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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date Mar 1997

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 29
  • A spectral recursive transformation method for electromagnetic waves in generalized anisotropic layered media

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 520 - 526
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (260 KB)  

    A transition-matrix method is commonly used to deal with the problems of plane wave scattering from and the Green's function for multilayered generalized anisotropic media. The boundary conditions at the source interfaces are matched numerically. This method, although rigorous analytically, causes numerical singularities in the matrix inversion when the spectral fields are highly attenuating. A recursive variable transformation method is developed to deal with the exponentially growing or decaying terms associated with the spectral matrix method. The proposed scheme is suitable for numerical analysis of generalized anisotropic layers including uniaxial and biaxial materials, biased ferrites, magnetoplasmas, chiral and bi-anisotropic materials without increasing computer time. Applications of the recursive method are highlighted through examples of radiation and scattering from a three-layer ferrite structure and a conductor-backed magnetoplasma layer View full abstract»

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  • Efficient hybrid boundary contour mode-matching technique for the accurate full-wave analysis of circular horn antennas including the outer wall geometry

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 568 - 570
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (120 KB)  

    A hybrid boundary contour mode-matching (BCMM) method is described for the rigorous analysis of circular waveguide horns which combines the flexibility of the boundary contour (BC) technique for modeling the outer horn region with the efficiency of the mode-matching (MM) method for the internal horn section. A conical horn and a potter horn with an aperture diameter of about 3 λ are analyzed as examples. Excellent agreement with measurements verify the accuracy of the method View full abstract»

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  • Special Issue on Advanced Numerical Techniques in Electromagnetics Guest Editorial

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 313 - 315
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (32 KB)  

    First Page of the Article
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  • Application of numerical regularization options to the integral-equation analysis of printed antennas

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 570 - 572
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (88 KB)  

    In this letter, a novel numerical technique is applied to the analysis of printed antennas. The technique transforms the first-kind electric-field integral equation (EFIE) into a regularized second-kind equation, via extraction of two singular frequency-independent operators and their numerical inversion. Two options are presented in which the inversion is based on the eigenfunctions of these singular operators, that appear to be a generalization of the TM and TE modes of a magnetic-wall cavity, coupled by the edge singularities. The example of application shows favorable convergence properties View full abstract»

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  • A general method for FDTD modeling of wave propagation in arbitrary frequency-dispersive media

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 401 - 410
    Cited by:  Papers (80)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (388 KB)  

    A general formulation is presented for finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) modeling of wave propagation in arbitrary frequency-dispersive media. Two algorithmic approaches are outlined for incorporating dispersion into the FDTD time-stepping equations. The first employs a frequency-dependent complex permittivity (denoted Form-1), and the second employs a frequency-dependent complex conductivity (denoted Form-2). A Pade representation is used in Z-transform space to represent the frequency-dependent permittivity (Form-1) or conductivity (Form-2). This is a generalization over several previous methods employing either Debye, Lorentz, or Drude models. The coefficients of the Pade model may be obtained through an optimization process, leading directly to a finite-difference representation of the dispersion relation, without introducing discretization error. Stability criteria for the dispersive FDTD algorithms are given. We show that several previously developed dispersive FDTD algorithms can be cast as special cases of our more general framework. Simulation results are presented for a one-dimensional (1-D) air/muscle example considered previously in the literature and a three-dimensional (3-D) radiation problem in dispersive, lossy soil using measured soil data View full abstract»

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  • A space-time discretization criterion for a stable time-marching solution of the electric field integral equation

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 527 - 532
    Cited by:  Papers (105)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (200 KB)  

    Numerical techniques based on a time-domain recursive solution of the electric field integral equation (EFIE) may exhibit instability phenomena induced by the joint space-time discretization. The above problem is addressed with specific reference to the evaluation of electromagnetic scattering from perfectly conducting bodies of arbitrary shape. We analyze a particular formulation of the method of moments which relies on a triangular-patch geometrical model of the exterior surface of the scattering body and operates according to a “marching-on-in-time” scheme, whereby the surface current distribution at a given time step is recursively evaluated as a function of the current distribution at previous steps. A heuristic stability condition is devised which allows us to define a proper time step, as well as a geometrical discretization criterion, ensuring convergence of the numerical procedure and, therefore, eliminating insurgence of late-time oscillations. The stability condition is discussed and validated by means of a few working examples View full abstract»

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  • The incorporation of microscopic material models into the FDTD approach for ultrafast optical pulse simulations

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 375 - 391
    Cited by:  Papers (30)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB)  

    We are developing full-wave vector Maxwell equation solvers for use in studying the physics and engineering of linear and nonlinear integrated photonics systems. Particular emphasis has been given to the interaction of ultrafast optical pulses with nonresonant and resonant optical materials and structures. Results are reviewed that simulate the interaction of ultrafast optical pulses with structures (e.g., gratings of finite length) filled with materials exhibiting resonant loss or gain. In particular, we consider structures loaded with atomic media resonant at or near the frequency of the incident optical radiation. Interest in these problems follows from our desire to design micron-sized linear and nonlinear guided-wave couplers, modulators, and switches. These resonant problems pose interesting FDTD modeling issues because of the many time and length scales involved. To understand the physics underlying the small-distance scale and short-time scale interactions, particularly in the resonance regime of the materials and the associated device structures, a first principles approach is desirable. Thus, the results presented are based upon a quantum mechanical two-level atom model for the materials. The resulting Maxwell-Bloch model requires a careful marriage between microscopic (quantum mechanical) material models of the resonant material systems and the multidimensional, macroscopic Maxwell's equations solver. The FDTD numerical issues are discussed. Examples are given to illustrate the design and control of these resonant large-scale optical structures. An optical triode is designed and characterized with the FDTD Maxwell-Bloch simulator View full abstract»

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  • FDTD local grid with material traverse

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 411 - 421
    Cited by:  Papers (98)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (232 KB)  

    Often, a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculation requires a relatively higher mesh resolution in only small subvolumes of the total mesh space. By locally applying finer grids (local grids) to these volumes, the necessary resolution can be obtained. Computation time and memory requirements may be far less than for an FDTD space with the smaller mesh resolution throughout. In many situations, it is important that these local-grids function when materials traverse the main-grid-local-grid (MG-LG) boundary surfaces, since the volumes that require local grids may not be isolated in a homogeneous medium. A local-grid method, which allows dielectric and/or conducting materials to traverse the boundaries, is developed. Three different FDTD problems that utilize the local-grid method are used as validation tests. Results are compared with uniform mesh FDTD solutions View full abstract»

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  • Numerical implementation of second- and third-order conformal absorbing boundary conditions for the vector-wave equation

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 487 - 492
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (284 KB)  

    A rigorous implementation, in an edge-based finite-element formulation of second- and third-order conformal absorbing boundary conditions (ABCs) is presented for the solution of three-dimensional (3-D) scattering problems when the boundary S terminating the mesh is the surface of a parallelepiped. A special treatment is provided for the singularities (edges) of S. A systematic numerical study is carried out that compares the performances of these ABCs with those of the standard zero-order ABC, as well as of a more simple, though less rigorous, implementation of the second-order ABC. When S is separated from the scatterer by only one or two layers of elements, the numerical results that are presented demonstrate the good level of numerical accuracy achieved when the second- and third-order ABCs are employed and the singularities of S are appropriately dealt with View full abstract»

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  • The unimoment method applied to elliptical boundaries

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 564 - 566
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (136 KB)  

    A hybrid finite-element method (FEM) is presented for electromagnetic scattering by inhomogeneous dielectric cylinders of arbitrary cross section. The method employs an artificial elliptical boundary to enclose the scatterer and divide the solution region into interior and exterior regions. The field in the interior region is formulated using the FEM, and the field in the exterior region is represented by an eigenfunction expansion involving Mathieu functions. These fields are coupled at the elliptical boundary by enforcing field continuity conditions. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the advantages of the method View full abstract»

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  • Discretization schemes for high-frequency semiconductor device models

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 443 - 456
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (348 KB)  

    This paper provides an overview on the numerical issues involved in the spatial and time-domain discretization of the coupled transport-electromagnetic models used in the simulation of high-frequency semiconductor devices. The physical transport models derived from the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) are reviewed in order of decreasing complexity, from the full hydrodynamic model to the drift-diffusion approach. Spatial discretization is introduced starting from ad hoc approaches developed in the field of semiconductor modeling, like the Scharfetter-Gummel (1969) scheme; a critical comparison is then provided with the upwind finite-element schemes. Finally, time-domain discretization issues are reviewed, with particular stress on innovative developments in the area of hydrodynamic and of coupled transport-full-wave EM models View full abstract»

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  • Three-dimensional subgridding algorithm for FDTD

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 422 - 429
    Cited by:  Papers (121)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (208 KB)  

    In many computational problems solved using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique, there is a need to model selected volumes with higher resolution than the whole computational space. An efficient algorithm has been developed for this purpose that provides the mesh refinement by the factor of two in each direction. The algorithm can be used in two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) problems and provides for subgridding in both space and time. Performance of the 3-D algorithm was tested in waveguides and resonators. A high accuracy and efficiency were observed in all test cases with insignificant (of an order of -60 dB) reflections from mesh interfaces. Practical applications of the algorithm in the analyses of a resonator with a dielectric rod and of a cellular phone behavior in the vicinity of the operator head are also reported View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid finite-element methodologies for antennas and scattering

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 493 - 507
    Cited by:  Papers (35)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (460 KB)  

    This paper is an overview of the finite-element method (FEM) as applied to electromagnetic scattering and radiation problems. A brief review of the methodology is given with particular emphasis on new developments over the past five years relating to feed modeling, parallelization, and mesh truncation. New applications which illustrate the method's capabilities, versatility, and utility for general purpose application are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Scalable solutions to integral-equation and finite-element simulations

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 544 - 555
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB)  

    When developing numerical methods, or applying them to the simulation and design of engineering components, it inevitably becomes necessary to examine the scaling of the method with a problem's electrical size. The scaling results from the original mathematical development; for example, a dense system of equations in the solution of integral equations, as well as the specific numerical implementation. Scaling of the numerical implementation depends upon many factors; for example, direct or iterative methods for solution of the linear system, as well as the computer architecture used in the simulation. Scalability is divided into two components-scalability of the numerical algorithm specifically on parallel computer systems and algorithm or sequential scalability. The sequential implementation and scaling is initially presented, with the parallel implementation following. This progression is meant to illustrate the differences in using current parallel platforms and sequential machines and the resulting savings. Time to solution (wall-clock time) for differing problem sizes are the key parameters plotted or tabulated. Sequential and parallel scalability of time harmonic surface integral equation forms and the finite-element solution to the partial differential equations are considered in detail View full abstract»

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  • Mathematical foundations for error estimation in numerical solutions of integral equations in electromagnetics

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 316 - 328
    Cited by:  Papers (109)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (728 KB)  

    The problem of error estimation in the numerical solution of integral equations that arise in electromagnetics is addressed. The direct method (Green's theorem or field approach) and the indirect method (layer ansatz or source approach) lead to well-known integral equations both of the first kind [electric field integral equations (EFIE)] and the second kind [magnetic field integral equations (MFIE)]. These equations are analyzed systematically in terms of the mapping properties of the integral operators. It is shown how the assumption that field quantities have finite energy leads naturally to describing the mapping properties in appropriate Sobolev spaces. These function spaces are demystified through simple examples which also are used to demonstrate the importance of knowing in which space the given data lives and in which space the solution should be sought. It is further shown how the method of moments (or Galerkin method) is formulated in these function spaces and how residual error can be used to estimate actual error in these spaces. The condition number of all of the impedance matrices that result from discretizing the integral equations, including first kind equations, is shown to be bounded when the elements are computed appropriately. Finally, the consequences of carrying out all computations in the space of square integrable functions, a particularly friendly Sobolev space, are explained View full abstract»

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  • Improved PML for the FDTD solution of wave-structure interaction problems

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 466 - 473
    Cited by:  Papers (48)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (296 KB)  

    In a previous paper, an optimum perfectly matched layer has been designed for the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solution of wave-structure interaction problems. The present paper shows the results of subsequent investigations that were done with the intention of reducing the thickness of this optimum PML. Four improvements to the PML are presented. The resulting reductions of the thickness are discussed View full abstract»

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  • The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and the finite-volume time-domain (FVTD) methods in solving Maxwell's equations

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 354 - 363
    Cited by:  Papers (42)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB)  

    The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and its current generalizations have been demonstrated to be useful and powerful tools for the calculation of the radar cross section (RCS) of complicated objects, the radiation of antennas in the presence of other structures, and other applications. The mathematical techniques for conformal FDTD have matured; the primary impediments to its implementation are the complex geometries and material properties associated with the problem. Even under these circumstances, FDTD is more flexible to implement because it is based on first principles instead of a clever mathematical trick. This paper gives an account of some new results on conformal FDTD obtained by the authors and their associates at Lockheed Martin Space Company since 1988. The emphasis is on nonsmooth boundary condition simulation View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of nonplanar perfectly matched absorbers for finite-element mesh truncation

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 474 - 486
    Cited by:  Papers (68)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB)  

    We present a detailed theoretical and numerical investigation of the perfectly matched layer (PML) concept as applied to the problem of mesh truncation in the finite-element method (FEM). We show that it is possible to extend the Cartesian PML concepts involving half-spaces to cylindrical and spherical geometries appropriate for closed boundaries in two and three dimensions by defining lossy anisotropic layers in the relevant coordinate systems. By using the method of separation of variables, it is possible to solve the boundary value problems in these geometries. The analytical solutions demonstrate that under certain conditions, outgoing waves are absorbed with negligible reflection, and the transmitted wave is attenuated within the PML. To reduce the white space in radiation or scattering problems, conformal PMLs are constructed via parametric mappings. It is also verified that the PML concept, which was originally introduced for problems governed by Maxwell's equations, can be extended to cases governed by the scalar Helmholtz equation. Finally, numerical results are presented to demonstrate the use of the PML in FEM mesh truncation View full abstract»

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  • Optimization of TLM schemes based on the general symmetrical condensed node

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 457 - 465
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (324 KB)  

    A general symmetrical condensed node (GSCN) for the transmission-line modeling (TLM) method is derived from first principles, based on the establishment of a mapping between field quantities and voltage pulses, averaging at the node centers quantities at the boundaries and differencing of Maxwell's equations. The degrees of freedom offered by this formulation permit the development of adaptable nodes, where the mix of stubs and links can be chosen in a manner to optimize the dispersion characteristics. Results are shown confirming that the adaptable nodes can reduce substantially the dispersion and remove polarization-dependent errors View full abstract»

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  • Fast solution methods in electromagnetics

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 533 - 543
    Cited by:  Papers (138)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (292 KB)  

    Various methods for efficiently solving electromagnetic problems are presented. Electromagnetic scattering problems can be roughly classified into surface and volume problems, while fast methods are either differential or integral equation based. The resultant systems of linear equations are either solved directly or iteratively. A review of various differential equation solvers, their complexities, and memory requirements is given. The issues of grid dispersion and hybridization with integral equation solvers are discussed. Several fast integral equation solvers for surface and volume scatterers are presented. These solvers have reduced computational complexities and memory requirements View full abstract»

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  • FDTD Maxwell's equations models for nonlinear electrodynamics and optics

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 364 - 374
    Cited by:  Papers (80)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB)  

    This paper summarizes algorithms which extend the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solution of Maxwell's equations to nonlinear optics. The use of the FDTD in this field is novel. Previous modeling approaches were aimed at modeling optical-wave propagation in electrically long structures such as fibers and directional couplers, wherein the primary flow of energy is along a single principal direction. However, the FDTD is aimed at modeling compact structures having energy flow in arbitrary directions. Relative to previous methods, the FDTD achieves robustness by directly solving, for fundamental quantities, the optical E and H fields in space and time rather than performing asymptotic analyses or assuming paraxial propagation and nonphysical envelope functions. As a result, it is almost completely general. It permits accurate modeling of a broad variety of dispersive and nonlinear media used in emerging technologies such as micron-sized lasers and optical switches View full abstract»

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  • Time-domain finite-element methods

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 430 - 442
    Cited by:  Papers (132)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (484 KB)  

    Various time-domain finite-element methods for the simulation of transient electromagnetic wave phenomena are discussed. Detailed descriptions of test/trial spaces, explicit and implicit formulations, nodal and edge/facet element basis functions are given, along with the numerical stability properties of the different methods. The advantages and disadvantages of mass lumping are examined. Finally, the various formulations are compared on the basis of their numerical dispersion performance View full abstract»

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  • An FEM-based numerical diffraction coefficient for irregular wedge configurations

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 563 - 564
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (112 KB)  

    A hybrid numerical technique based on the finite-element method (FEM) is exploited to define a numerical diffraction coefficient for irregular wedge configurations as, for instance, a perfectly conducting wedge with an inhomogeneously filled cavity-backed aperture in one of its faces, or a wedge with a rounded edge. The hybrid technique combines the FEM with the uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD), and is used to develop a numerical diffraction coefficient to account for contributions to the scattered field due to localized inhomogeneities in an otherwise canonical perfectly conducting wedge View full abstract»

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  • Multilayered media Green's functions in integral equation formulations

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 508 - 519
    Cited by:  Papers (311)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (448 KB)  

    A compact representation is given of the electric- and magnetic-type dyadic Green's functions for plane-stratified, multilayered, uniaxial media based on the transmission-line network analog along the aids normal to the stratification. Furthermore, mixed-potential integral equations are derived within the framework of this transmission-line formalism for arbitrarily shaped, conducting or penetrable objects embedded in the multilayered medium. The development emphasizes laterally unbounded environments, but an extension to the case of a medium enclosed by a rectangular shield is also included View full abstract»

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  • An analysis of new and existing FDTD methods for isotropic cold plasma and a method for improving their accuracy

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 392 - 400
    Cited by:  Papers (56)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (244 KB)  

    Over the past few years, a number of different finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) methods for modeling electromagnetic propagation in an isotropic cold plasma have been published. We have analyzed the accuracy and stability of these methods to determine which method provides the greatest accuracy for a given computation time. For completeness, two new FDTD methods for cold plasma, one of which is based on the concept of exponential fitting, are introduced and evaluated along with the existing methods. We also introduce the concept of cutoff modification which can be easily applied to most of the FDTD methods, and which we show can improve the accuracy of these methods with no additional computational cost. Von Neumann's stability analysis is used to evaluate the stability of the various methods, and their accuracy is determined from a straightforward time-and-space harmonic analysis of the dispersion and dissipation errors. Results of numerical experiments to verify the accuracy analysis are presented. It is found that for low-loss plasma, the piecewise linear recursive convolution method (PLRC) method is the most accurate, but the method of Young (see Radio Sci., vol.29, p.1513-22, 1994) can use less memory and is nearly as accurate. In this low-loss plasma regime, cutoff modification can significantly reduce the error near cutoff at the expense of slightly greater error at lower frequencies. For strongly collisional plasmas, the PLRC method also provides the most accurate solution View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation includes theoretical and experimental advances in antennas.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief                                                 Kwok W. Leung