Proceedings of a Special Symposium on Maturing Technologies and Emerging Horizons in Biomedical Engineering.

4-7 Nov. 1988

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  • Proceedings of a Special Symposium on Maturing Technologies and Emerging Horizons in Biomedical Engineering (IEEE Cat. No.88CH2670-8)

    Publication Year: 1988
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • State-of-the-art in measuring brain signals of cognition

    Publication Year: 1988
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (78 KB)

    Useful information about the anatomical distribution of brain systems involved in cognition has been obtained by measuring regional blood flow, as well as glucose and oxygen uptake, with radioactive isotopes and tomographic reconstruction procedures. However, critical information about the split-second timing of neurocognitive processes has been unobtainable with these procedures. Electroencephalo... View full abstract»

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  • Magnetic techniques for evaluating peripheral nerve function

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):2 - 9
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (547 KB)

    Experimental and theoretical studies of the magnetic field of isolated, giant nerve axons are being extended to the study of nerve bundles. The theoretical models use effective anisotropic conductivities that depend on the spatial and temporal frequencies of the transmembrane action potential to account for the effect of adjacent myelinated fibers on both the action current and the extracellular p... View full abstract»

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  • Basic mechanisms of magnetic coil excitation of nervous system in humans and monkeys and their applications

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):10 - 17
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (679 KB)

    Conclusions from studies utilizing the human peripheral nerve as a model system in developing the optimal magnetic coil (MC) orientation for focal stimulation were applied to the human cerebral cortex. The theoretical predictions were validated by direct recording from corticospinal neurons in the monkey. Appropriate MC orientation over the cerebral cortex elicits: (1) minimal central motor delays... View full abstract»

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  • Motor patterns in amputee gait: motor adaptions and implications for redesign

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):18 - 19
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (151 KB)

    The author presents case studies illustrating the adaptations of the amputee, expected or unexpected. Both below-the-knee and above-the-knee amputees are considered. Detailed biomechanical analyses of different level prostheses demonstrate not only how the mechanisms within the prostheses are working but also the motor adaptions of the residual muscles.<<ETX>> View full abstract»

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  • Through the looking glass: emerging horizons in rehabilitation engineering

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):20 - 25
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (678 KB)

    The author discusses problems in defining rehabilitation engineering. He then provides an overview of the various forms of sensory and motor augmentation or substitution. These include tactile visual systems, visual cortex neuroprostheses, mobility and navigational devices, and other aids for the blind, deaf, and mute, as well as for those individuals paralyzed at least from the hip downward by sp... View full abstract»

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  • Clinical consequences of laser/tissue interaction

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):26 - 29
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (308 KB)

    Basic principles of laser/tissue interaction are identified. The basic mechanisms of lasing, laser parameters, and tissue optics and photochemistry are discussed. Nonthermal and thermal effects of lasers on tissue are described. These effects are then examined in the context of surgical applications of lasers.<<ETX>> View full abstract»

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  • Photodynamic therapy of infectious and malignant diseases

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):30 - 32
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (242 KB)

    The application of light-induced or photodynamic chemical reactions for inactivating or killing both disease-causing organisms and malignant tumors is discussed. Currently, Phase-III, FDA-sanctioned trials are under way using the initially commercially developed porphyrin photosensitizer, dihematopor-phyrin ether. They are designed to ascertain if photodynamic therapy is efficacious in treating ca... View full abstract»

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  • New and potential medical applications for flashlamp excited dye lasers

    Publication Year: 1988
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (21 KB)

    Summary form only given. Flashlamp-excited dye lasers (FEDL) are routinely used today to treat effectively urinary calculi and cutaneous vascular lesions. Although the types of lasers used for these are both FEDLs, their outputs are vastly different. For stone fragmentation, microsecond, millijoule pulses in the blue-green are used, while for vascular lesions, yellow millisecond-regime, multi-joul... View full abstract»

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  • Photobiological basis of laser biostimulation

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):34 - 35
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (83 KB)

    Quantitative studies of the action of low-power visible monochromatic light on various cells (E.coli, yeasts, HeLa) were performed to find irradiation conditions (wavelength, dose, intensity) conducive to vital activity stimulation. The action spectra of visible light on DNA and RNA synthesis in HeLa cells have maxima near 404, 620, 680, 760, and 830 nm. Growth stimulation of E.coli is at maximum ... View full abstract»

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  • Treatment of tachyarrhythmias with implantable devices

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):36 - 41
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (371 KB)

    The advantages of using implantable devices for the control of arrhythmias and the factors hindering their broad clinical acceptance are enumerated. The various types of arrhythmias are identified. The steps that must be taken to determine the applicability of implantable stimulators are outlined. Technical problems are discussed. The evolution of techniques and devices is examined.<<ETX>... View full abstract»

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  • Implantable drug delivery system to control arrhythmia

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):42 - 47
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (601 KB)

    The feasibility of automatic drug delivery in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmia has been studied. In its clinical implementation this system consists of a computerized bedside rhythm monitor connected to an intravenous pump. It has been demonstrated in animals and in patients that therapeutic drug levels in the blood are rapidly established. An implantable version of such a system has been devel... View full abstract»

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  • FDA rules for the medical device engineer

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):48 - 49
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (101 KB)

    Since enactment of the Medical Device Amendments to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act in 1976, the US Food and Drug Administration has implemented rules that impinge on the design and testing of virtually all medical devices. These rules are described. The availability of FDA staff for informal guidance is noted.<<ETX>> View full abstract»

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  • Industry concerns with the regulatory process

    Publication Year: 1988
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (23 KB)

    Summary form only given, as follows. The Food and Drug Administration has a significant responsibility to protect the public health by regulating the clinical investigation and marketing approval of new medical device technologies. The medical device industry is also concerned with protecting and improving the public health by marketing new technologies available. It sometimes appears to industry ... View full abstract»

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  • FDA review of software: Discussion of the proposed reviewer's guide

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):51 - 54
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (300 KB)

    The widespread application of microprocessors to medical devices has led to a need by FDA for internal reviewer guidance that will establish uniform review criteria for software. A software committee in the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) was created to establish a reviewer's guidance document for computer-controlled medical devices. A guidance document was drafted by the committ... View full abstract»

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  • Postural reactions associated with intentional segmental movements

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):56 - 57
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (133 KB)

    Anticipatory postural adjustments (APA) associated with intentional movement were studied in relation to dynamic asymmetry, a factor that characterizes the perturbing effect of movement on body equilibrium. Simultaneously, local movements were studied by electromography and accelerometry, and general body movements were investigated by the means of a force plate. The results showed that APA were s... View full abstract»

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  • EMG of repetitive and rhythmic (sports) movements

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):58 - 59
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (154 KB)

    EMG was measured (both online and remote) on a seven-channel FM data recording system (TEAC) with preamplified active surface electrodes and an additional portable amplification unit. In segmental sports movements, the EMG was simultaneously and continuously combined with force registrations: in swimming by using an active drag measuring system, and in cycling through miniature force platforms on ... View full abstract»

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  • Extraterritorial motor unit action potentials

    Publication Year: 1988
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (48 KB)

    Summary form only given. Extraterritorial motor unit action potentials (EMUAP) were recorded in different human muscles: at low muscle activity by skin electrodes and penetrating electrodes and at high muscle activity by averaging the interferent EMG triggered by single motor unit impulses recorded by a selective electrode. Two types of selective 'branched' electrodes were constructed and used: su... View full abstract»

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  • Three dimensional imaging, the first decade

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):61 - 64
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (406 KB)

    The author discusses his use of three-dimensional imaging for the past decade to provide clinical information to surgeons. It has been used in craniofacial disorders, cerebrovascular disorders, tumors of the skull base, spinal disorders, and other osseous disorders. He observes that the increased cost of production of the studies is more than offset by the reduced operating room and hospital stay ... View full abstract»

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  • Computerized three-dimensional volume analysis from magnetic resonance images for characterization of brain disorders

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):65 - 67
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (380 KB)

    Quantitation of regional brain function as a means for the characterization of brain disorders is discussed. Such quantitation can be accomplished by three-dimensional volume analysis based on magnetic resonance images, even though simple thresholding cannot be used for the segmentation of such images. As a first step toward such analysis, techniques for identifying and isolating the contents of t... View full abstract»

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  • 3-D reconstruction imaging

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):68 - 73
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (570 KB)

    The authors discuss the reconstruction of contiguous, high-resolution CT scan images from patients with complex deformities of the skeleton using computer graphics techniques. The techniques, originally developed to simplify the interpretation and improve the utility of CT scans of the face and skull, have been extended to disorders of the pelvis and hips, wrist, spine, and cardiovascular system. ... View full abstract»

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  • Current emphasis in biomagnetism

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):74 - 77
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (232 KB)

    Modern superconducting-quantum-interference-detector (SQUID)-based biomagnetic field measuring devices can detect fields as weak as tens of femtotesla, which are associated with very small ionic currents within the brain. The author reviews the recent emergence of this discipline as a way to look at the brain as well as other ionic activity within the body. Also discussed is the promise of these t... View full abstract»

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  • Dielectric properties of mammalian tissues

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):78 - 79
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (143 KB)

    Interest in the electrical properties of biological substances, on both the fundamental biophysical and the applied levels, is discussed. Applications include the elucidation of the interaction of electromagnetic fields with biological systems and medical diagnosis and therapy. An overview is given of measurement techniques and instrumentation. Current techniques and results obtained in vivo are e... View full abstract»

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  • Clinical engineering: a prospectus

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):80 - 85
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (557 KB)

    The future of clinical engineering in the health care field is viewed against trends in health care technological advances, economics, demographics, and patterns of illness. A historical overview and a look at the current state of affairs of clinical engineering are presented. The multidisciplinary role of the clinical engineer is examined in the context of the widely varying nature of health care... View full abstract»

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  • Clinical engineering: educational aspects

    Publication Year: 1988
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (92 KB)

    The responsibilities of clinical engineers are delineated. The development of graduate programs for clinical engineers is then discussed. Three aspects of such a program are stressed: (1) individuals interested in clinical engineering must have sufficient background in a particular engineering discipline; (2) it is an interdisciplinary activity and requires sufficient background in human physiolog... View full abstract»

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