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Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC, 2011 Annual International Conference of the IEEE

Date Aug. 30 2011-Sept. 3 2011

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  • Welcome message from IEEE EMBS president

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 2
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  • [Front matter]

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 10
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  • Conference committee

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 26
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  • Exhibitors

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 4
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  • Engineering innovation in global health [advertisement]

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 8
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  • Partnership acknowledgements

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1
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  • General program

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 45
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (375 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Provides an abstract for each of the tutorial presentations and a brief professional biography of each presenter. The complete presentations were not made available for publication as part of the conference proceedings. View full abstract»

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  • Opening keynote luncheon: “The impact of information technology on health care delivery”

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 14
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    Health care providers are facing unprecedented pressures to reduce the cost of care and improve the quality and safety of care. These pressures are expected to lead to significant changes in the structure of the industry and the means used to reimburse care providers. Information technology (IT) is seen as a critical contributor to efforts to transform health care delivery. Leveraging a foundation of broadly adopted electronic health records, IT will have four core impacts: — Enabli and improving health care processes — Delivering knowledge to care providers — Engaging patients — Enabling sophisticated analyses of treatment effectiveness and efficiency For IT to achieve its potential research and innovation will be required in several areas. View full abstract»

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  • Program in chronological order

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 233
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  • Author index

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 186
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  • [Copyright notice]

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1
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  • Keyword index

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 32
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  • Improved quantification of CSF bilirubin in the presence of hemoglobin using least squares curve-fitting

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (697 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a dangerous neurological event with a very short time window for early diagnosis. Clinical diagnoses performed in a lab seek to quantify bilirubin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a biomarker for SAHs; however laboratory assays suffer from lengthy protocols, interference from hemoglobin, and the availability of expertise. Substantial improvements in the determination of bilirubin concentration in the presence of he moglobin in CSF are demonstrated in this work. Concentration estimates within 15% for bilirubin in the range of 0.2 to 1.6 mg /dl were determined for CSF samples containing fresh hemoglobin concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 0.25 g/dl. To demonstrate extensibility of the system with respect to more complete mock SAH samples, sample sets with one additional species of both hemoglobin and bilirubin, methemoglobin and alpha-bilirubin, respectively, were tested and yielded results within 25% of actual values, as measured by standard chemical assays of preparations prior to mixing. View full abstract»

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  • CMOS direct time interval measurement of long-lived luminescence lifetimes

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 5 - 9
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1264 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe a Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Direct Time Interval Measurement (DTIM) Integrated Circuit (IC) to detect the decay (fall) time of the luminescence emission when analyte-sensitive luminophores are excited with an optical pulse. The CMOS DTIM IC includes 14×14 phototransistor array, transimpedance amplifier, regulated gain amplifier, fall time detector, and time-to-digital convertor. We examined the DTIM system to measure the emission lifetime of oxygen-sensitive luminophores tris(4,7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) ([Ru(dpp)3]2+) encapsulated in sol-gel derived xerogel thin-films. The DTIM system fabricated using TSMC 0.35μm process functions to detect lifetimes from 4μs to 14.4μs but can be tuned to detect longer lifetimes. The system provides 8-bit digital output proportional to lifetimes and consumes 4.5mW of power with 3.3V DC supply. The CMOS system provides a useful platform for the development of reliable, robust, and miniaturized optical chemical sensors. View full abstract»

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  • CMOS integrated avalanche photodiodes and frequency-mixing optical sensor front end for portable NIR spectroscopy instruments

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 10 - 13
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2043 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the design and measurement results of two avalanche photodiode structures (APDs) and a novel frequency-mixing transimpedance amplifier (TIA), which are key building blocks towards a monolithically integrated optical sensor front end for near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy applications. Two different APD structures are fabricated in an unmodified 0.18 im CMOS process, one with a shallow trench isolation (STI) guard ring and the other with a P-well guard ring. The APDs are characterized in linear mode. The STI bounded APD demonstrates better performance and exhibits 3.78 A/W responsivity at a wavelength of 690 nm and bias voltage of 10.55 V. The frequency-mixing TIA (FM-TIA) employs a T-feedback network incorporating gate-controlled transistors for resistance modulation, enabling the simultaneous down-conversion and amplification of the high frequency modulated photodiode (PD) current. The TIA achieves 92dSΩ conversion gain with 0.5 V modulating voltage. The measured IIP3 is 10.6/M. The amplifier together with the 50 Ω output buffer draws 23mA from a1.8V power supply. View full abstract»

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  • Inclusion mechanical property estimation using tactile images, finite element method, and artificial neural network

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 14 - 17
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we developed a methodology for estimating three parameters of tissue inclusion: size, depth, and Young's modulus from the tactile data obtained at the tissue surface with the tactile sensation imaging system. The estimation method consists of the forward algorithm using finite element method, and inversion algorithm using artificial neural network. The forward algorithm is designed to comprehensively predict the tactile data based on the mechanical properties of the tissue inclusion. This forward information is used to develop an inversion algorithm that will be used to extract the size, depth, and Young's modulus of a tissue inclusion from the tactile image. The proposed method is then validated with custom made tissue phantoms with matching elasticities of typical human breast tissues. The experimental results showed that the proposed estimation method estimates the size, depth, and Young's modulus of tissue inclusions with root mean squared errors of 1.25 mm, 2.09 mm, and 28.65 kPa, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Development of an optoelectronic sensor for the investigation of photoplethysmographic signals from the anterior fontanel of the newborn

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 18 - 21
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (372 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There is a need for more reliable, non-invasive and alternative measurement sites for the monitoring of arterial blood oxygen saturation in critically ill newborns at times of peripheral compromise. The anterior fontanelle, a unique anatomical feature of the newborn, has been presented as an alternative site for the estimation of oxygen saturation. A multi-wavelength non-invasive optoelectronic sensor has been designed and developed for the investigation of photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals and blood oxygen saturation values from the fontanelle. In vivo thermal tests of the optical sensor show that under normal operating conditions the heating at the skin surface was negligible (<0.1°C). Good quality PPGs with large amplitudes and high signal to noise ratio were recorded at all three (red, infrared and green) wavelengths prior to clinical measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Development of cell culture monitoring system and novel non-contact pH measurement

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 22 - 25
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1245 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a cell culture monitoring system for regenerative medicine. To realize this monitoring system, a new culture vessel and a removable measurement unit were proposed. The measurement unit was installed in the culture vessel and it was used to measure important cell culture parameters (e.g., temperature, CO2 level, and pH). Thus, the status of the culture could be monitored. In addition, we developed a novel noninvasive method based on spectrophotometry for measuring pH. This method is a non-contact method that permits noninvasive and contamination-free pH measurement. The spectroscopic pH measurements agreed well with pH measurements using an electrode. The error was within 0.02; thus, the new pH measurement method is sufficiently accurate for cell culture. This new system is expected to contribute to advances in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. View full abstract»

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  • Using photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence on quartz substrates to improve the sensitivity of DNA microarrays

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 26 - 29
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    Gene expression analysis of low abundance genes remains difficult when DNA microarrays are performed on standard glass substrates. However, we have shown that by using photonic crystals (PC) made on quartz substrates, the fluorescence intensity of Cyanine-5 (Cy5) labeled microarray spots is greatly enhanced. In a 1-color microarray experiment studying gene expression of soybean cotyledon tissue, an average signal enhancement factor of 17.8× was observed on the PC. Furthermore, twice as many genes were detectable on these PCs as compared to glass. By improving the sensitivity of this fluorescent assay, low expression genes that were undetectable on glass were quantified on the PC. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of integrated optofluidic lab-on-a-chip fluorescence biosensor based on transmittance of light through a fluidic gap

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 30 - 34
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (895 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Sensitivity analysis is an important aspect to be looked into while designing lab-on-a-chip systems. In this paper we will be showing with appropriate design that the best sensitivity of the fluorescence biosensor is achieved for an optimal width of fluidic gap, corresponding to a particular mode spot size. We will be also showing that the sensitivity of the biosensor is affected by efficiency of light coupling, which is influenced by changes in the width of fluidic gap, refractive index of the fluid and higher order modes. View full abstract»

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  • Fluorescence-based system for measurement of electrophysiological changes in stretched cultured cardiomyocytes

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 35 - 38
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (846 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Acute or sustained stretch of cardiac tissue is known to play a key role in arrhythmogenesis. Using a fluorescence approach, we designed a system measuring calcium transients and transmembrane potential changes in monolayers of cultured cardiomyocytes under uniaxial elongation and electrical stimulation. Cardiac myocytes are seeded on a rectangular PDMS template held and stretched by a motorized linear guide system. Electrical stimulation is performed with two parallel carbon electrodes supplied by amplified pulses from a digital-to-analog converter. The cells are stained with either voltage- or calcium-sensitive dye (di-4-ANEPPS and Fluo-4 AM respectively). The two available excitation light sources are both current-controlled LED arrays (λ = 523 ± 45nm for di-4-ANEPPS and λ = 505 ± 15nm for Fluo-4 AM). The filtered emitted fluorescence (λ > 610nm for di-4-ANEPPS and λ = 535 ± 25nm for Fluo-4 AM) is transduced to current with a photodiode, converted to amplified voltage signals and digitized. The design and preliminary validation results are presented. View full abstract»

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  • High speed low noise multiplexed three color absorbance photometry

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 39 - 42
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1105 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multispectral photometry is often required to distinguish samples in flow injection analysis and flow cytometry; however, the cost of multiple light detectors, filters, and optical paths contribute to the high cost of multicolor and spectral detection systems. This paper describes frequency division multiplexing (FDM), a simple approach for performing multi-wavelength absorbance photometry with a single light detector and a single interrogation window. In previous efforts, modulation frequencies were <10 KHz, resulting in a detector bandwidth of <20 Hz. This paper presents a high frequency FDM circuit which can increase the oscillation frequencies to several 100 KHz, improving the detection bandwidth by a factor of 10 while still maintaining low cost. Light from 3 different LED sources are encoded into unique frequency channels, passed through the detection cell, and later demodulated using phase-sensitive electronics. Electronic multiplexing couples all light sources into a single optical train without spectral filters. Theory and high frequency considerations are demonstrated. Simultaneous three color absorbance detection is demonstrated in solutions and in flowing droplet microreactors. This technique can potentially reduce the cost of multicolor photometry by replacing expensive optical components with low-cost electronics. View full abstract»

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  • Noise and range considerations for close-range radar sensing of life signs underwater

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 43 - 46
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1150 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Close-range underwater sensing of motion-based life signs can be performed with low power Doppler radar and ultrasound techniques. Corresponding noise and range performance trade-offs are examined here, with regard to choice of frequency and technology. The frequency range examined includes part of the UHF and microwave spectrum. Underwater detection of motion by radar in freshwater and saltwater are demonstrated. Radar measurements exhibited reduced susceptibility to noise as compared to ultrasound. While higher frequency radar exhibited better signal to noise ratio, propagation was superior for lower frequencies. Radar detection of motion through saltwater was also demonstrated at restricted ranges (1–2 cm) with low power transmission (10 dBm). The results facilitate the establishment of guidelines for optimal choice in technology for the underwater measurement motion-based life signs, with respect to trade offs involving range and noise. View full abstract»

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  • Lung water assessment in isolated lung perfusion model via reactance monitoring

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 47 - 50
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (572 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The aim of this work was to build up a new monitoring technique for the lung preservation. The medical aside problem is to measure the integrity and functionality of the lung tissue, specifically at cellular preservation level in order to improve the survival time until it is grafted. The Impedance monitoring technique for diagnosis edema development is the key in this new technique. The hypothesis was that lung edema formation is highly correlated with the reactance changes so that a rat lung perfusion model was considered as a good model to produce edema in vitro. To prove that pulmonary edema can be induced increasing the venous pressure and the perfusion time, the reactance and hemodynamic parameters were recorder in 16 pulmonary blocks of Wistar rats as methodology. Results showed statistical changes in each pulmonary block weight as a consequence to apply 7.5±1.2 and 10.2±1.7 mmHg venous pressure (multiple samples, Anova, p<0.05). These edema weights were correlated with the reactance changes giving 0.6 (p<0.05, Pearson). Also, data analysis showed significant differences in reactance with the time of perfusion at 16, 30, and 50 min when venous pressure level were intermittent switched from 7.5 to 10.2 mmHg. The conclusion was this preliminary evidence sustains that reactance measurement is a good technique for monitoring the lung edema level in rats. However, more research should be continuing in bigger animal models in order to prove the validity and application of this monitoring technique in human lungs. View full abstract»

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  • Soft magnetic material based localized magnetic stimulation to cultured neuronal cells and modulation of network activities

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 51 - 54
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    Magnetic stimulation is able to modulate the neuronal network activity using the non-invasive magnetically induced current. However, it is unknown how stimulation modulates the neuronal network activity. Therefore, we considered that precise stimulation and evaluation of the modulation of network activities in the vicinity of stimulated sites is required. Here, to establish precisely magnetic stimulation, we developed a Mu-metal that has high magnetic permeability soft magnetic material based localized magnetic stimulation (LMS) system with micro-fabricated dual cell-culture chambers. And, combining this device with a microelectrode array (MEA) permitted the evaluation of the stimulus effects at the stimulated and non-stimulated sites. Here, the dual cell-culture chambers were arranged in a concentric circle manner. Between the inner and outer chambers, 4, 8 and 12 connecting microfluid channels were fabricated using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Rat cortical neurons were separately cultured in outer and inner chambers. Through the micro-conduits, functional synaptic connections were formed. Mu-metal was aligned along the outer circle, which allowed us of focal magnetic stimulation to the cells in the outer chamber. Applying low frequency magnetic field to the Mu-metal, induced currents were generated and the electrical activity of the cells in the outer chamber was modified depending on the stimulation intensity. Following the modified activity in the outer circles, the cells in the inner chamber also showed slightly depressed activity patterns. These results suggested that our system would be promising for highly regulated neural stimulation. View full abstract»

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