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Biomedical Science and Engineering Center Conference (BSEC), 2014 Annual Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Date 6-8 May 2014

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1
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  • [Title page]

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1
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  • [Copyright notice]

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1
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  • A note from the conference chairs

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 3
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  • Neuroscience-inspired inspired dynamic architectures

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (298 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Neuroscience-inspired computational elements and architectures are one of the most popular ideas for replacing the von Neumann architecture. In this work, we propose a neuroscience-inspired dynamic architecture (NIDA) and discuss a method for automatically designing NIDA networks to accomplish tasks. We discuss the reasons we chose evolutionary optimization as the main design method and propose future directions for the work. View full abstract»

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  • Speech perception, production, and the sensorimotor mu rhythm

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (307 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The EEG mu (μ) rhythm is considered a measure of sensorimotor integration. This rhythm is commonly identified by co-occuring peaks at ~10'Hz(alpha) and ~20 Hz (beta) across the sensorimotor cortex. Suppression of the power within peaks are thought to reflect somatosensory and motor aspects of processing respectively. Suppression of μ power (especially in the beta peak) has been found when performing, imagining or perceiving relevant action (e.g., while watching hand movements and oro-facial movements). μ suppression has also been found to visual speech perception, listening to speech in noise, and when mentally segmenting speech for auditory discrimination, suggesting that it is a sensitive measure of audio-motor integration in speech. The two main goals in this study are to bolster understanding of the timing and function of dorsal stream activity in speech perception by examining ERS/ERD patterns in quiet and noisy discrimination conditions and to provide initial evidence that, via the application of ICA / ERSP, the use of EEG can be extended effectively into speech production. 17 of 20 participants provided left and right p components that were common to perception and production tasks. The most probably source of these components was the premotor cortex (BA 6) with primary motor cortex (BA 4) and primary somatosensory (BA 2/3) cortex providing additional possible sources. Fewer (8 and 7 of 20) participants provided components with average equivalent dipoles emanating from BA 22 and BA 7, respectively, with alpha activity suggesting entrainment within the dorsal stream. View full abstract»

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  • An experimental study on SpO2 data acquisition and processing in a general body area network

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (827 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a major public health concern today. It is a leading contributor to chronic morbidity throughout the world and many who suffer from it die prematurely due to the worsening of symptoms called exacerbations. Therefore, we must design robust systems which not only perform real time monitoring of the patient's body parameters, but also detect changes in physical activity and physiological responses during an exacerbation. The principal method for monitoring a COPD patient is to use a pulse oximeter to measure the oxygen levels in the blood. This paper will detail the design and development of a pulse oximeter platform built into an everyday wireless mouse. Implementing the sensor into a commonly used device allows it to be more accessible and less cumbersome for patients with COPD. View full abstract»

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  • EEG multiscale entropy dynamics in mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer's disease

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2352 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a neurological condition that is often the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This pilot study explores event-related multiscale entropy (MSE) measures as features for effectively discriminating between normal aging, MCI, and AD participants. Thirty two-channel scalp EEG records recorded during a working memory task from 43 age-matched participants (mean age 75.7 years)-17 normal controls (NC), 16 MCI, and 10 early ADare examined. Multiscale entropy curves are computed for responses during the working memory task. Support vector machine models are constructed to perform binary discriminations among the three groups. Leave-one-out cross-validation accuracies of 87.9% (p-value <1.322E-4) for MCI vs. NC, 88.9% (p-value <2.886E-5) for AD vs. NC, and 92.3% (p-value <4.910E-6) for MCI vs. AD are achieved. Results demonstrate links between event-related multiscale entropy dynamics of EEG and short-term memory deficits. View full abstract»

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  • The mammalian circadian clock exhibits chronic tolerance to alcohol in vitro

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (497 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Alcohol abuse leads to cognitive defects, depression, and sleep disturbances. The connection between sleep and circadian disruptions led us to investigate ethanol's effect on the circadian clock. We demonstrated that acute ethanol blocks photic phase shifts in vivo and glutamatergic phase shifts in vitro. Ethanol exposure can lead to acute, rapid and/or chronic tolerance. We determined that the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) circadian clock exhibits acute (developing in <30 min) tolerance in vitro and rapid (develops in 8–24 h) tolerance in vitro and in vivo. We are currently investigating chronic tolerance. C57BL/6 mice are given access to 15% ethanol between zeitgeber time (ZT) 11 (where ZT 0 = lights-on and ZT 12 = lights off) and ZT 15 for 10 days. SCN brain slices were made the following morning and treated at either ZT 16 or ZT 23 with glutamate (1mM) + ethanol for 10 min. The next day SCN neuronal activity was monitored to determine the time of peak activity. 20mM ethanol blocks glutamatergic phase shifts in tissue from ethanol-naïve mice, while 200mM ethanol is needed in tissue from ethanol-exposed mice. These data suggest a similar shift in effective concentration as that seen during rapid tolerance. Currently we are investigating potential changes in surface expression of NR2B across the circadian cycle (at ZT 6, ZT 16, and ZT 23) and in response to ethanol consumption. Preliminary data suggests that surface expression of NR2B is highest at ZT 16 and lowest at ZT 23. Future experiments will expand on these studies. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear two stage mechanotransduction model and neural response of Pacinian Corpuscle

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1082 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a biomechanical and neurophysiological model of skin and Pacinian Corpuscle (PC) to simulate its neural response over few 10s of Hz to 2000 Hz obtained from experiments. The PC neural responses are studied with sinusoidal stimuli to elucidate the relation between receptor potential and action potential and its variabilities. The overall model includes mechanical signal conditioning in both skin-layers and PC-lamellae, electro-mechanical transduction in the inner core of PC, followed by an improved Adaptive Relaxation Pulse Frequency Modulation (ARPFM). This model can be extended to simulate a group of PCs including many other variabilities in PC which will help in enhancing the technologies related to perception of vibration. View full abstract»

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  • Brain imaging using fast neutron spectroscopy

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1688 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Most clinical methods of imaging the brain rely on imaging the anatomic and functional changes accompanying disease in brain tissue. This approach, although successful, has two limitations: first, the abnormality of interest must be large enough to be imaged using existing technologies, and second, confirmation of the abnormality usually requires a biopsy. To overcome limitations, we describe here a new method of brain imaging that uses fast neutrons to image the element distribution within the brain tissue and identify disease based on relative concentration gradients in different regions of the brain. The method, called Neutron Stimulated Emission Computed Tomography, has been successfully tested previously in imaging cancers in the breast, liver, kidneys and colon. Here we describe a study demonstrating the potential of the technology in detecting deep-seated brain tumors using a different signature compared to other imaging methods. View full abstract»

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  • LRP-1 modulates glutamate-induced phase shifting in the mouse SCN circadian clock

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (693 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the mammalian circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) glutamate mimics light-induced phase shifts through activating NMDA receptors (NMDAR). These phase shifts require concurrent activation of TrkB receptors by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). tPA contributes to phase shifting by influencing mBDNF generation. tPA also binds to receptors, including LRP-1 and may modulate phase shifting through non-proteolytic mechanisms related to such receptor binding. Here we investigate the effects of inhibiting LRP-1 on glutamate induced phase shifts, using either receptor associated protein (RAP) or an anti-LRP-1 polyclonal antibody to inhibit LRP-1 activity. SCN brain slices from adult male C57BL/6 mice were treated with glutamate (1mM) +/- RAP (500nM) or anti-LRP-1 antibody (75μg/mL) at ZT 16 or ZT 23 (where ZT 0=lights-on in the animal colony) for 10 minutes. The following day we recorded SCN single-unit neuronal activity (SUA) to determine the time of peak activity. Concurrent application of RAP or anti-LRP-1 with glutamate prevents the normal shifts, while RAP alone has no effect on clock phase, suggesting that in the SCN LRP-1 activity is important for glutamate-dependent clock phase regulation. We investigated the potential interaction between tPA and LRP-1 in SCN clock phase shifting using tPA knockout (KO) mice, B6.129S2-PlattmlMlg/J. First we characterized the SUA rhythm in control tPA KO brain slices and after glutamate treatment. SCN slices from adult male tPA KO mice exhibit normally phased neuronal activity rhythms, and 10μM glutamate at ZT16 and ZT23 induces phase delays and phase advances, respectively. Thus, tPA KO mice do not exhibit severe deficiencies in clock phase regulation, possibly reflecting redundant mBDNF-generating pathways. Finally, RAP inhibits glutamate phase resetting in tPA KO slices, indicating LRP-1 does not act exclusively through interactions with tPA. Future studies will cont- nue exploring tPA and LRP-1regulation of SCN circadian clock phase. View full abstract»

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  • Associative memory in phasing neuron networks

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2838 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We studied pattern formation in a network of coupled Hindmarsh-Rose model neurons and introduced a new model for associative memory retrieval using networks of Kuramoto oscillators. Hindmarsh-Rose Neural Networks can exhibit a rich set of collective dynamics that can be controlled by their connectivity. Specifically, we showed an instance of Hebb's rule where spiking was correlated with network topology. Based on this, we presented a simple model of associative memory in coupled phase oscillators. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of online social networks to understand information sharing behaviors through social cognitive theory

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (433 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Analyzing the contents of online social networks is an effective process for monitoring and understanding peoples' behaviors. Since the nature of conversation and information propagation is similar to traditional conversation and learning, one of the popular socio-cognitive methods, social cognitive theory was applied to online social networks to. Two major news topics about colon cancer were chosen to monitor traffic of Twitter messages. The activity of “leaders” on the issue (i.e., news companies or people will prior Twitter activity on topics related to colon cancer) was monitored. In addition, the activity of “followers”, people who never discussed the topics before, but replied to the discussions was also monitored. Topics that produce tangible benefits such as positive outcomes from appropriate preventive actions received dramatically more attention and online social media traffic. Such characteristics can be explained with social cognitive theory and thus present opportunities for effective health campaigns. View full abstract»

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  • Association of APOE and other genetic polymorphisms with prospective concussion risk in a prospective cohort study of college athletes

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (565 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The management of sports concussion and an understanding of its risk factors are major foci in the literature on athletic injury. Although there is known influence of some genetic polymorphisms (GPs), such as APOE and the APOE promoter, on traumatic brain injury (TBI) outcome in non-athletic populations, very little work has focused on the role these GPs may play in sports concussion. We completed a large (n=3274) multi-center prospective cohort study of college athletes to study possible associations between various GPs and prospectively occurring sports concussion. We found no significant relationship between the APOE e4 allele, the APOE G-219T promoter, the tau exon 6 Ser53pro or the tau His47Tyr GPs on prospective concussion. Additional study of other GPs and haplotype combinations is a next logical step in the search for genetic predisposition to sports-related concussion. View full abstract»

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  • Semantic pattern analysis for verbal fluency based assessment of neurological disorders

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (441 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present preliminary results of semantic pattern analysis of verbal fluency tests used for assessing cognitive psychological and neuropsychological disorders. We posit that recent advances in semantic reasoning and artificial intelligence can be combined to create a standardized computer-aided diagnosis tool to automatically evaluate and interpret verbal fluency tests. Towards that goal, we derive novel semantic similarity (phonetic, phonemic and conceptual) metrics and present the predictive capability of these metrics on a de-identified dataset of participants with and without neurological disorders. View full abstract»

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  • Extraction and analysis of neuron firing signals from deep cortical video microscopy

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (475 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We introduce a method for extracting and analyzing neuronal activity time signals from video of the cortex of a live animal. The signals correspond to the firing activity of individual cortical neurons. Activity signals are based on the changing fluorescence of calcium indicators in the cells over time. We propose a cell segmentation method that relies on a user-specified center point, from which the signal extraction method proceeds. A stabilization approach is used to reduce tissue motion in the video. The extracted signal is then processed to flatten the baseline and detect action potentials. We show results from applying the method to a cortical video of a live mouse. View full abstract»

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  • Noise effects in a dynamic model of attentional switching

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (350 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Attention plays a crucial role in higher cognition in the presence of limited resources. We study attentional mechanisms producing sequential switching between interacting mental modalities. Our model uses dissipative dynamical systems of coupled oscillators modeling various parts of the brain. The dynamics can manifest winnerless competition (WLC) between the oscillators with switching between different modalities. Hete-roclinic cycle is a widely used mathematical image of dynamical switching in WLC. We use the generalized Lotka-Volterra (LV) equations to describe networks with WLC. For simplicity, we assume that there are two subsystems, each is described by three LV equations. Under certain value of mutual coupling one part of the system has topologically equivalent behavior to its initial however the other part exhibits chaotic dynamics. We study the dynamics of the system with intrinsic additive and multiplicative noise components. The coupled attentional system exhibits robust behavior with heteroclinic cycles in the case of multiplicative noise. Additive noise, on the other hand, may lead to the collapse of the complex chaotic dynamics to periodic oscillations. View full abstract»

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  • On neural substrates of cognition: Theory, experiments and application in brain computer interfaces

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1421 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent experiments with high-resolution brain imaging techniques provide an amazing view on the complex spatio-temporal dynamics of cortical processes. There is ample of evidence pointing to frequent transitions between periods of large-scale synchronization and intermittent desynchronization at alpha-theta rates (period length of 0.1 s to 0.25s). These observations have been interpreted based on the cinematic model of cognitive processing. In the corresponding mathematical theories, brains are perceived as open thermodynamic systems converting noisy sensory data into meaningful knowledge. We employ a graph-theoretic model called neuropercolation, which extends the concept of phase transitions to large interactive populations of nerve cells. We show that normal brains operate at the edge of criticality, where phase transitions are manifested via intermittent phase synchronization. Cortical phase transitions are viewed as neural correlates of cognition and serve as basis for non-invasive cognitive monitoring using novel brain-computer interfaces. View full abstract»

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  • Genetic and informatic resources for multi-scale brain research

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (476 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The mammalian brain is a highly complex system with levels of organization that extend from nucleotides to large networks that generate adaptive behavior. To test our understanding of brain function we need to assemble and model interactions across levels. We are doing this for a genetically diverse family of BXD strains. This family has been densely genotyped and phenotyped for thousands of brain-related behavioral, cellular, and molecular traits making this population particularly amenable to multi-scale analysis. Here we provide an example of this type of analysis starting with a well defined trait-cholinergic interneuron number in the dorsal striatum. We show strong associations between cholinergic neuron numbers and alcohol and drug response phenotypes among the BXD population and map part of the variation in coexpression to chromosomes1 and 12. Polymorphisms in Lrfn5 may be responsible for trait variation that maps to the chromosome 12 locus. View full abstract»

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  • Neutron imaging at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Application to biological research

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (904 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Neutron Sciences Directorate (NScD) has recently installed a neutron imaging beamline at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) cold guide hall. The CG-1D beamline supports a broad range of user research spanning from engineering to material research, energy storage, additive manufacturing, vehicle technologies, archaeology, biology, and plant physiology. The beamline performance (spatial resolution, field of view, etc.) and its utilization for biological research are presented. The NScD is also considering a proposal to build the VENUS imaging beamline (beam port 10) at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Unlike CG-1D which provides cold neutrons, VENUS will offer a broad range of neutron wavelengths, from epithermal to cold, and enhanced contrast mechanisms. This new capability will also enable the imaging of thicker biological samples than is currently available at CG-1D. A brief overview of the VENUS capability for biological research is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Neutron imaging: Detection of cancer using animal model

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (361 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Imaging modalities for cancer detection include X-ray, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, positron emission tomography, and optical imaging. Each imaging technology has advantages and disadvantages with limitations either in spatial resolution or sensitivity for cancer detection. Hydrogen nuclei scatter cold neutrons stronger than any other atomic nuclei; therefore hydrogen is a primary contributor to neutron contrast in biological specimens. Neutron imaging for cancer research is an emerging and highly innovative tool that has been intensively exploring over the past three years at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Spontaneous cancers in companion animals offer unique models for human cancer biology. We have demonstrated the uniqueness of neutron radiography to objectively detect tumors from surrounding normal lung tissues at an unprecedented spatial resolution of approximately 100 μm. The neutron images of cancer were correlated and matched with histology data. Neutron imaging has the potential to non-destructively provide complementary information about the structure of cancers in biospecimens. View full abstract»

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  • Revealing the structural details of huntingtin fibrils using small-angle neutron scattering

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2505 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Huntington's disease (HD) involves an abnormally expanded polyglutamine sequence in huntingtin (Htt) protein that makes it highly susceptible to aggregate. A current challenge is to map out the aggregation pathway by identifying the various precursor structures and establishing their roles in the disease. While it is highly suspected that the early oligomer species are responsible for toxicity, characterizing the end-state fibril structure is also a necessary step toward discovering the underlying mechanisms of early aggregate formation. We are actively investigating Htt structural kinetics and the resulting fibrils using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Here, we report on the characterization of fibrils from Htt-exon1-Q40 — a disease relevant Htt peptide as it contains a pathologically expanded glutamine repeat sequence and a proline-rich region. SANS on the end-state fibrils revealed structural similarities to the Perutz ß-helixhollow cylinder model as opposed to the more commonly observed steric zipper structure found for many other amyloid fibrils. The structural details we have identified contribute toward elucidating the mechanism of pathological Htt assembly. View full abstract»

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  • Self-assembled lipid nanoparticles for imaging disease

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 3
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    Self-assembled nanoparticles composed of low-cost phospholipids unilamellar vesicles (ULVEs) were developed and functionalized with molecular targeting agents to target and image brain diseases. View full abstract»

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  • Multi-scale applications of neutron scattering and imaging

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (573 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Neutron scattering and imaging are exquisitely sensitive to differences in the bulk hydrogen content of biological materials. This provides a unique, natural contrast between common classes of biomolecules that can be used to distinguish the individual components of complex biological assemblies, membranes and multicellular tissue systems. Applications in human biology range from atomic-resolution analysis of hydrogen atoms in enzymes, through to multi-scale analysis of hierarchical structures and assemblies involved in disease and extend to sub-millimeter resolution imaging of tissues and organs. The completion of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the upgrade of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provide access to a powerful new suite of instruments that can examine biological structure and function across multiple levels of organization that spanning from molecules to living cells and tissues. View full abstract»

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