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Communications Surveys & Tutorials, IEEE

Issue 4 • Date Fourthquarter 2014

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Displaying Results 1 - 23 of 23
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • Editorial: Fourth Quarter 2014 IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1797 - 1800
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A Survey on Device-to-Device Communication in Cellular Networks

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1801 - 1819
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1027 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Device-to-device (D2D) communications was initially proposed in cellular networks as a new paradigm for enhancing network performance. The emergence of new applications such as content distribution and location-aware advertisement introduced new user cases for D2D communications in cellular networks. The initial studies showed that D2D communications has advantages such as increased spectral efficiency and reduced communication delay. However, this communication mode introduces complications in terms of interference control overhead and protocols that are still open research problems. The feasibility of D2D communications in Long-Term Evolution Advanced is being studied by academia, industry, and standardization bodies. To date, there are more than 100 papers available on D2D communications in cellular networks, but there is no survey on this field. In this paper, we provide a taxonomy based on the D2D communicating spectrum and review the available literature extensively under the proposed taxonomy. Moreover, we provide new insights into the over-explored and under-explored areas that lead us to identify open research problems of D2D communications in cellular networks. View full abstract»

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  • A Survey on Testbeds and Experimentation Environments for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1820 - 1838
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    Research results in wireless sensor networks are primarily gained from simulations and theoretical considerations. Currently, the community begins to realize that the results need to be validated in testbeds. Testbeds can be also used to directly gather knowledge with sensor network experiments on real hardware and a real environmental context. This survey gives an overview of different approaches to build testbeds and experimentation environments regarding different research foci. We discuss emerging testbed requirements and present existing solutions of the community. The overview is complemented with a discussion of common design decisions concerning architectures and experimentation support in current testbeds. A look on future trends and developments in wireless sensor network testbeds concludes this paper. This survey is intended to help researchers to attain own results in real-world experiments with wireless sensor networks. The reader gains a comprehensive overview on existing testbeds and practical knowledge documented in the referenced literature. The survey is laying the foundation for design decisions while developing an own testbed using the examples of described approaches. View full abstract»

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  • A Comprehensive Survey of Congestion Control Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1839 - 1859
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    Congestion control and reliable data delivery are two primary functions of the transport layer in wired and wireless networks. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are a special category of wireless ad hoc networks with unique characteristics and important limitations. Limitations concern their resources, such as energy, memory, and computational power, as well as their applications. Due to these limitations and characteristics, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), the legacy protocol that implements congestion control and reliable transmission in the Internet, cannot apply to WSNs in its traditional form. To deal with this unavailability of a standard solution, many efforts are taking place in this area. In this paper, we review, classify, and compare algorithms, protocols, and mechanisms that deal directly with congestion control and avoidance in WSNs. View full abstract»

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  • Survey on the Characterization and Classification of Wireless Sensor Network Applications

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1860 - 1890
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Nowadays, wireless sensor network (WSN) users are demanding more and more in terms of choice and diversity of applications. Hence, as the diversity of applications is increasing, it is worthwhile to propose a structure for the set of characterization parameters that allows sketching a taxonomy for WSN applications. This taxonomy is established via an application-oriented approach, identifying the specific services offered by each application. In this survey, we fill this gap in the WSN literature by describing the characterization parameters, organized into six different categories. Our taxonomy for application classification is centered on the different sets of parameters that have high impact on a given future WSN application. Typical attributes and values from related research works are considered as a reference, but in this survey, we propose inter- and intra-connections among the considered application groups. Based on these connections, new application groups have been proposed for applications that share common characterization parameters, along with a holistic overview of WSN application taxonomy and the discussion of the three generations of WSNs toward communication between things and the Internet of Things, as well as future trends for the development of WSN applications. Moreover, detailed parameters from different projects and authors in the field of WSNs are joined together for comparison purposes. View full abstract»

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  • Channel Estimation for OFDM

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1891 - 1908
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    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) has been widely adopted in modern wireless communication systems due to its robustness against the frequency selectivity of wireless channels. For coherent detection, channel estimation is essential for receiver design. Channel estimation is also necessary for diversity combining or interference suppression where there are multiple receive antennas. In this paper, we will present a survey on channel estimation for OFDM. This survey will first review traditional channel estimation approaches based on channel frequency response (CFR). Parametric model (PM)-based channel estimation, which is particularly suitable for sparse channels, will be also investigated in this survey. Following the success of turbo codes and low-density parity check (LDPC) codes, iterative processing has been widely adopted in the design of receivers, and iterative channel estimation has received a lot of attention since that time. Iterative channel estimation will be emphasized in this survey as the emerging iterative receiver improves system performance significantly. The combination of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) and OFDM has been widely accepted in modern communication systems, and channel estimation in MIMO-OFDM systems will also be addressed in this survey. Open issues and future work are discussed at the end of this paper. View full abstract»

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  • In-Network Aggregation for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1909 - 1932
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    In-network aggregation mechanisms for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) aim at improving communication efficiency by summarizing information that is exchanged between vehicles. Summaries are calculated, while data items are generated in and forwarded through the network. Due to its high bandwidth saving potential, aggregation is a vital building block for many of the applications envisioned in VANETs. At the same time, the specific environment of VANETs calls for novel approaches to aggregation, which address their challenging requirements. In this paper, we survey and structure this active research field. We propose a generic model to describe and classify the proposed approaches, and we identify future research challenges. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Survey in Smart Grid and Smart Home Security: Issues, Challenges and Countermeasures

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1933 - 1954
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The electricity industry is now at the verge of a new era-an era that promises, through the evolution of the existing electrical grids to smart grids, more efficient and effective power management, better reliability, reduced production costs, and more environmentally friendly energy generation. Numerous initiatives across the globe, led by both industry and academia, reflect the mounting interest around not only the enormous benefits but also the great risks introduced by this evolution. This paper focuses on issues related to the security of the smart grid and the smart home, which we present as an integral part of the smart grid. Based on several scenarios, we aim to present some of the most representative threats to the smart home/smart grid environment. The threats detected are categorized according to specific security goals set for the smart home/smart grid environment, and their impact on the overall system security is evaluated. A review of contemporary literature is then conducted with the aim of presenting promising security countermeasures with respect to the identified specific security goals for each presented scenario. An effort to shed light on open issues and future research directions concludes this paper. View full abstract»

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  • A Survey and a Layered Taxonomy of Software-Defined Networking

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1955 - 1980
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    Software-defined networking (SDN) has recently gained unprecedented attention from industry and research communities, and it seems unlikely that this will be attenuated in the near future. The ideas brought by SDN, although often described as a “revolutionary paradigm shift” in networking, are not completely new since they have their foundations in programmable networks and control-data plane separation projects. SDN promises simplified network management by enabling network automation, fostering innovation through programmability, and decreasing CAPEX and OPEX by reducing costs and power consumption. In this paper, we aim at analyzing and categorizing a number of relevant research works toward realizing SDN promises. We first provide an overview on SDN roots and then describe the architecture underlying SDN and its main components. Thereafter, we present existing SDN-related taxonomies and propose a taxonomy that classifies the reviewed research works and brings relevant research directions into focus. We dedicate the second part of this paper to studying and comparing the current SDN-related research initiatives and describe the main issues that may arise due to the adoption of SDN. Furthermore, we review several domains where the use of SDN shows promising results. We also summarize some foreseeable future research challenges. View full abstract»

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  • A Survey on Network Tomography With Network Coding

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1981 - 1995
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    The overhead of internal network monitoring motivates techniques of network tomography. Network coding (NC) presents a new opportunity for network tomography as NC introduces topology-dependent correlation that can be further exploited in topology estimation. Compared with traditional methods, network tomography with NC has many advantages, such as the improvement of tomography accuracy and the reduction of complexity in choosing monitoring paths. In this paper, we first introduce the problem of tomography with NC and then propose the taxonomy criteria to classify various methods. We also present existing solutions and future trend. We expect that our comprehensive review on network tomography with NC can serve as a good reference for researchers and practitioners working in the area. View full abstract»

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  • Machine Learning in Wireless Sensor Networks: Algorithms, Strategies, and Applications

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1996 - 2018
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    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) monitor dynamic environments that change rapidly over time. This dynamic behavior is either caused by external factors or initiated by the system designers themselves. To adapt to such conditions, sensor networks often adopt machine learning techniques to eliminate the need for unnecessary redesign. Machine learning also inspires many practical solutions that maximize resource utilization and prolong the lifespan of the network. In this paper, we present an extensive literature review over the period 2002-2013 of machine learning methods that were used to address common issues in WSNs. The advantages and disadvantages of each proposed algorithm are evaluated against the corresponding problem. We also provide a comparative guide to aid WSN designers in developing suitable machine learning solutions for their specific application challenges. View full abstract»

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  • Online Social Networks: Threats and Solutions

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2019 - 2036
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    Many online social network (OSN) users are unaware of the numerous security risks that exist in these networks, including privacy violations, identity theft, and sexual harassment, just to name a few. According to recent studies, OSN users readily expose personal and private details about themselves, such as relationship status, date of birth, school name, email address, phone number, and even home address. This information, if put into the wrong hands, can be used to harm users both in the virtual world and in the real world. These risks become even more severe when the users are children. In this paper, we present a thorough review of the different security and privacy risks, which threaten the well-being of OSN users in general, and children in particular. In addition, we present an overview of existing solutions that can provide better protection, security, and privacy for OSN users. We also offer simple-to-implement recommendations for OSN users, which can improve their security and privacy when using these platforms. Furthermore, we suggest future research directions. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Flow Monitoring Explained: From Packet Capture to Data Analysis With NetFlow and IPFIX

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2037 - 2064
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1856 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Flow monitoring has become a prevalent method for monitoring traffic in high-speed networks. By focusing on the analysis of flows, rather than individual packets, it is often said to be more scalable than traditional packet-based traffic analysis. Flow monitoring embraces the complete chain of packet observation, flow export using protocols such as NetFlow and IPFIX, data collection, and data analysis. In contrast to what is often assumed, all stages of flow monitoring are closely intertwined. Each of these stages therefore has to be thoroughly understood, before being able to perform sound flow measurements. Otherwise, flow data artifacts and data loss can be the consequence, potentially without being observed. This paper is the first of its kind to provide an integrated tutorial on all stages of a flow monitoring setup. As shown throughout this paper, flow monitoring has evolved from the early 1990s into a powerful tool, and additional functionality will certainly be added in the future. We show, for example, how the previously opposing approaches of deep packet inspection and flow monitoring have been united into novel monitoring approaches. View full abstract»

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  • Quantifying Potential Energy Efficiency Gain in Green Cellular Wireless Networks

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2065 - 2091
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    Conventional cellular wireless networks were designed with the purpose of providing high throughput for the user and high capacity for the service provider, without any provisions of energy efficiency. As a result, these networks have an enormous Carbon footprint. In this paper, we describe the sources of the inefficiencies in such networks. First, we present results of the studies on how much Carbon footprint such networks generate. We also discuss how much more mobile traffic is expected to increase so that this Carbon footprint will even increase tremendously more. We then discuss specific sources of inefficiency and potential sources of improvement at the physical layer, as well as at higher layers of the communication protocol hierarchy. In particular, considering that most of the energy inefficiency in cellular wireless networks is at the base stations, we discuss multi-tier networks and point to the potential of exploiting mobility patterns in order to use base station energy judiciously. We then investigate potential methods to reduce this inefficiency and quantify their individual contributions. By a consideration of the combination of all potential gains, we conclude that an improvement in energy consumption in cellular wireless networks by two orders of magnitude, or even more, is possible. View full abstract»

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  • Medium Access Control Protocols in Cognitive Radio Networks: Overview and General Classification

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2092 - 2124
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    The Cognitive Radio and the Cognitive Radio Networks have recently become one of the most intensively studied paradigms in wireless communications. The main distinctive characteristic with respect to the radio environmental conditions in which the Cognitive Radio Network operates is the time/frequency/space-dependent availability of the spectral resources, a phenomenon commonly referred as spectrum hete-rogeneity. This phenomenon imposes redefinition of the protocol stack by introducing new communication protocols for the Cognitive Radio Network including new Medium Access Control protocols. The Cognitive MAC (C-MAC) protocols employ number of mechanisms that address spectrum heterogeneity and provide technical strategies for smart exploitation of spectrum's current underutilized time/space/frequency regions that enables large spectrum efficiency gains while maximizing the transparency of the Cognitive Radio Networks to the primary system. The classification and systematization of the existing C-MAC proposals is a complex task due to many C-MAC related aspects. This survey introduces and develops generic, modular and easily extensible layout for classification and systematization of C-MAC protocols referred as C-MAC cycle. Each C-MAC protocol can be easily fragmented, mapped and visualized using the C-MAC cycle, regardless of the operational scenario and settings. The survey offers extensive overview on the state-of-the-art advances in C-MAC protocol engineering by reviewing existing and up-to-date technical solutions, identifies their basic characteristics and maps them into the C-MAC cycle. The survey also highlights the role of regulative and standardization activities on C-MAC cycle. View full abstract»

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  • Identity Federations Beyond the Web: A Survey

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2125 - 2141
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    Internet service providers have, in recent years, adopted identity federation technologies with a high degree of success. A typical Internet user will regularly use these in her daily use of the Internet, even if she does not notice it. For example, she will use these technologies when publishing a picture in Flickr, when sharing it with her friends in her Facebook wall, when she performs a roaming telephone call over the 3G network, or when she obtains access to the eduroam network at her university. Until recently, identity federation technologies were mainly applicable to web and network access services. However, the proliferation of new emerging infrastructures, such as the cloud and grids, is motivating service providers to consider new solutions capable of satisfying identity federation for any almost kind of Internet service (SSH, NFS, SMTP, Cloud, Grid, etc.). This has been called identity federation beyond the Web. International projects and standardization bodies have also been considering ways to satisfy this urgent need. This paper describes the unmet requirement for federating any other kind of (non-Web-based) Internet service. In particular, it provides a detailed survey of the two main proposals, i.e., Application Bridging for Federated Access Beyond Web (ABFAB) and Federated Kerberos (FedKERB), which are currently discussed to provide a solution for this new type of federation, known as Identity Federations beyond the Web. Finally, this paper shows a fair comparison between both alternatives. View full abstract»

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  • Recent Advances in Radio Resource Management for Heterogeneous LTE/LTE-A Networks

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2142 - 2180
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    As heterogeneous networks (HetNets) emerge as one of the most promising developments toward realizing the target specifications of Long Term Evolution (LTE) and LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) networks, radio resource management (RRM) research for such networks has, in recent times, been intensively pursued. Clearly, recent research mainly concentrates on the aspect of interference mitigation. Other RRM aspects, such as radio resource utilization, fairness, complexity, and QoS, have not been given much attention. In this paper, we aim to provide an overview of the key challenges arising from HetNets and highlight their importance. Subsequently, we present a comprehensive survey of the RRM schemes that have been studied in recent years for LTE/LTE-A HetNets, with a particular focus on those for femtocells and relay nodes. Furthermore, we classify these RRM schemes according to their underlying approaches. In addition, these RRM schemes are qualitatively analyzed and compared to each other. We also identify a number of potential research directions for future RRM development. Finally, we discuss the lack of current RRM research and the importance of multi-objective RRM studies. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • A Survey on Software-Defined Network and OpenFlow: From Concept to Implementation

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2181 - 2206
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    Software-defined network (SDN) has become one of the most important architectures for the management of largescale complex networks, which may require repolicing or reconfigurations from time to time. SDN achieves easy repolicing by decoupling the control plane from data plane. Thus, the network routers/switches just simply forward packets by following the flow table rules set by the control plane. Currently, OpenFlow is the most popular SDN protocol/standard and has a set of design specifications. Although SDN/OpenFlow is a relatively new area, it has attracted much attention from both academia and industry. In this paper, we will conduct a comprehensive survey of the important topics in SDN/OpenFlow implementation, including the basic concept, applications, language abstraction, controller, virtualization, quality of service, security, and its integration with wireless and optical networks. We will compare the pros and cons of different schemes and discuss the future research trends in this exciting area. This survey can help both industry and academia R&D people to understand the latest progress of SDN/OpenFlow designs. View full abstract»

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  • Network Management Challenges and Trends in Multi-Layer and Multi-Vendor Settings for Carrier-Grade Networks

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2207 - 2230
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    The exponential growth of Internet traffic gives no respite to the telecommunications industry and is visibly shortening the life-cycle of the technologies used for core networking. To cope with the traffic demand, the industry has primarily focused on the evolution of the data and control planes, and has rapidly made progress in both subjects. However, the innovations in the market have not reached the management plane at the same speed. This stems from a number of factors, most of which point to the segmentation of competencies in managing multi-layer infrastructures. Current carrier-grade networks are organized as multi-layer infrastructures, typically composed of two layers: IP routers deployed in tandem with optical transport nodes. In turn, each of the two layers is typically composed of devices from different vendors, each of which usually supplies its own (proprietary) network management system (NMS). In practice, the lack of broadly accepted mechanisms for enabling interoperability among the different NMSs has led to the isolation of these proprietary systems. As a result, the operation and maintenance tasks on the network are becoming increasingly complex, which is leading to duplication of functions, higher OPEX, and significant delays in the coordination of multi-layer provisioning processes. In this paper, we examine in detail the interoperability challenges of managing multi-layer and multi-vendor carrier-grade networks, and review the current trends and recent standards in the area, with strong focus on industrial advances. We cover the Multi-Technology Operations System Interface (MTOSI) as well as OpenFlow, and analyze their potential impact and reach. We also discuss some of the reasons why relevant carrier-grade management proposals have not been able to fulfill the requirements of Internet service providers (ISPs), and identify a set of features that might help pave the way to market for new management products. View full abstract»

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  • Survey on Free Space Optical Communication: A Communication Theory Perspective

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2231 - 2258
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Optical wireless communication (OWC) refers to transmission in unguided propagation media through the use of optical carriers, i.e., visible, infrared (IR), and ultraviolet (UV) bands. In this survey, we focus on outdoor terrestrial OWC links which operate in near IR band. These are widely referred to as free space optical (FSO) communication in the literature. FSO systems are used for high rate communication between two fixed points over distances up to several kilometers. In comparison to radio-frequency (RF) counterparts, FSO links have a very high optical bandwidth available, allowing much higher data rates. They are appealing for a wide range of applications such as metropolitan area network (MAN) extension, local area network (LAN)-to-LAN connectivity, fiber back-up, backhaul for wireless cellular networks, disaster recovery, high definition TV and medical image/video transmission, wireless video surveillance/monitoring, and quantum key distribution among others. Despite the major advantages of FSO technology and variety of its application areas, its widespread use has been hampered by its rather disappointing link reliability particularly in long ranges due to atmospheric turbulence-induced fading and sensitivity to weather conditions. In the last five years or so, there has been a surge of interest in FSO research to address these major technical challenges. Several innovative physical layer concepts, originally introduced in the context of RF systems, such as multiple-input multiple-output communication, cooperative diversity, and adaptive transmission have been recently explored for the design of next generation FSO systems. In this paper, we present an up-to-date survey on FSO communication systems. The first part describes FSO channel models and transmitter/receiver structures. In the second part, we provide details on information theoretical limits of FSO channels and algorithmic-level system design research activities to approach these limits. Specifi- topics include advances in modulation, channel coding, spatial/cooperative diversity techniques, adaptive transmission, and hybrid RF/FSO systems. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Resource Provisioning for Energy Efficiency in Wireless Access Networks: A Survey and an Outlook

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2259 - 2285
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    Traditionally, energy efficiency aspects have been included in the wireless access network design space only in the context of power control aimed at interference mitigation and for the increase of the terminal battery lifetime. Energy consumption of network components has also, for a long time, not been considered an issue, neither in equipment design nor in network planning and management. However, in recent years, with the user demand increasing at nearly exponential pace and margins rapidly shrinking, concerns about energy efficiency have been raised, with the objective of reducing network operational costs (not to mention the environmental issues). Installing more energy-efficient hardware does not seem to fully solve the problem, since wireless access networks are almost invariably (over)provisioned with respect to the peak user demand. This means that efficient resource management schemes, which are capable of controlling how much of the network infrastructure is actually needed and which parts can be temporarily powered off to save energy, can be extremely effective and provide quite large cost reductions. Considering that most of the energy in wireless access networks is consumed in the radio part, dynamic provisioning of wireless access network resources is crucial to achieving energy-efficient operation. The consensus on this approach in the research community has been wide in the last few years, and a large number of solutions have been proposed. In this paper, we survey the most important proposals, considering the two most common wireless access technologies, namely, cellular and WLAN. The main features of the proposed solutions are analyzed and compared, with an outlook on their applicability in typical network scenarios that also include cooperation between both access technologies. Moreover, we provide an overview of the practical implementation aspects that must be addressed to achieve truly energy-efficient wireless access networks, including cur- ent standardization work, and trends in the development of energy-efficient hardware. View full abstract»

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  • 2014 Index IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials Vol. 16

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2286 - 2301
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials is an online journal published by the IEEE Communications Society for tutorials and surveys covering all aspects of the communications field. Telecommunications technology is progressing at a rapid pace, and the IEEE Communications Society is committed to providing researchers and other professionals the information and tools to stay abreast.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Ekram Hossain, Ph.D., P.Eng.
Professor
University of Manitoba