference to interaction or zero-knowledge. From this theorem and its proof we are able to establish sever... View full abstract»

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  • Weak random sources, hitting sets, and BPP simulations

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):264 - 272
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (696 KB)

    We show how to simulate any BPP algorithm in polynomial time using a weak random source of min-entropy rγ for any γ>0. This follows from a more general result about sampling with weak random sources. Our result matches an information-theoretic lower bound and solves a question that has been open for some years. The previous best results were a polynomial time simulation o... View full abstract»

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  • Lower bounds for the signature size of incremental schemes

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):438 - 447
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (924 KB)

    We show lower bounds for the signature size of incremental schemes which are secure against substitution attacks and support single block replacement. We prove that for documents of n blocks such schemes produce signatures of Ω(n1(2+c)/) bits for any constant c>0. For schemes accessing only a single block resp. A constant number of blocks for each replacement this bound can be ... View full abstract»

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  • No feasible interpolation for TC0-Frege proofs

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):254 - 263
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (752 KB)

    The interpolation method has been one of the main tools for proving lower bounds for propositional proof systems. Loosely speaking, if one can prove that a particular proof system has the feasible interpolation property, then a generic reduction can (usually) be applied to prove lower bounds for the proof system, sometimes assuming a (usually modest) complexity-theoretic assumption. In this paper,... View full abstract»

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  • Improved approximation algorithms for unsplittable flow problems

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):426 - 436
    Cited by:  Papers (36)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1036 KB)

    In the single-source unsplittable flow problem we are given a graph G, a source vertex s and a set of sinks t1, ..., tk with associated demands. We seek a single s-ti flow path for each commodity i so that the demands are satisfied and the total flow routed across any edge e is bounded by its capacity ce . The problem is an NP-hard variant of max flow an... View full abstract»

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  • Making nondeterminism unambiguous

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):244 - 253
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (776 KB)

    We show that in the context of nonuniform complexity, nondeterministic logarithmic space bounded computation can be made unambiguous. An analogous result holds for the class of problems reducible to context-free languages. In terms of complexity classes, this can be stated as: NL/poly=UL/poly LogCFL/poly=UAuxPDA(log n, nO(1))/poly View full abstract»

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  • Improved approximations for edge-disjoint paths, unsplittable flow, and related routing problems

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):416 - 425
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (872 KB)

    We present improved approximation algorithms for a family of problems involving edge-disjoint paths and unsplittable flow, and for some related routing problems. The central theme of all our algorithms is the underlying multi-commodity flow relaxation View full abstract»

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  • Computable obstructions to wait-free computability

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):80 - 89
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (932 KB)

    Effectively computable obstructions are associated to a distributed decision task (ℐ,𝒪,Δ) in the asynchronous, wait-free, read-write shared-memory model. The key new ingredient of this work is the association of a simplicial complex 𝒯, the task complex, to the input-output relation d. The task determines a simplicial map α from 𝒯 to the input complex ℐ. The exi... View full abstract»

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  • The competitive analysis of risk taking with applications to online trading

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):336 - 344
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (660 KB)

    Competitive analysis is concerned with minimizing a relative measure of performance. When applied to financial trading strategies, competitive analysis leads to the development of strategies with minimum relative performance risk. This approach is too inflexible. Many investors are interested in managing their risk: they may be willing to increase their risk for some form of reward. They may also ... View full abstract»

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  • Separation of the monotone NC hierarchy

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):234 - 243
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (864 KB)

    We prove tight lower bounds, of up to nε, for the monotone depth of functions in monotone-P. As a result we achieve the separation of the following classes. 1. Monotone-NC≠monotone-P. 2. ∀i⩾1, monotone-NCi≠monotone-NCi+1. 3. More generally: For any integer function D(n), up to nε (for some ε>0), we give an explicit exa... View full abstract»

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  • A 7/8-approximation algorithm for MAX 3SAT?

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):406 - 415
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (884 KB)

    We describe a randomized approximation algorithm which takes an instance of MAX 3SAT as input. If the instance-a collection of clauses each of length at most three-is satisfiable, then the expected weight of the assignment found is at least 7/8 of optimal. We provide strong evidence (but not a proof) that the algorithm performs equally well on arbitrary MAX 3SAT instances. Our algorithm uses semid... View full abstract»

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  • Two Decades of Temporal Logic: Achievements and Challenges

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s): 78
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (104 KB)

    First Page of the Article
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  • Truly online paging with locality of reference

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):326 - 335
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (824 KB)

    The access graph model for paging, defined by (Borodin et al., 1991) and studied in (Irani et al., 1992) has a number of troubling aspects. The access graph has to be known in advance to the paging algorithm and the memory required to represent the access graph itself may be very large. We present a truly online strongly competitive paging algorithm in the access graph model that does not have any... View full abstract»

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  • Path coupling: A technique for proving rapid mixing in Markov chains

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):223 - 231
    Cited by:  Papers (49)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (764 KB)

    The main technique used in algorithm design for approximating heart of the method is the study of the convergence (mixing) rates of particular Markov chains of interest. In this paper we illustrate a new approach to the coupling technique, which we call path coupling, for bounding mixing rates. Previous applications of coupling have required detailed insights into the combinatorics of the problem ... View full abstract»

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  • A concrete security treatment of symmetric encryption

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):394 - 403
    Cited by:  Papers (143)  |  Patents (23)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (952 KB)

    We study notions and schemes for symmetric (ie. private key) encryption in a concrete security framework. We give four different notions of security against chosen plaintext attack and analyze the concrete complexity of reductions among them, providing both upper and lower bounds, and obtaining tight relations. In this way we classify notions (even though polynomially reducible to each other) as s... View full abstract»

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  • On the power of quantum finite state automata

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):66 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (72)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (816 KB)

    In this paper, we introduce 1-way and 2-way quantum finite state automata (1qfa's and 2qfa's), which are the quantum analogues of deterministic, nondeterministic and probabilistic 1-way and 2-way finite state automata. We prove the following facts regarding 2qfa's. 1. For any ε>0, there is a 2qfa M which recognizes the non-regular language L={ambm|m⩾1} with (one-s... View full abstract»

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  • Undirected single source shortest paths in linear time

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):12 - 21
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (900 KB)

    The single source shortest paths problem (SSSP) is one of the classic problems in algorithmic graph theory: given a weighted graph G with a source vertex s, find the shortest path from s to all other vertices in the graph. Since 1959 all theoretical developments in SSSP have been based on Dijkstra's algorithm, visiting the vertices in order of increasing distance from s. Thus, any implementation o... View full abstract»

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  • The computational complexity of knot and link problems

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):172 - 181
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (912 KB)

    We consider the problem of deciding whether a polygonal knot in 3-dimensional Euclidean space is unknotted (that is, whether it is capable of being continuously deformed without self-intersection so that it lies in a plane). We show that this problem, UNKNOTTING PROBLEM, is in NP. We also consider the problem, SPLITTING PROBLEM, of determining whether two or more such polygons can be split (that i... View full abstract»

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  • Hamiltonian cycles in solid grid graphs

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):496 - 505
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (824 KB)

    A grid graph is a finite node induced subgraph of the infinite two dimensional integer grid. A solid grid graph is a grid graph without holes. For general grid graphs, the Hamiltonian cycle problem is known to be NP complete. We give a polynomial time algorithm for the Hamiltonian cycle problem in solid grid graphs, resolving a longstanding open question posed by A. Itai et al. (1982). In fact, ou... View full abstract»

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