Proceedings of the IEEE 7th Conference on Human Factors and Power Plants

19-19 Sept. 2002

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  • New Century, New Trends. Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE 7th Conference on Human Factors and Power Plants (Cat. No.02CH37355)

    Publication Year: 2002
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  • Understanding accidents-from root causes to performance variability

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s): 1
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (681 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    When an accident happens, it is obviously important to understand what caused it in order to take effective preventive measures. Accident analysis always implies an accident model, i.e., a set of assumptions of what the underlying "mechanisms" are. Over the last 50-75 years there have been significant changes in accident models, leading to changes in the methods and goals of accident analysis. In ... View full abstract»

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  • Internet reporting, analysis, and sharing of information about incidents and root causes

    Publication Year: 2002
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (64 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Since the advent of the "Information Superhighway" and its subsequent growth through the 1990s, it has become one of the most powerful tools in industry. From e-mail to ebusiness, this tool gives us a communication path with almost unlimited potential and opportunity. Many companies have capitalized on this opportunity by building internal communication systems that use the Internet as part of the... View full abstract»

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  • The use of organizational profiling in the prevention of accidents

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s): 2
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    The traditional role of root cause of failure investigation is to prevent the recurrence of organizational accidents. The goal of these investigations is the reactive correction of negative performance shaping factors, and the strengthening of failed or missing barriers. More recently, trending, common cause analysis, and the identification of mitigating factors have been promoted to correct highe... View full abstract»

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  • New century, same humanity on a collision course

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s): 2
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    Having become recently immersed in the paradigms of nuclear power generation, especially as they relate to "human performance," the author is somewhat aghast at the current trend in thinking: "we have finally figured out how to operate our equipment without failure-now we're going to do the same with the human." Human beings have always been the same, and will always be the same. We make mistakes.... View full abstract»

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  • Effective trending of human performance data

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s): 2
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    In any labor-intensive industry there is a need to continuously improve performance of employees and the processes that guide them. One challenge in achieving this goal is the integration of human performance monitoring processes and the subsequent trend analysis of data collected. Such integration can be technically challenging if not incorporated in the processes prior to implementation. This is... View full abstract»

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  • Why people don't develop effective corrective actions

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s): 2
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (468 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Finding the root causes of problems is only half the story. Before a problem is fixed, someone must develop effective corrective actions. Why, even when the root causes are staring them in the face, do so many people still fail to develop effective corrective actions? This paper will draw on the observations of the authors' experience with incident investigators and investigative teams at power pl... View full abstract»

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  • Lessons learned: improving performance through organizational learning

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s): 2
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (489 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Improving organizational effectiveness, efficiency and innovation through organizational learning has been a focus of increasing attention since the mid 1990s. Lessons learned programs, as management systems for capturing and communicating experiential learning, have become central to organizational learning initiatives. Until recently efforts to develop lessons learned programs have been ad hoc a... View full abstract»

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  • Impact of systematic data collection on training control room crews

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s): 3
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (511 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The paper covers potential improvements in the performance of individuals, crews and training program to be gained from improved data collection and analysis. A key element in the systematic approach to training (SAT) is the use of feedback to improve the quality of performance. What is proposed is a more organized approach to satisfy the feedback requirement based on better methods of data collec... View full abstract»

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  • Performance time evaluation for human reliability analysis using a full-scope simulator of nuclear power plants

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s): 3
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (607 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    With empirical data being scarce, much of input information to human reliability analysis (HRA) is dependent on the analysts' subjective judgment. In order to obtain more objective HRA results and for the analysis of error causes and provision of error reduction measures, data extracted from real events are essential. This paper presents the result of human performance analysis on emergency tasks ... View full abstract»

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  • Critique of current human reliability analysis methods

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s): 3
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (768 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This paper is a critical review of human reliability analysis methods and techniques as applied in current probabilistic safety assessments of nuclear power plants. Practitioners continue to rely on concepts, data and methodologies that have seen relatively little change since the early 1970s, however. The generic human reliability data developed for the seminal 1975 Reactor Safety Study is still ... View full abstract»

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  • An approach to data collection for crew performance decision making

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s): 3
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    As the field of human reliability analysis (HRA) matures, increasingly it is recognized that crew performance influences the character of operating events. This paper discusses the basis underlying the HRA characterization and quantification of crew decision processes that materially contribute to performance in response to abnormal conditions. This basis is the result of interpreting crew perform... View full abstract»

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  • Decision and commission errors-from identification to quantification issues

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s): 3
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    The issue of errors of commissions (EOCs) is a focus of recent research in human reliability analysis (HRA). A key problem has been to develop efficient schemes for identifying risk-significant EOC situations. The results now emerging are promising in terms of the identification problem. As long as quantification remains problematic, however, the question of quantitative risk significance can be a... View full abstract»

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  • Differences between human reliability approaches in nuclear- and aviation-safety

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s):3 - 39
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    Any industry has its own constraints which led to certain approaches for running the business and for dealing with safety issues. However serious events and accidents are showing that industries can learn a lot from each other, in particular in the field of human factors and human errors. This paper is a contribution to a cross-industry discussion of human factor issues. It outlines an approach to... View full abstract»

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  • Human performance contribution to risk in nuclear power operating events

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s): 3
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (885 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This paper presents results of a study of the contributions of human performance to risk in operating events at commercial nuclear power plants. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored the study, which was performed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The NRC Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program and the Human Performance Events Database (HPED) wer... View full abstract»

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  • Task network modeling: resolving manning issues in complex environments

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s): 4
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Limitations that humans impose on task execution are rarely integrated into simulations of complex systems, resulting in loss of outcome fidelity. A discrete-event simulation tool has been used to model the impact of human interactions in US Navy and Coast Guard vessels. Models for these vessels have been used to estimate workload and fatigue. In workload measuring applications detailed task netwo... View full abstract»

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  • A model to predict fatigue degraded performance

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s): 4
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (436 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Maintaining alertness has always been a critical problem for personnel on shift work supporting around the clock operations. Yet vigilance on duty is increasingly threatened by a reliance on sophisticated electronic systems with the attendant increase in the cognitive workload, by a greater reliance on protracted, continuous operations, particularly at night, and by the current emphasis on reduced... View full abstract»

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  • Human-centered automation experimental studies of two human-machine interface designs

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s): 4
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (899 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Lack of information about the automatic system's activity has been suggested to markedly decrease the effectiveness of operator-automation interaction. The Human-Centered Automation Program at the OECD Halden Reactor Project performed two closely related experiments to examine how operators handled two types of automation malfunctions when working from two types of human-machine interfaces: one pr... View full abstract»

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  • Decision-centered design as the basis of defining the human role in systems

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s): 4
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In the last decade, controls research has focused on the interaction between the controlled plant and a computer controller, but in many situations a human operator is an integral part of the system. The operator interface to the system must support operators to maintain situational awareness and vigilance, and alert them when their intervention is required. The interface must be designed to allow... View full abstract»

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  • Updating the NRC's guidance for human factors engineering reviews

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s): 4
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (588 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear plants. NUREG-0800 (Standard Review Plan), Chapter 18, "Human Factors Engineering," is the principal NRC staff guidance document. Two main documents provide the review criteria to support the evaluations. The HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711) addresses the design process from planning to v... View full abstract»

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  • Future trends in computerized operation

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s): 4
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (406 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The notion of a functional approach is a very general concept, which is today followed by numerous organizations. However, the way to deeply use from the basic design phase to the design of the operating means could widely differ. This paper presents how to control the complexity of the plants and their operation by introducing structuring elements making it possible to better understand their ope... View full abstract»

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  • Interface design for the electrical and hydraulic control system of nuclear power plants

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s): 4
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (687 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This study discusses the interface design of an automatic control system, the electrical and hydraulic control (EHC) system of nuclear power plants (NPPs) from two points of view, viz, how to identify information contents that should be displayed in an interface in a cognitive relevant way and how to visualize these information contents in the interface efficiently. Firstly, a set of functional pr... View full abstract»

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  • A new integrated BWR supervision and control system

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s): 4
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (951 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This paper describes research activities at the Halden Project's Man-Machine Laboratory, HAMMLAB related to development of a new integrated BWR supervision and control system. A new advanced BWR simulator (HAMBO) was installed in HAMMLAB in the summer 2000, and has since been utilised in the Halden Project research programme, and in programmes funded by Swedish and Finnish BWR utilities. The reaso... View full abstract»

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  • Experimental studies of potential safety-significant factors in the application of computer-based procedure systems

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s): 4
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (804 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The Halden Reactor Project will in 2002 and 2003 perform a series of simulator experiments on computer-based procedure (CBP) systems in the Halden Man-Machine Laboratory (HAMMLAB). Crews of licensed operators will be engaged in safety relevant scenarios while operating from CBP systems with various degrees of automation. The effect of the level of automation on the crews' performance will be asses... View full abstract»

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  • Bayesian network modeling of operator's intent inference

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s): 4
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (572 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    While human ability has not changed within limitations, machine systems have become more complicated. Humans, therefore, developed automation systems, but this caused human errors in some situations. We need the intent inference method in order to solve these problems because intent inference is an important element of proposing system information optimally. In this paper, we propose an intent inf... View full abstract»

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