44th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, 2003. Proceedings.

11-14 Oct. 2003

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  • Proceedings 44th IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science - FOCS 2003

    Publication Year: 2003
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (272 KB)

    The following topics are discussed: computer science; network performance analysis; algorithms and data structures, computational complexity, cryptography, computational geometry, algorithmic graph theory and combinatorics, parallel and distributed computing, machine learning, applications of logic, algorithmic algebra and coding theory, theoretical aspects of databases, information retrieval, net... View full abstract»

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  • Machine learning: my favorite results, directions, and open problems

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s): 2
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  • Mixing [Markov chain]

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):4 - 15
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (352 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In this paper, we introduce the notion of a Markov chain and explore how it can be used to sample from a large set of configurations. Our primary focus is determining how quickly a Markov chain "mixes," or converges to its stationary distribution, as this is the key factor in the running time. We provide an overview of several techniques used to establish good bounds on the mixing time. The applic... View full abstract»

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  • Performance analysis of dynamic processes

    Publication Year: 2003
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (176 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The article covers various approaches for modeling and analyzing dynamic processes in networks. Modeling the dynamic performance as a stochastic process, we apply tools from discrete and continuous time Markov processes theory, renewal theory and queuing theory to analyze the long term, steady state performance of the processes. Non-stochastic approaches include adversarial queuing theory, and gam... View full abstract»

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  • A polynomial algorithm for recognizing perfect graphs

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):20 - 27
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    We present a polynomial algorithm for recognizing whether a graph is perfect, thus settling a long standing open question. The algorithm uses a decomposition theorem of Conforti, Cornuejols and Vuskovic. Another polynomial algorithm for recognizing perfect graphs, which does not use decomposition, was obtained simultaneously by Chudnovsky and Seymour. Both algorithms need a first phase developed j... View full abstract»

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  • On certain connectivity properties of the Internet topology

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):28 - 35
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (433 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    We show that random graphs in the preferential connectivity model have constant conductance, and hence have worst-case routing congestion that scales logarithmically with the number of nodes. Another immediate implication is constant spectral gap between the first and second eigenvalues of the random walk matrix associated with these graphs. We also show that the expected frugality (overpayment in... View full abstract»

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  • Paths, trees, and minimum latency tours

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):36 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (31)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (351 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    We give improved approximation algorithms for a variety of latency minimization problems. In particular, we give a 3.59-approximation to the minimum latency problem, improving on previous algorithms by a multiplicative factor of 2. Our techniques also give similar improvements for related problems like k-traveling repairmen and its multiple depot variant. We also observe that standard techniques c... View full abstract»

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  • Approximation algorithms for orienteering and discounted-reward TSP

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):46 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (331 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In this paper, we give the first constant-factor approximation algorithm for the rooted orienteering problem, as well as a new problem that we call the Discounted-Reward TSP, motivated by robot navigation. In both problems, we are given a graph with lengths on edges and prizes (rewards) on nodes, and a start node s. In the orienteering problem, the goal is to find a path that maximizes the reward ... View full abstract»

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  • Approximation algorithms for asymmetric TSP by decomposing directed regular multigraphs

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):56 - 65
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (537 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    A directed multigraph is said to be d-regular if the indegree and outdegree of every vertex is exactly d. By Hall's theorem one can represent such a multigraph as a combination of at most n/sup 2/ cycle covers each taken with an appropriate multiplicity. We prove that if the d-regular multigraph does not contain more than /spl lfloor/d/2/spl rfloor/ copies of any 2-cycle then we can find a similar... View full abstract»

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  • On the implementation of huge random objects

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):68 - 79
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    We initiate a general study of pseudo-random implementations of huge random objects, and apply it to a few areas in which random objects occur naturally. For example, a random object being considered may be a random connected graph, a random bounded-degree graph, or a random error-correcting code with good distance. A pseudo-random implementation of such type T objects must generate objects of typ... View full abstract»

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  • Zero-knowledge sets

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):80 - 91
    Cited by:  Papers (34)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (611 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    We show how a polynomial-time prover can commit to an arbitrary finite set S of strings so that, later on, he can, for any string x, reveal with a proof whether x /spl isin/ S or x /spl notin/ S, without revealing any knowledge beyond the verity of these membership assertions. Our method is non interactive. Given a public random string, the prover commits to a set by simply posting a short and eas... View full abstract»

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  • Deterministic extractors for bit-fixing sources and exposure-resilient cryptography

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):92 - 101
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (376 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    We give an efficient deterministic algorithm which extracts /spl Omega/(n/sup 2/spl gamma//) almost-random bits from sources where n/sup 1/2 + /spl gamma// of the n bits are uniformly random and the rest are fixed in advance. This improves on previous constructions which required that at least n/2 of the bits be random. Our construction also gives explicit adaptive exposure-resilient functions and... View full abstract»

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  • On the (In)security of the Fiat-Shamir paradigm

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):102 - 113
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (508 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In 1986, Fiat and Shamir proposed a general method for transforming secure 3-round public-coin identification schemes into digital signature schemes. The idea of the transformation was to replace the random message of the verifier in the identification scheme, with the value of some deterministic hash function evaluated on various quantities in the protocol and on the message to be signed. The Fia... View full abstract»

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  • Locally testable cyclic codes

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):116 - 125
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (842 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Cyclic linear codes of block length n over a finite field F/sub q/ are the linear subspaces of F/sub q//sup n/ that are invariant under a cyclic shift of their coordinates. A family of codes is good if all the codes in the family have constant rate and constant normalized distance (distance divided by block length). It is a long-standing open problem whether there exists a good family of cyclic li... View full abstract»

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  • List-decoding using the XOR lemma

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):126 - 135
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (340 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    We show that Yao's XOR Lemma, and its essentially equivalent rephrasing as a Direct Product Lemma, can be re-interpreted as a way of obtaining error-correcting codes with good list-decoding algorithms from error-correcting codes having weak unique-decoding algorithms. To get codes with good rate and efficient list decoding algorithms, one needs a proof of the Direct Product Lemma that, respectivel... View full abstract»

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  • On /spl epsiv/-biased generators in NC/sup 0/

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):136 - 145
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (354 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    M. Cryan and P.B. Miltersen (2001) recently considered the question of whether there can be a pseudorandom generator in NC/sup 0/, that is, a pseudorandom generator that maps n bits strings to m bits strings and such that every bit of the output depends on a constant number k of bits of the seed. They show that for k = 3, if m /spl ges/ 4n + 1, there is a distinguisher; in fact, they show that in ... View full abstract»

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  • Proving hard-core predicates using list decoding

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):146 - 157
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1117 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    We introduce a unifying framework for proving that predicate P is hard-core for a one-way function f, and apply it to a broad family of functions and predicates, reproving old results in an entirely different way as well as showing new hard-core predicates for well known one-way function candidates. Our framework extends the list-coding method of Goldreich and Levin for showing hard-core predicate... View full abstract»

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  • Instability of FIFO at arbitrarily low rates in the adversarial queuing model

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):160 - 167
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    We study the stability of the commonly used packet forwarding protocol, FIFO (First In First Out), in the adversarial queuing model. We prove that FIFO can become unstable, i.e., lead to unbounded buffer-occupancies and queuing delays, at arbitrarily low injection rates. In order to demonstrate instability at rate r, we use a network of size polynomial in 1/r. View full abstract»

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  • Proofs of the Parisi and Coppersmith-Sorkin conjectures for the finite random assignment problem

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):168 - 178
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (628 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Suppose that there are n jobs and n machines and it costs c/sub ij/ to execute job i on machine j. The assignment problem concerns the determination of a one-to-one assignment of jobs onto machines so as to minimize the cost of executing all the jobs. The average case analysis of the classical random assignment problem has received a lot of interest in the recent literature, mainly due to the foll... View full abstract»

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  • Always Good Turing: asymptotically optimal probability estimation

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):179 - 188
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (896 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    While deciphering the German Enigma code during World War II, I.J. Good and A.M. Turing considered the problem of estimating a probability distribution from a sample of data. They derived a surprising and unintuitive formula that has since been used in a variety of applications and studied by a number of researchers. Borrowing an information-theoretic and machine-learning framework, we define the ... View full abstract»

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  • Learning DNF from random walks

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):189 - 198
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (341 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    We consider a model of learning Boolean functions from examples generated by a uniform random walk on {0, 1}/sup n/. We give a polynomial time algorithm for learning decision trees and DNF formulas in this model. This is the first efficient algorithm for learning these classes in a natural passive learning model where the learner has no influence over the choice of examples used for learning. View full abstract»

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  • Quantum search of spatial regions

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):200 - 209
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1040 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Can Grover's quantum search algorithm speed up search of a physical region - for example a 2D grid of size /spl radic/n x /spl radic/n? The problem is that /spl radic/n time seems to be needed for each query, just to move amplitude across the grid. Here we show that this problem can be surmounted, refuting a claim to the contrary by Benioff. In particular, we show how to search a d-dimensional hyp... View full abstract»

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  • A lattice problem in quantum NP

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):210 - 219
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (707 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    We consider coGapSVP/sub /spl radic/n/, a gap version of the shortest vector in a lattice problem. This problem is known to be in AM /spl cap/ coNP but is not known to be in NP or in MA. We prove that it lies inside QMA, the quantum analogue of NP. This is the first non-trivial upper bound on the quantum complexity of a lattice problem. The proof relies on two novel ideas. First, we give a new cha... View full abstract»

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  • A lower bound for the bounded round quantum communication complexity of set disjointness

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):220 - 229
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (346 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    We show lower bounds in the multi-party quantum communication complexity model. In this model, there are t parties where the ith party has input X/sub i/ /spl sube/ [n]. These parties communicate with each other by transmitting qubits to determine with high probability the value of some function F of their combined input (X/sub 1/,...,X/sub t/). We consider the class of Boolean valued functions wh... View full abstract»

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  • Polynomial degree vs. quantum query complexity

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):230 - 239
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (346 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The degree of a polynomial representing (or approximating) a function f is a lower bound for the quantum query complexity of f. This observation has been a source of many lower bounds on quantum algorithms. It has been an open problem whether this lower bound is tight. We exhibit a function with polynomial degree M and quantum query complexity (M/sup 1.321.../). This is the first superlinear separ... View full abstract»

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