1996 International Symposium on Technology and Society Technical Expertise and Public Decisions. Proceedings

21-22 June 1996

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 62
  • 1996 International Symposium on Technology and Society Technical Expertise and Public Decisions. Proceedings

    Publication Year: 1996
    Request permission for commercial reuse | PDF file iconPDF (524 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Index of authors

    Publication Year: 1996
    Request permission for commercial reuse | PDF file iconPDF (103 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Aspects of R&D and their impact on institutional issues: the case of AT&T

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):278 - 287
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1328 KB)

    The breakup of AT&T in 1984 induced momentous changes in the infrastructure of the US telecommunications and had a dramatic effect on the international scene. The interest has focused on the impact of AT&T's break-up and the change in regulatory environment on the state of telecommunications in the US and abroad as well as on business expectations for the future. The article examines selec... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The problem of hierarchy in government

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):265 - 277
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1160 KB)

    Hierarchical ways of managing government are no longer relevant in an information intensive world. Information technology can provide the means to transform governments into more responsive and accountable organizations. However, despite significant investments in information technology and efforts to move toward flatter organizational structures, governments remain predominantly hierarchical. A f... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Critical digital systems and the ethic of expediency

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):252 - 261
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (996 KB)

    Software based digital equipment is finding its way into critical applications. This paper suggests that in our quest to use this equipment, we must place this new technology in the perspective of past technologies. Our current practices and understanding of how to create error-free, failure-free, and hazard-free software are based on empirical observations. As users, our understanding of how to e... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Public reaction to power frequency electric and magnetic field (EMF) effects

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):103 - 109
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (620 KB)

    The presence of various power frequency electric and magnetic field (EMF) effects has always implied the need for technological control of their manifestations. The power frequency EMF effects are associated not only with the transmission and distribution lines of the electric power system, but also with work environments, office machines, illumination sources, home appliances, computers and enter... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Democratising the policy process on the deliberate release of genetically modified organisms

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):93 - 100
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (640 KB)

    The issue of the deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment was posed as a policy problem. This was perhaps unavoidable since one of the reasons why the contained use of GMOs was regulated was that an unintentional release should be prevented. It was perceived as a problem with manifold aspects which could only be dealt with by appealing to science, manageabil... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A systems approach for collaborative decision support in water resources planning

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):357 - 363
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB)

    The paper presents a decision support system (DSS) for collaborative group planning of hydroelectric development projects. The framework for planning is described with a systems approach for dynamic evaluation. Systems involving human frailties will always be complex, and that complexity will always be intimidating from a systems perspective. However, systems thinking is evolving into concepts tha... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Undergraduate engineering education curriculum and educational research

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):158 - 166
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (868 KB)

    This paper analyzes a set of undergraduate engineering education curriculum reform. Proposals that have a relationship with educational research and cognitive psychology. In addition, the paper explores educational research and cognitive psychology research results that provide guidance on undergraduate engineering curriculum design View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • UK: disputing boundaries of biotechnology regulation

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):87 - 92
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB)

    UK biotechnology regulation has developed `precautionary controls' for GMO releases. Stringent legislation was drafted and eventually implemented by the Department of Environment (DoE). In parallel, the DoE established a broadly based advisory committee, which included ecologists and an implicit public interest representation. The committee was assigned the task to advise on the release of all `no... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Building public confidence in energy planning: a multimethod MCDM approach to demand management at BC Gas

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):348 - 356
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (908 KB)

    Energy supply and demand-side resource selection processes often must involve stakeholders, with the purposes of informing them of technical options and tradeoffs, and asking them for value judgments. Multicriteria decision making (MCDM) methods are one means of quantifying stakeholder judgments, but the way in which such methods are usually applied can cause stakeholders to feel manipulated by a ... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Esperanto: to enhance international collaboration on technology in the broader interest of society

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):515 - 520
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (548 KB)

    Technology is a worldwide concern and IEEE is a worldwide organization. A major problem in all international concerns is the language barrier. For instance, ten percent of the UN budget is consumed in translation services. Then beyond this immediate monetary cost, translation slows the process and increases the risk of serious misunderstanding. For instance, our war against Viet Nam went on for we... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Technology, environment and public policy in perspective: lessons from the history of the automobile

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):67 - 75
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1000 KB)

    The spread of the automobile over the course of the twentieth century has had a dramatic impact upon the environment. Drawing upon an extensive investigation of the early history of the automobile in the United States, the paper proposes a dynamic model connecting technological and environmental change. Three concepts are central to the operation of the model-technological choice, system, and scal... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Introducing technology to a traditional society: social and psychological implications

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):151 - 155
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB)

    Every society is keen on `development' through the application of technology. Thanks to the influence of the dominant culture, traditional societies are adopting Western technology, and the experience is not always pleasant. While the ecological and environmental aspects of adoption of new technology have received much attention, the social and psychological aspects have not. Take for example, the... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Fuzzy cognitive maps for policy analysis

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):369 - 373
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (412 KB)

    Fuzzy cognitive maps are introduced as a way to model state changes in a dynamic system where policy and technological components must be directly compared. To illustrate the process of developing a map and infer state changes from it, an action/reaction arms race of the Richardson type is modeled. Because fuzzy cognitive maps qualitatively capture the essential interactions of a system, numerical... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Ethics, technology, and society in the heartland: their role in engineering education

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):172 - 176
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (448 KB)

    For those who are committed to the importance of the full and integrated spectrum of knowledge, teaching and working in engineering and science offer many opportunities or obligations for sharing this vision with students or colleagues. For the educator this might be done in formal courses dealing with the impact of technology on society or engineering ethics. At North Dakota State University two ... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Scientific expertise and regulatory politics in Germany: the formative period of handling risks by agreeing on “acceptable” standards, 1870-1913

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):532 - 536
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (580 KB)

    Regulatory politics relates to issues such as “technical safety”, “environmental pollution”, “public health” etc. Problems of this kind involve conflicts of interested parties as well as the belief in science as a powerful resource for coping with these problems: The instrumentalist function of science seems to open a “best way” of administering risk... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Harmonization difficulties of European biotechnology regulation: EC directive 90/220 on the deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMOS)

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):84 - 86
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (296 KB)

    In recent years, `risk' debate has become a means for adjudicating the legitimacy of contentious technologies (U. Beck, 1992). Often such debate centres upon `unacceptable risk', implying that the extent (and even type) of risk may not be scientifically known. As a response to the problems of reflexive modernization, discursive forms of technology assessment have been conceptualized for democratis... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Making decisions about sustainability: joining social values with technical expertise

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):188 - 197
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (864 KB)

    The term sustainable development is widely used but sustainability is an hardly agreed-upon concept. Generally, it means that due to environmental limitations society needs to consider the fate of future generations explicitly when making decisions. Governments, corporations, and individuals have called for vigorous action to attain sustainability, yet methods for practical implementation are stil... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Identifying obstacles in the shift to electronic media by professional societies: a Delphi study of the IEEE

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):337 - 346
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (792 KB)

    A Delphi panel of 30 experts and stakeholders of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) was formed in order to assess the impact of IEEE's shift to electronic communication and information dissemination. The panel designed to reflect the organization's diverse areas of interests, included representatives from IEEE's leadership, staff, membership and customers, across a ... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Limited horizons, limited influence: information technology experts and the crisis of the London Ambulance Service

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):506 - 514
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1020 KB)

    The failure of a safety-critical system in November 1992 gave the opportunity for IT experts to become involved in a wide-ranging public discussion. Their response largely focused on the process of systems development and the methods used in it. Partial solutions were marketed as the technological fix which would solve all problems. Few considered the technology in a wider social and political con... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Foresight in science and technology policy as participatory policy analysis

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):55 - 63
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (716 KB)

    In this study the methods used for participative policy analyses in the field of science and technology policy in the Netherlands are evaluated. It is necessary to know in what sense the field of science and technology policy differs from other policy fields. In this paper foresights are considered as a form of participatory policy analyses. The foresight process in Japan, the United States and th... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Space and place in geographic decision making

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):311 - 317
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (804 KB)

    Recent innovations in computer science seem in some ways to have undercut traditional objections to the use of computers in decision making. For example, if some argued that traditional programming promoted a mindset within which decision making itself was a linguistic and rigidly rule-guided process, new systems of object-oriented programming seem to offer a much richer image of thinking. Yet, in... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Facts and values, cars and smog: analytical perspectives of stakeholders in air quality and transportation planning in Los Angeles, CA

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):398 - 405
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (804 KB)

    Technical policy decisions can be thought of as resulting from two models: an environmental model and a preference model. The environmental model is a description of the physical and social systems affected by the policy decision. The preference model is a description of the preferences of the decision maker for the outcomes predicted by the environmental model. In many technical policy making pro... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Building expertise in high technology: new dynamics of R&D funding at U.S. research universities

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):430 - 437
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (592 KB)

    This paper is a first cut at a larger research proposal to examine the likely effects of the predicted decline in the federal funding of university research and the growing share of the “research funding pie” that is composed of industry-supported R&D. This research is part of a larger post-doctoral project that focuses on the diffusion of cooperative R&D as a strategic busines... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.