40th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (Cat. No.99CB37039)

17-19 Oct. 1999

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  • 40th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (Cat. No.99CB37039)

    Publication Year: 1999
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Near-optimal conversion of hardness into pseudo-randomness

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):181 - 190
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (180 KB)

    Various efforts have been made to derandomize probabilistic algorithms using the assumption that there exists a problem in E=dtime(2/sup O(n)/) that requires circuits of size s(n) (for some function s). These results are based on the NW (Nisan & Wigderson, 1997) generator. For the strong lower bound s(n)=2/sup ϵn/, the optimal derandomization is P=BPP. However, for weaker lower bound funct... View full abstract»

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  • Author index

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):667 - 668
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A sublinear time approximation scheme for clustering in metric spaces

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):154 - 159
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (176 KB)

    The metric 2-clustering problem is defined as follows: given a metric (or weighted graph) (X,d), partition X into two sets S(1) and S(2) in order to minimize the value of ΣiΣ{u,v}⊂S(i)d(u,v). In this paper, we show an approximation scheme for this problem View full abstract»

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  • Noncryptographic selection protocols

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):142 - 152
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (156 KB)

    Selection tasks generalize some well studied problems, such as collective coin flipping and leader election. We present new selection protocols in the full information model, and new negative results. In particular when there are (1+δ)n/2 good players, we show a protocol that chooses a good leader with probability Ω(δ1.65), and show that every leader election protocol ... View full abstract»

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  • Random CNFs are hard for the polynomial calculus

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):415 - 421
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (148 KB)

    We show a general reduction that derives lower bounds on degrees of polynomial calculus proofs of tautologies, over any field of characteristic (other than 2) from lower bounds for resolution proofs of a related set of linear equations module 2. We apply this to derive linear lower bounds on the degrees of PC proofs of randomly generated tautologies View full abstract»

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  • How asymmetry helps load balancing

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):131 - 141
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (176 KB)

    This paper deals with balls and bins processes related to randomized load balancing, dynamic resource allocation and hashing. Suppose n balls have to be assigned to n bins, where each ball has to be placed without knowledge about the distribution of previously placed balls. The goal is to achieve an allocation that is as even as possible so that no bin gets much more balls than the average. A well... View full abstract»

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  • Error reduction for extractors

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):191 - 201
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (192 KB)

    An extractor is a function which extracts (almost) truly random bits from a weak random source, using a small number of additional random bits as a catalyst. We present a general method to reduce the error of any extractor. Our method works particularly well in the case that the original extractor extracts up to a constant function of the source min-entropy and achieves a polynomially small error.... View full abstract»

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  • A probabilistic algorithm for k-SAT and constraint satisfaction problems

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):410 - 414
    Cited by:  Papers (38)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (84 KB)

    We present a simple probabilistic algorithm for solving k-SAT and more generally, for solving constraint satisfaction problems (CSP). The algorithm follows a simple local search paradigm (S. Minton et al., 1992): randomly guess an initial assignment and then, guided by those clauses (constraints) that are not satisfied, by successively choosing a random literal from such a clause and flipping the ... View full abstract»

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  • Verifiable random functions

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):120 - 130
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (220 KB)

    We efficiently combine unpredictability and verifiability by extending the Goldreich-Goldwasser-Micali (1986) construction of pseudorandom functions fs from a secret seed s, so that knowledge of s not only enables one to evaluate fs at any point x, but also to provide an NP-proof that the value fs(x) is indeed correct without compromising the unpredictability of f<... View full abstract»

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  • Efficient testing of large graphs

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):656 - 666
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (192 KB)

    Let P be a property of graphs. An ε-test for P is a randomized algorithm which, given the ability to make queries whether a desired pair of vertices of an input graph G with n vertices are adjacent or not, distinguishes, with high probability, between the case of G satisfying P and the case that it has to be modified by adding and removing more than εn2 edges to make it satisf... View full abstract»

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  • Cuts, trees and l1-embeddings of graphs

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):399 - 408
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (188 KB)

    Motivated by many recent algorithmic applications, the paper aims to promote a systematic study of the relationship between the topology of a graph and the metric distortion incurred where the graph is embedded into l1 space. The main results are: 1. Explicit constant-distortion embeddings of all series parallel graphs, and all graphs with bounded Euler number. These are thus the first ... View full abstract»

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  • Optimal lower bounds for quantum automata and random access codes

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):369 - 376
    Cited by:  Papers (33)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (124 KB)

    Consider the finite regular language Ln={w0|w∈{0,1}*,|w|⩽n}. A. Ambainis et al. (1999) showed that while this language is accepted by a deterministic finite automaton of size O(n), any one-way quantum finite automaton (QFA) for it has size 2Ω(n/logn). This was based on the fact that the evolution of a QFA is required to be reversible. When arbitrary intermediat... View full abstract»

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  • PSPACE has constant-round quantum interactive proof systems

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):112 - 119
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (152 KB)

    We introduce quantum interactive proof systems, which are interactive proof systems in which the prover and verifier may perform quantum computations and exchange quantum messages. It is proved that every language in PSPACE has a quantum interactive proof system that requires a total of only three messages to be sent between the prover and verifier and has exponentially small (one-sided) probabili... View full abstract»

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  • Hardness of approximating the minimum distance of a linear code

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):475 - 484
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (25)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (192 KB)

    We show that the minimum distance of a linear code (or equivalently, the weight of the lightest codeword) is not approximable to within any constant factor in random polynomial time (RP), unless NP equals RP. Under the stronger assumption that NP is not contained in RQP (random quasi-polynomial time), we show that the minimum distance is not approximable to within the factor 2log(1-ε)n View full abstract»

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  • Limits on the efficiency of one-way permutation-based hash functions

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):535 - 542
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (160 KB)

    Naor and Yung (1989) show that a one-bit-compressing universal one-way hash function (UOWHF) can be constructed based on a one-way permutation. This construction can be iterated to build a UOWHF which compresses by εn bits, at the cost of εn invocations of the one-way permutation. The show that this construction is not far from optimal, in the following sense, there exists an oracle rela... View full abstract»

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  • Regular languages are testable with a constant number of queries

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):645 - 655
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (256 KB)

    We continue the study of combinatorial property testing, initiated by Goldreich, Goldwasser and Ron (1996). The subject of this paper is testing regular languages. Our main result is as follows. For a regular language L∈{0, 1}* and an integer n there exists a randomized algorithm which always accepts a word w of length n if w∈L, and rejects it with high probability if w has to be modifie... View full abstract»

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  • Approximate nearest neighbor algorithms for Hausdorff metrics via embeddings

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):171 - 179
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (244 KB)

    Hausdorff metrics are used in geometric settings for measuring the distance between sets of points. They have been used extensively in areas such as computer vision, pattern recognition and computational chemistry. While computing the distance between a single pair of sets under the Hausdorff metric has been well studied, no results are known for the nearest-neighbor problem under Hausdorff metric... View full abstract»

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  • Online scheduling to minimize average stretch

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):433 - 443
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (176 KB)

    We consider the classical problem of online job scheduling on uniprocessor and multiprocessor machines. For a given job, we measure the quality of service provided by an algorithm by the stretch of the job, which is defined as the ratio of the amount of time that the job spends in the system to the processing time of the job. For a given sequence of jobs, we measure the performance of an algorithm... View full abstract»

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  • On counting independent sets in sparse graphs

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):210 - 217
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (132 KB)

    We prove two results concerning approximate counting of independent sets in graphs with constant maximum degree Δ. The first result implies that the Monte-Carlo Markov chain technique is likely to fail if Δ⩾6. The second shows that no fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme can exist for Δ⩾25, unless P=NP under randomized reductions View full abstract»

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  • Lovasz's lemma for the three-dimensional K-level of concave surfaces and its applications

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):389 - 398
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (208 KB)

    We show that for any line l in space, there are at most k(k+1) tangent planes through l to the k-level of an arrangement of concave surfaces. This is a generalization of L. Lovasz's (1971) lemma, which is a key constituent in the analysis of the complexity of k-level of planes. Our proof is constructive, and finds a family of concave surfaces covering the “laminated at-most-k level”. A... View full abstract»

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  • Non-interactive cryptocomputing for NC1

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):554 - 566
    Cited by:  Papers (19)  |  Patents (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (156 KB)

    The area of “computing with encrypted data” has been studied by numerous authors in the past twenty years since it is fundamental to understanding properties of encryption and it has many practical applications. The related fundamental area of “secure function evaluation” has been studied since the mid 80's. In its basic two-party case, two parties (Alice and Bob) evaluate ... View full abstract»

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  • Random walks on truncated cubes and sampling 0-1 knapsack solutions

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):230 - 240
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (188 KB)

    We solve an open problem concerning the mixing time of a symmetric random walk on an n-dimensional cube truncated by a hyperplane, showing that it is polynomial in n. As a consequence, we obtain a full-polynomial randomized approximation scheme for counting the feasible solutions of a 0-1 knapsack problem. The key ingredient in our analysis is a combinatorial construction we call a “balanced... View full abstract»

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  • A near-tight lower bound on the time complexity of distributed MST construction

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):253 - 261
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB)

    This paper presents a lower bound of Ω¯(D+√n) on the time required for the distributed construction of a minimum-weight spanning tree (MST) in n-vertex networks of diameter D=Ω(log n), in the bounded message model. This establishes the asymptotic near-optimality of existing time-efficient distributed algorithms for the problem, whose complexity is O(D+√nlog* n) View full abstract»

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  • Approximating fractional multicommodity flow independent of the number of commodities

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):24 - 31
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (132 KB)

    We describe fully polynomial time approximation schemes for various multicommodity flow problems in graphs with m edges and n vertices. We present the first approximation scheme for maximum multicommodity flow that is independent of the number of commodities k, and our algorithm improves upon the runtime of previous algorithms by this factor of k, running in O*(ε-2 m2) t... View full abstract»

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