Proceedings of IEEE 36th Annual Foundations of Computer Science

23-25 Oct. 1995

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 74
  • Cognitive computation

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):2 - 3
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (259 KB)

    Cognitive computation is discussed as a discipline that links together neurobiology, cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence. View full abstract»

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  • Spectral methods for matrix rigidity with applications to size-depth tradeoffs and communication complexity

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):6 - 15
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (940 KB)

    The rigidity of a matrix measures the number of entries that must be changed in order to reduce its rank below a certain value. The known lower bounds on the rigidity of explicit matrices are very weak. It is known that stronger lower bounds would have implications to complexity theory. We consider weaker forms of the rigidity problem over the complex numbers. Using spectral methods, we derive low... View full abstract»

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  • Lower bounds on arithmetic circuits via partial derivatives

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):16 - 25
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (810 KB)

    We describe a new technique for obtaining lower bounds on restricted classes of non-monotone arithmetic circuits. The heart of this technique is a complexity measure for multivariate polynomials, based on the linear span of their partial derivatives. We use the technique to obtain new lower bounds for computing symmetric polynomials and iterated matrix products. View full abstract»

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  • Pseudorandom generators, measure theory, and natural proofs

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):26 - 35
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1088 KB)

    We prove that if strong pseudorandom number generators exist, then the class of languages that have polynomial-sized circuits (P/poly) is not measurable within exponential time, in terms of the resource-bounded measure theory of Lutz. We prove our result by showing that if P/poly has measure zero in exponential time, then there is a natural proof against P/poly, in the terminology of Razborov and ... View full abstract»

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  • Counting bottlenecks to show monotone P/spl ne/NP

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):36 - 40
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (564 KB)

    The method of proving lower bounds by bottleneck counting is illustrated for monotone Boolean circuits. This paper gives another proof of the result of Razborov (1985) and Andreev (1985), that monotone Boolean circuits must have exponential size when solving a problem in NP. More specifically, the paper defines a graph recognition problem called BMS. Any monotone circuit that solves BMS, must cont... View full abstract»

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  • Private information retrieval

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):41 - 50
    Cited by:  Papers (208)  |  Patents (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1121 KB)

    We describe schemes that enable a user to access k replicated copies of a database (k/spl ges/2) and privately retrieve information stored in the database. This means that each individual database gets no information on the identity of the item retrieved by the user. For a single database, achieving this type of privacy requires communicating the whole database, or n bits (where n is the number of... View full abstract»

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  • Disjoint paths in densely embedded graphs

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):52 - 61
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1360 KB)

    We consider the following maximum disjoint paths problem (MDPP). We are given a large network, and pairs of nodes that wish to communicate over paths through the network-the goal is to simultaneously connect as many of these pairs as possible in such a way that no two communication paths share an edge in the network. This classical problem has been brought into focus recently in papers discussing ... View full abstract»

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  • Divide-and-conquer approximation algorithms via spreading metrics

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):62 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (932 KB)

    We present a novel divide-and-conquer paradigm for approximating NP-hard graph optimization problems. The paradigm models graph optimization problems that satisfy two properties: First, a divide-and-conquer approach is applicable. Second, a fractional spreading metric is computable in polynomial time. The spreading metric assigns fractional lengths to either edges or vertices of the input graph, s... View full abstract»

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  • The loading time scheduling problem

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):72 - 81
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1159 KB)

    In this paper we study precedence constrained scheduling problems, where the tasks can only be executed on a specified subset of the machines. Each machine has a loading time that is incurred only for the first task that is scheduled on the machine in a particular run. This basic scheduling problem arises in the context of machining on numerically controlled machines, query optimization in databas... View full abstract»

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  • Approximability of flow shop scheduling

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):82 - 91
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (964 KB)

    Shop scheduling problems are notorious for their intractability, both in theory and practice. In this paper, we demonstrate the existence of a polynomial approximation scheme for the flow shop scheduling problem with an arbitrary fixed number of machines. For the three common shop models (open, flow, and job), this result is the only known approximation scheme. Since none of the three models can b... View full abstract»

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  • A representation of cuts within 6/5 times the edge connectivity with applications

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):92 - 102
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1379 KB)

    Let G be an undirected c-edge connected graph. In this paper we give an O(n/sup 2/)-sized planar geometric representation for all edge cuts with capacity less than 6/5c. The representation can be very efficiently built, by using a single run of the Karger-Stein algorithm for finding near-mincuts. We demonstrate that the representation provides an efficient query structure for near-mincuts, as well... View full abstract»

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  • Contention resolution with bounded delay

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):104 - 113
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1207 KB)

    When distributed processes contend for a shared resource, we need a good distributed contention resolution protocol, e.g., for multiple-access channels (ALOHA, Ethernet), PRAM emulation, and optical routing. Under a stochastic model of request generation from n synchronous processes, Raghavan & Upfal (1995) have shown a protocol which is stable for a positive request rate; their main result is... View full abstract»

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  • Tight bounds for a distributed selection game with applications to fixed-connection machines

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):114 - 122
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (933 KB)

    We define a distributed selection game that generalizes a selection problem considered by S.R. Kosaraju (1989). We offer a tight analysis of our distributed selection game, and show that the lower bound for this abstract communication game directly implies near-tight lower bounds for certain selection problems on fixed-connection machines. For example, we prove that any deterministic comparison-ba... View full abstract»

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  • Efficient parallel solution of sparse eigenvalue and eigenvector problems

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):123 - 132
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1287 KB)

    This paper gives a new algorithm for computing the characteristic polynomial of a symmetric sparse matrix. We derive an interesting algebraic version of nested dissection, which constructs a sparse factorization the matrix A-/spl lambda/ where A is the input matrix. While nested dissection is commonly used to minimize the fill-in in the solution of sparse linear systems, our innovation is to use t... View full abstract»

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  • Approximating the volume of definable sets

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):134 - 141
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (758 KB)

    The first part of this paper deals with finite-precision arithmetic. We give an upper bound on the precision that should be used in a Monte-Carlo integration method. Such bounds have been known only for convex sets; our bound applies to almost any "reasonable" set. In the second part of the paper, we show how to construct in polynomial time first-order formulas that approximately define the volume... View full abstract»

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  • An optimal algorithm for Monte Carlo estimation

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):142 - 149
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (701 KB)

    A typical approach to estimate an unknown quantity /spl mu/ is to design an experiment that produces a random variable Z distributed in [O,1] with E[Z]=/spl mu/, run this experiment independently a number of times and use the average of the outcomes as the estimate. In this paper, we consider the case when no a priori information about Z is known except that is distributed in [0,1]. We describe an... View full abstract»

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  • Markov chain algorithms for planar lattice structures

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):150 - 159
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1177 KB)

    Consider the following Markov chain, whose states are all domino tilings of a 2n/spl times/2n chessboard: starting from some arbitrary tiling, pick a 2/spl times/2 window uniformly at random. If the four squares appearing in this window are covered by two parallel dominoes, rotate the dominoes in place. Repeat many times. This process is used in practice to generate a random tiling and is a key to... View full abstract»

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  • Derandomizing semidefinite programming based approximation algorithms

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):162 - 169
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (710 KB)

    Remarkable breakthroughs have been made recently in obtaining approximate solutions to some fundamental NP-Complete problems, namely Max-Cut, Max k-Cut, Max-Sat, Max-Dicut, Max-Bisection, k Vertex Coloring, Independent Set, etc. These breakthroughs all involve polynomial time randomized algorithms based upon semidefinite programming, a technique pioneered by M. Goemans and D. Williamson (1994). In... View full abstract»

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  • Synthesizers and their application to the parallel construction of pseudo-random functions

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):170 - 181
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1240 KB)

    We present a new cryptographic primitive called pseudo-random synthesizer and show how to use it in order to get a parallel construction of a pseudo-random function. We show an NC/sup 1/ implementation of pseudo-random synthesizers based on the RSA or the Diffie-Hellman assumptions. This yields the first parallel (NC/sup 2/) pseudo-random function and the only alternative to the original construct... View full abstract»

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  • Splitters and near-optimal derandomization

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):182 - 191
    Cited by:  Papers (44)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1148 KB)

    We present a fairly general method for finding deterministic constructions obeying what we call k-restrictions; this yields structures of size not much larger than the probabilistic bound. The structures constructed by our method include (n,k)-universal sets (a collection of binary vectors of length n such that for any subset of size k of the indices, all 2/sup k/ configurations appear) and famili... View full abstract»

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  • A unified analysis of paging and caching

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):194 - 203
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1013 KB)

    Paging (caching) is the problem of managing a two-level memory hierarchy in order to minimise the time required to process a sequence of memory accesses. In order to measure this quantity, we define the system parameter miss penalty to represent the extra time required to access slow memory. In the context of paging, miss penalty is large, so most previous studies of on-line paging have implicitly... View full abstract»

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  • Application-controlled paging for a shared cache

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):204 - 213
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (985 KB)

    We consider a cache shared by several concurrently running application processes and propose a provably efficient application-controlled global strategy for the shared cache. Using future information implicitly in the form of good decisions by application processes, we are able to break through the H/sub k/ lower bound on competitive ratio proved for classical paging for a k-sized cache in [FKL/su... View full abstract»

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  • Speed is as powerful as clairvoyance [scheduling problems]

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):214 - 221
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (792 KB)

    We consider several well known nonclairvoyant scheduling problems, including the problem of minimizing the average response time, and best-effort firm real-time scheduling. It is known that there are no deterministic online algorithms for these problems with bounded (or even polylogarithmic in the number of jobs) competitive ratios. We show that moderately increasing the speed of the processor use... View full abstract»

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  • Perspectives on database theory

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):224 - 246
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2482 KB)

    Database management systems address the need to store, retrieve, and manipulate large amounts of data in an organized fashion. The database held has grown tremendously in the last 25 years. It is reported that the database industry generated $7 billion in revenue in 1994 and is growing at a rate of 35% per year. Industrial and academic research have been instrumental to this growth. Theory has pla... View full abstract»

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  • Algebraic decomposition of non-convex polyhedra

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):248 - 257
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (942 KB)

    Any arbitrary polyhedron P/spl sube/R/sup d/ can be written as algebraic sum of simple terms, each an integer multiple of the intersection of d or fewer half-spaces defined by facets of P. P can be non-convex and can have holes of any kind. Among the consequences of this result are a short boolean formula for P, a fast parallel algorithm for point classification, and a new proof of the Gram-Sommer... View full abstract»

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